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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lignin Biopolymers In The Age Of Controlled Polymerization, Mitra S. Ganewatta, Hasala N. Lokupitiya, Chuanbing Tang Jul 2019

Lignin Biopolymers In The Age Of Controlled Polymerization, Mitra S. Ganewatta, Hasala N. Lokupitiya, Chuanbing Tang

Faculty Publications

Polymers made from natural biomass are gaining interest due to the rising environmental concerns and depletion of petrochemical resources. Lignin isolated from lignocellulosic biomass is the second most abundant natural polymer next to cellulose. The paper pulp process produces industrial lignin as a byproduct that is mostly used for energy and has less significant utility in materials applications. High abundance, rich chemical functionalities, CO2 neutrality, reinforcing properties, antioxidant and UV blocking abilities, as well as environmental friendliness, make lignin an interesting substrate for materials and chemical development. However, poor processability, low reactivity, and intrinsic structural heterogeneity limit lignins′ polymeric applications ...


Identification And Characterization Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 Transcriptional Regulator Ttha0973, James Shell Cox, Kristi Moncja, Mykala Mckinnes, Michael W. Van Dyke Jul 2019

Identification And Characterization Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 Transcriptional Regulator Ttha0973, James Shell Cox, Kristi Moncja, Mykala Mckinnes, Michael W. Van Dyke

Faculty Publications

Advances in genomic sequencing have allowed the identification of a multitude of genes encoding putative transcriptional regulatory proteins. Lacking, often, is a fuller understanding of the biological roles played by these proteins, the genes they regulate or regulon. Conventionally this is achieved through a genetic approach involving putative transcription factor gene manipulation and observations of changes in an organism’s transcriptome. However, such an approach is not always feasible or can yield misleading findings. Here, we describe a biochemistry-centric approach, involving identification of preferred DNA-binding sequences for the Thermus thermophilus HB8 transcriptional repressor TTHA0973 using the selection method Restriction Endonuclease ...


Genistein Has Antiviral Activity Against Herpes B Virus And Acts Synergistically With Antiviral Treatments To Reduce Effective Dose, Julia C. Lecher, Nga Diep, Peter W. Krug, Julia K. Hilliard May 2019

Genistein Has Antiviral Activity Against Herpes B Virus And Acts Synergistically With Antiviral Treatments To Reduce Effective Dose, Julia C. Lecher, Nga Diep, Peter W. Krug, Julia K. Hilliard

Faculty Publications

Herpