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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Move It Or Lose It: Interspecific Variation In Risk Response Of Pond-Breeding Anurans, Philip Matich, Christopher M. Schalk Jan 2019

Move It Or Lose It: Interspecific Variation In Risk Response Of Pond-Breeding Anurans, Philip Matich, Christopher M. Schalk

Faculty Publications

Changes in behavior are often the proximate response of animals to human disturbance, with variability in tolerance levels leading some species to exhibit striking shifts in life history, fitness, and/or survival. Thus, elucidating the effects of disturbance on animal behavior, and how this varies among taxonomically similar species with inherently different behaviors and life histories is of value for management and conservation. We evaluated the risk response of three anuran species—southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus), Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi), and green tree frog (Hyla cinerea)—to determine how differences in microhabitat use (arboreal vs ground-dwelling) and ...


Variation In Mating Dynamics Across Five Species Of Leiobunine Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opliones), Kasey D. Fowler-Finn, Sarah L. Boyer, Raine Ikagawa, Timothy Jeffries, Penelope C. Kahn, Eva M. Larsen, Daniel Lee, Morgan Smeester Jun 2018

Variation In Mating Dynamics Across Five Species Of Leiobunine Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opliones), Kasey D. Fowler-Finn, Sarah L. Boyer, Raine Ikagawa, Timothy Jeffries, Penelope C. Kahn, Eva M. Larsen, Daniel Lee, Morgan Smeester

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Nuptial Gift Chemistry Reveals Convergent Evolution Correlated With Antagonism In Mating Systems Of Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones), Penelope C. Kahn, Dennis D. Cao, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L. Boyer Jun 2018

Nuptial Gift Chemistry Reveals Convergent Evolution Correlated With Antagonism In Mating Systems Of Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones), Penelope C. Kahn, Dennis D. Cao, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L. Boyer

Faculty Publications

Nuptial gifts are material donations given from male to female before or during copulation and are subject to sexual selection in a wide variety of taxa. The harvestman genus Leiobunum has emerged as a model system for understanding the evolution of reproductive morphology and behavior, as transitions between solicitous and antagonistic modes of courtship have occurred multiple times within the lineage and are correlated with convergence in genital morphology. We analyzed the free amino acid content of nuptial gift secretions from five species of Leiobunum using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of the free amino acid profiles revealed that ...


Changes In Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity Following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah M. Pope, Jared P. Taglialatela, Sara A. Skiba, William D. Hopkins Mar 2018

Changes In Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity Following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah M. Pope, Jared P. Taglialatela, Sara A. Skiba, William D. Hopkins

Faculty Publications

Human imitation is supported by an underlying ‘mirror system’ principally composed of inferior frontal (IF), inferior parietal (IP), and superior temporal (ST) cortical regions. Across primate species, differences in fronto-parieto-temporal connectivity have been hypothesized to explain phylogenetic variation in imitative abilities. However, if and to what extent these regions are involved in imitation in non-human primates is unknown. We hypothesized that ‘Do As I Do’ (DAID) imitation training would enhance white matter integrity within and between fronto-parieto temporal regions. To this end, four captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were trained to reproduce 23 demonstrated actions, while four age/sex-matched controls were ...


Temporal Migration Patterns Between Natal Locations Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) And Their Gulf Coast Stopover Site, Theodore J. Zenzal Jr., Andrea J. Contina, Jeffrey F. Kelly, Frank R. Moore Jan 2018

Temporal Migration Patterns Between Natal Locations Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) And Their Gulf Coast Stopover Site, Theodore J. Zenzal Jr., Andrea J. Contina, Jeffrey F. Kelly, Frank R. Moore

Faculty Publications

Background

Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route. The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration ...


The Political Biogeography Of Migratory Marine Predators, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Daniel Costa, Arliss Winship, Scott Benson, Steven Bograd, Michelle Antolos, Aaron Carlisle, Heidi Dewar, Peter Dutton, Salvador Jorgensen, Suzanne Kohin, Bruce Mate, Patrick Robinson, Kurt Schaefer, Scott A. Shaffer, George Shillinger, Samantha Simmons, Kevin Weng, Kristina Gjerde, Barbara Block Jan 2018

The Political Biogeography Of Migratory Marine Predators, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Daniel Costa, Arliss Winship, Scott Benson, Steven Bograd, Michelle Antolos, Aaron Carlisle, Heidi Dewar, Peter Dutton, Salvador Jorgensen, Suzanne Kohin, Bruce Mate, Patrick Robinson, Kurt Schaefer, Scott A. Shaffer, George Shillinger, Samantha Simmons, Kevin Weng, Kristina Gjerde, Barbara Block

Faculty Publications

During their migrations, marine predators experience varying levels of protection and face many threats as they travel through multiple countries’ jurisdictions and across ocean basins. Some populations are declining rapidly. Contributing to such declines is a failure of some international agreements to ensure effective cooperation by the stakeholders responsible for managing species throughout their ranges, including in the high seas, a global commons. Here we use biologging data from marine predators to provide quantitative measures with great potential to inform local, national and international management efforts in the Pacific Ocean. We synthesized a large tracking data set to show how ...


The Roles Of Inter- And Intra-Sexual Selection In Behavioral Isolation Between Native And Invasive Pupfishes, Cory Becher, Jennifer M. Gumm Jan 2018

The Roles Of Inter- And Intra-Sexual Selection In Behavioral Isolation Between Native And Invasive Pupfishes, Cory Becher, Jennifer M. Gumm

Faculty Publications

Male-male competition and female mate choice may both play important roles in driving and maintaining reproductive isolation between species. When previously allopatric species come into secondary contact with each other due to introductions, they provide an opportunity to evaluate the identity and strength of reproductive isolating mechanisms. If reproductive isolation is not maintained, hybridization may occur. We examined how reproductive isolating mechanisms mediate hybridization between endemic populations of the Red River pupfish Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis and the recently introduced sheepshead minnow C. variegatus. In lab-based dominance trials, males of both species won the same number of competitions. However, male C. rubrofluviatilis ...


Surface And Subsurface Tillage Effects On Mine Soil Properties And Vegetative Response, H. Z. Angel, Jeremy Stovall, Hans Michael Williams, Kenneth W. Farrish, Brian P. Oswald, J. L. Young Jan 2018

Surface And Subsurface Tillage Effects On Mine Soil Properties And Vegetative Response, H. Z. Angel, Jeremy Stovall, Hans Michael Williams, Kenneth W. Farrish, Brian P. Oswald, J. L. Young

Faculty Publications

Soil compaction is an important concern for surface mine operations that require heavy equipment for land reclamation. Excessive use of rubber-tired equipment, such as scraper pans, may cause mine soil compaction and hinder the success of revegetation efforts. However, information is limited on management strategies for ameliorating the potential compacting effects of scraper pans, particularly during site preparation for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Three forms of tillage and one control were replicated five times on surface mined land in the west Gulf Coastal Plain: no tillage (NT), disking (D), single-ripping + disking (R+D), and cross-ripping + disking (CR+D ...


Population-Level Plasticity In Foraging Behavior Of Western Gulls (Larus Occidentalis), Scott A. Shaffer, Sue Cockerham, Pete Warzybok, Russell Bradley, Jaime Jahncke, Corey Clatterbuck, Magali Lucia, Jennifer Jelincic, Anne Cassell, Emma Kelsey, Josh Adams Dec 2017

Population-Level Plasticity In Foraging Behavior Of Western Gulls (Larus Occidentalis), Scott A. Shaffer, Sue Cockerham, Pete Warzybok, Russell Bradley, Jaime Jahncke, Corey Clatterbuck, Magali Lucia, Jennifer Jelincic, Anne Cassell, Emma Kelsey, Josh Adams

Faculty Publications

Background Plasticity in foraging behavior among individuals, or across populations may reduce competition. As a generalist carnivore, western gulls (Larus occidentalis) consume a wide range of marine and terrestrial foods. However, the foraging patterns and habitat selection (ocean or land) of western gulls is not well understood, despite their ubiquity in coastal California. Here, we used GPS loggers to compare the foraging behavior and habitat use of western gulls breeding at two island colonies in central California. Results Gulls from offshore Southeast Farallon Island (SFI; n = 41 gulls) conducted more oceanic trips (n = 90) of shorter duration (3.8 ± 3 ...


Homogenization Techniques For Population Dynamics In Strongly Heterogeneous Landscapes, Brian P. Yurk, Christina A. Cobbold Dec 2017

Homogenization Techniques For Population Dynamics In Strongly Heterogeneous Landscapes, Brian P. Yurk, Christina A. Cobbold

Faculty Publications

An important problem in spatial ecology is to understand how population-scale patterns emerge from individual-level birth, death, and movement processes. These processes, which depend on local landscape characteristics, vary spatially and may exhibit sharp transitions through behavioural responses to habitat edges, leading to discontinuous population densities. Such systems can be modelled using reaction–diffusion equations with interface conditions that capture local behaviour at patch boundaries. In this work we develop a novel homogenization technique to approximate the large-scale dynamics of the system. We illustrate our approach, which also generalizes to multiple species, with an example of logistic growth within a ...


Patterns Of Plant Functional Variation And Specialization Along Secondary Succession And Topography In A Tropical Dry Forest, Lucía Sanaphre-Villanueva, Juan Manuel Dupuy, José Luis Andrade, Cassandra Reyes-García, Paula C. Jackson, Horacio Paz May 2017

Patterns Of Plant Functional Variation And Specialization Along Secondary Succession And Topography In A Tropical Dry Forest, Lucía Sanaphre-Villanueva, Juan Manuel Dupuy, José Luis Andrade, Cassandra Reyes-García, Paula C. Jackson, Horacio Paz

Faculty Publications

Long-term human disturbance of tropical forests may favor generalist plant species leading to biotic homogenization. We aimed to a) assess if generalist species dominate across different successional ages and topographical positions in a tropical dry forest with a long history of human disturbance, b) to characterize functional traits associated with generalist and specialist species, and c) to assess if a predominance of generalists leads to a homogeneous functional structure across the landscape. We used a multinomial model of relative abundances to classify 118 woody species according to their successional/topographic habitat. Three species were classified as secondary-forest specialists, five as ...


Time Lags Associated With Effects Of Oceanic Conditions On Seabird Breeding In The Salish Sea Region Of The Northern California Current System, Rashida S. Smith, Lynelle M. Weldon, James Hayward, Shandelle M. Henson Apr 2017

Time Lags Associated With Effects Of Oceanic Conditions On Seabird Breeding In The Salish Sea Region Of The Northern California Current System, Rashida S. Smith, Lynelle M. Weldon, James Hayward, Shandelle M. Henson

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Data Loggers In Artificial Eggs Reveal That Egg-Turning Behavior Varies On Multiple Ecological Scales In Seabirds, Corey Clatterbuck, Lindsay Young, Eric Vanderwerf, Alexander Naiman, Geoff Bower, Scott A. Shaffer Mar 2017

Data Loggers In Artificial Eggs Reveal That Egg-Turning Behavior Varies On Multiple Ecological Scales In Seabirds, Corey Clatterbuck, Lindsay Young, Eric Vanderwerf, Alexander Naiman, Geoff Bower, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

In most avian species, egg-turning behavior during incubation is vital for proper embryonic development and hatching success. However, changes in turning behaviors are rarely studied across different temporal scales (e.g., day–night or across incubation phases), though the timing of incubation behaviors affects reproductive success. We used data loggers encapsulated in artificial eggs to measure turning rates and angle changes of eggs in Western Gull (Larus occidentalis) and Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) nests. We examined diurnal and daily cycles in egg-turning behaviors across early, middle, and late incubation phases. Our results indicate that (1) egg-turning behaviors remain similar throughout ...


Identification Of A Vacuolar Proton Channel That Triggers The Bioluminescent Flash In Dinoflagellates, Juan D. Rodriguez, Saddef Haq, Tsvetan Bachvaroff, Kristine F. Nowak, Scott J. Nowak, Deri Morgan, Vladimir V. Cherny, Maredith M. Sapp, Steven Bernstein, Andrew Bolt, Thomas E. Decoursey, Allen R. Place, Susan M. Smith Feb 2017

Identification Of A Vacuolar Proton Channel That Triggers The Bioluminescent Flash In Dinoflagellates, Juan D. Rodriguez, Saddef Haq, Tsvetan Bachvaroff, Kristine F. Nowak, Scott J. Nowak, Deri Morgan, Vladimir V. Cherny, Maredith M. Sapp, Steven Bernstein, Andrew Bolt, Thomas E. Decoursey, Allen R. Place, Susan M. Smith

Faculty Publications

In 1972, J. Woodland Hastings and colleagues predicted the existence of a proton selective channel (HV1) that opens in response to depolarizing voltage across the vacuole membrane of bioluminescent dinoflagellates and conducts protons into specialized luminescence compartments (scintillons), thereby causing a pH drop that triggers light emission. HV1 channels were subsequently identified and demonstrated to have important functions in a multitude of eukaryotic cells. Here we report a predicted protein from Lingulodinium polyedrum that displays hallmark properties of bona fide HV1, including time-dependent opening with depolarization, perfect proton selectivity, and characteristic ΔpH dependent gating. Western blotting and fluorescence confocal microscopy ...


Functional Diversity Of Small And Large Trees Along Secondary Succession In A Tropical Dry Forest, Lucía Sanaphre-Villanueva, Juan Manuel Dupuy, José Luis Andrade, Casandra Reyes-García, Horacio Paz, Paula C. Jackson Jul 2016

Functional Diversity Of Small And Large Trees Along Secondary Succession In A Tropical Dry Forest, Lucía Sanaphre-Villanueva, Juan Manuel Dupuy, José Luis Andrade, Casandra Reyes-García, Horacio Paz, Paula C. Jackson

Faculty Publications

Functional Diversity is considered an important driver of community assembly in environmental and successional gradients. To understand tree assembly processes in a semideciduous tropical forest, we analyzed the variation of Functional Richness (FRic), Functional Divergence (FDiv), and Functional Evenness (FEve) of small vs. large trees in relation to fallow age after slash-and-burn agriculture and topographical position (flat sites vs. hills). FRic of small trees was lower than null model predicted values across the successional gradient, and decreased unexpectedly in older successional ages. FRic of large trees was higher than null model predictions early in succession and lower in late-successional stands ...


Applying Global Criteria To Tracking Data To Define Important Areas For Marine Conservation, Ben Lascelles, P. Taylor, M. Miller, M. Dias, S. Oppel, L. Torres, A. Hedd, M. Le Corre, R Phillips, Scott A. Shaffer, H. Weimerskirch, C. Small Apr 2016

Applying Global Criteria To Tracking Data To Define Important Areas For Marine Conservation, Ben Lascelles, P. Taylor, M. Miller, M. Dias, S. Oppel, L. Torres, A. Hedd, M. Le Corre, R Phillips, Scott A. Shaffer, H. Weimerskirch, C. Small

Faculty Publications

Aim Enhanced management of areas important for marine biodiversity are now obligations under a range of international treaties. Tracking data provide unparalleled information on the distribution of marine taxa, but there are no agreed guidelines that ensure these data are used consistently to identify biodiversity hotspots and inform marine management decisions. Here, we develop methods to standardize the analysis of tracking data to identify sites of conservation importance at global and regional scales. Location We applied these methods to the largest available compilation of seabird tracking data, covering 60 species, collected from 55 deployment locations ranging from the poles to ...


A Phylogenomic Assessment Of Ancient Polyploidy And Genome Evolution Across The Poales, Michael R. Mckain, Haibao Tang, Joel R. Mcneal, Et Al. Mar 2016

A Phylogenomic Assessment Of Ancient Polyploidy And Genome Evolution Across The Poales, Michael R. Mckain, Haibao Tang, Joel R. Mcneal, Et Al.

Faculty Publications

Comparisons of flowering plant genomes reveal multiple rounds of ancient polyploidy characterized by large intra-genomic syntenic blocks. Three such whole genome duplication (WGD) events, designated as rho (ρ), sigma (σ), and tau (τ), have been identified in the genomes of cereal grasses. Precise dating of these WGD events is necessary to investigate how they have influenced diversification rates, evolutionary innovations, and genomic characteristics such as the GC profile of protein coding sequences. The timing of these events has remained uncertain due to the paucity of monocot genome sequence data outside the grass family (Poaceae). Phylogenomic analysis of protein coding genes ...


Biodiversity And You., Garth Woodruff Feb 2016

Biodiversity And You., Garth Woodruff

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cognitive Phenotypes And The Evolution Of Animal Decisions, Tamra C. Mendelson, Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Mark E. Hauber, Charles H. Pence, Rafael L. Rodríguez, Rebecca J. Safran, Caitlin A. Stern, Jeffrey R. Stevens Jan 2016

Cognitive Phenotypes And The Evolution Of Animal Decisions, Tamra C. Mendelson, Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Mark E. Hauber, Charles H. Pence, Rafael L. Rodríguez, Rebecca J. Safran, Caitlin A. Stern, Jeffrey R. Stevens

Faculty Publications

Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The ‘judgment and decision-making’ (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as ‘cognitive phenotypes’. We distinguish multiple cognitive phenotypes in the context of a JDM framework and highlight empirical ...


Evotext: A New Tool For Analyzing The Biological Sciences, Grant Ramsey, Charles H. Pence Jan 2016

Evotext: A New Tool For Analyzing The Biological Sciences, Grant Ramsey, Charles H. Pence

Faculty Publications

We introduce here evoText, a new tool for automated analysis of the literature in the biological sciences. evoText contains a database of hundreds of thousands of journal articles and an array of analysis tools for generating quantitative data on the nature and history of life science, especially ecology and evolutionary biology. This article describes the features of evoText, presents a variety of examples of the kinds of analyses that evoText can run, and offers a brief tutorial describing how to use it.


Long-Term, High Frequency In Situ Measurements Of Intertidal Mussel Bed Temperatures Using Biomimetic Sensors, Brian Helmuth, Francis Choi, Allison Matzelle, Jessica Torossian, Scott Morello, K.A.S. Mislan, Lauren Yamane, Denise Strickland, P. Szathmary, Sarah Gilman, Alyson Tockstein, Thomas Hilbish, Michael Burrows, Anne Marie Power, Elizabeth Gosling, Nova Mieszkowska, Christopher Harley, Michael Nishizaki, Emily Carrington, Bruce Menge, Laura Petes, Melissa Foley, Angela Johnson, Megan Poole, Mae Noble, Erin Richmond, Matt Robart, Jonathan Robinson, Jerod Sapp, Jackie Sones, Bernardo Broitman, Mark Denny, Katharine Mach, Luke P. Miller, Michael O'Donnell, Philip Ross, Gretchen Hofmann, Mackenzie Zippay, Carol Blanchette, J. Macfarlan, Eugenio Carpizo-Ituarte, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Carlos Peña Mejía, Christopher Mcquaid, Justin Lathlean, Cristián Monaco, Katy Nicastro, Gerardo Zardi Jan 2016

Long-Term, High Frequency In Situ Measurements Of Intertidal Mussel Bed Temperatures Using Biomimetic Sensors, Brian Helmuth, Francis Choi, Allison Matzelle, Jessica Torossian, Scott Morello, K.A.S. Mislan, Lauren Yamane, Denise Strickland, P. Szathmary, Sarah Gilman, Alyson Tockstein, Thomas Hilbish, Michael Burrows, Anne Marie Power, Elizabeth Gosling, Nova Mieszkowska, Christopher Harley, Michael Nishizaki, Emily Carrington, Bruce Menge, Laura Petes, Melissa Foley, Angela Johnson, Megan Poole, Mae Noble, Erin Richmond, Matt Robart, Jonathan Robinson, Jerod Sapp, Jackie Sones, Bernardo Broitman, Mark Denny, Katharine Mach, Luke P. Miller, Michael O'Donnell, Philip Ross, Gretchen Hofmann, Mackenzie Zippay, Carol Blanchette, J. Macfarlan, Eugenio Carpizo-Ituarte, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Carlos Peña Mejía, Christopher Mcquaid, Justin Lathlean, Cristián Monaco, Katy Nicastro, Gerardo Zardi

Faculty Publications

At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10–30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements of mussel tissue temperature indicated errors of ~2.0–2.5 °C, during daily fluctuations that often exceeded 15°–20 °C. Geographic patterns in ...


Road-Edge Effects On Herpetofauna In A Lowland Amazonian Rainforest, Ross J. Maynard, Nathalie C. Aall, Daniel Saenz, Paul S. Hamilton, Matthew Kwiatkowski Jan 2016

Road-Edge Effects On Herpetofauna In A Lowland Amazonian Rainforest, Ross J. Maynard, Nathalie C. Aall, Daniel Saenz, Paul S. Hamilton, Matthew Kwiatkowski

Faculty Publications

The impact of roads on the flora and fauna of Neotropical rainforest is perhaps the single biggest driver of habitat modification and population declines in these ecosystems. We investigated the road-edge effect of a low-use dirt road on amphibian and reptile abundance, diversity, and composition within adjacent lowland Amazonian rainforest at San José de Payamino, Ecuador. The road has been closed to vehicle traffic since its construction in 2010. Thus, effects from vehicle mortality, vehicle-related pollution, and road noise were not confounding factors. Herpetofauna were surveyed using both visual encounter surveys and drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps at ...


Environmental Temperatures, Artificial Nests, And Incubation Of Cassin's Auklet, Emma Kelsey, Russell Bradley, Pete Warzybok, Jamie Jahncke, Scott A. Shaffer Nov 2015

Environmental Temperatures, Artificial Nests, And Incubation Of Cassin's Auklet, Emma Kelsey, Russell Bradley, Pete Warzybok, Jamie Jahncke, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Hatching success in birds is influenced by the temperature and turning rate of the egg, but our understanding of the environmental factors that effect incubation temperatures and egg turning rates in birds is limited. Especially little is known of these effects for species that nest in burrows or crevices, such as the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus). On Southeast Farallon Island, California, USA, a subset of the Cassin's auklet (hereafter auklet) population nest in artificial nest boxes. The nest boxes are above ground and made out of a single layer of plywood. Temperatures in unshaded nest boxes can increase ...


Body Size Affects Individual Winter Foraging Strategies Of Thick-Billed Murres In The Bering Sea, Rachael Orben, Rosana Paredes, Daniel Roby, David Irons, Scott A. Shaffer Nov 2015

Body Size Affects Individual Winter Foraging Strategies Of Thick-Billed Murres In The Bering Sea, Rachael Orben, Rosana Paredes, Daniel Roby, David Irons, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper.This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage ...


Evolutionary And Ecological Characterization Of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated During An Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010, Albert J. Auguste, Jonathan Liria, Naomi L. Forrester, Dileyvic Giambalvo, Moncada Maria, Kanya C. Long, Dulce Morón, Nuris De Manzione, Robert B. Tesh, Eric S. Halsey, Tadeusz J. Kochel, Rosa Hernandez, Juan-Carlos Navarro, Scott C. Weaver Oct 2015

Evolutionary And Ecological Characterization Of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated During An Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010, Albert J. Auguste, Jonathan Liria, Naomi L. Forrester, Dileyvic Giambalvo, Moncada Maria, Kanya C. Long, Dulce Morón, Nuris De Manzione, Robert B. Tesh, Eric S. Halsey, Tadeusz J. Kochel, Rosa Hernandez, Juan-Carlos Navarro, Scott C. Weaver

Faculty Publications

In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is ...


The Invisible And Indeterminable Valueof Ecology: From Malaria Control Toecological Research In The Americansouth, Albert Way Jun 2015

The Invisible And Indeterminable Valueof Ecology: From Malaria Control Toecological Research In The Americansouth, Albert Way

Faculty Publications

This essay tells the story of the Emory University Field Station, a malaria research station in southwest Georgia that operated from 1939 to 1958. Using the tools of environmental history and the history of science, it examines the station’s founding, its fieldwork, and its place within the broader history of malaria control, eradication, and research. A joint effort of Emory University, the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Communicable Disease Center (CDC), this station was closely aligned with a broader movement of ideas about tropical diseases across the globe, but it also offers a case study of how ...


North Or South? Niche Separation Of Endemic Red-Legged Kittiwakes And Sympatric Black-Legged Kittiwakes During Their Non-Breeding Migrations, Rachael Orben, David Irons, Rosana Paredes, Daniel Roby, Richard Phillips, Scott A. Shaffer Feb 2015

North Or South? Niche Separation Of Endemic Red-Legged Kittiwakes And Sympatric Black-Legged Kittiwakes During Their Non-Breeding Migrations, Rachael Orben, David Irons, Rosana Paredes, Daniel Roby, Richard Phillips, Scott A. Shaffer

Faculty Publications

AimSpecies that breed sympatrically often occupy different foraging niches to mitigate competition for prey. When resource availability declines at the end of the breeding season, some animals migrate to regions with more favourable environmental conditions. When these life-history traits combine, foraging habitat preferences may continue to influence migration patterns and habitat utilization. The Bering Sea is home to the red-legged kittiwake (RLKI), Rissa brevirostris, which is endemic, and the black-legged kittiwake (BLKI), Rissa tridactyla, which has a circumpolar breeding distribution. Since the 1970s, numbers of RLKIs at the largest colony have declined and then recovered, whilst the BLKI population has ...


Stable Isotope Values Delineate The Non-Breeding Distributions Of Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus Griseus In The North Pacific Ocean, David Thompson, Leigh Torres, Graeme Taylor, Matt Rayner, Paul Sagar, Scott A. Shaffer, Richard Phillips, Sarah Bury Jan 2015

Stable Isotope Values Delineate The Non-Breeding Distributions Of Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus Griseus In The North Pacific Ocean, David Thompson, Leigh Torres, Graeme Taylor, Matt Rayner, Paul Sagar, Scott A. Shaffer, Richard Phillips, Sarah Bury

Faculty Publications

Following breeding, sooty shearwaters Puffinus griseus leave New Zealand waters and migrate to 1 of 3 distinct areas in the North Pacific Ocean, effectively exploiting environmental resources across a large proportion of this northern ocean basin. In this study, we combined electronic tracking technology with stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C) of feathers grown during the non-breeding period in order to evaluate whether isotope signatures can be used to identify specific non-breeding areas used by sooty shearwaters. A region to the east of Japan was utilised by the majority of tracked birds, whereas others used areas off the west coast ...


The Relationship Of Female Physical Attractiveness To Body Fatness, Guanlin Wang, Kurosh Djafarian, Chima A. Egedigwe, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Robert Ojiambo, Harris Ramuth, Sandra Johanna Wallner-Liebmann, Sonja Lackner, Adama Diouf, Justina Sauciuvenaite, Catherine Hambly, Lobke M. Vaanholt, Mark D. Faries, John R. Speakman Jan 2015

The Relationship Of Female Physical Attractiveness To Body Fatness, Guanlin Wang, Kurosh Djafarian, Chima A. Egedigwe, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Robert Ojiambo, Harris Ramuth, Sandra Johanna Wallner-Liebmann, Sonja Lackner, Adama Diouf, Justina Sauciuvenaite, Catherine Hambly, Lobke M. Vaanholt, Mark D. Faries, John R. Speakman

Faculty Publications

Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and ...


Beyond Sustainability: A New Conceptual Model, Molly Kerby, Gayle Mallinger Oct 2014

Beyond Sustainability: A New Conceptual Model, Molly Kerby, Gayle Mallinger

Faculty Publications

Over the last few decades, the notion of sustainability has become an interdisciplinary buzz word. Sustainability has been an integrative concept that includes three constructs or pillars: a) social; b) economic; and c) ecological. Until recently, theoretical approaches based on the three pillars approach have operated in silos rather than exploring the interconnectedness of the constructs. Few models have moved beyond the idea that logical relations exist among the constructs (social, economic, and ecological) to consider factors external to communities, nor have they examined the internal socio-economic factors that influence positive outcomes. While this conceptualization has raised awareness about the ...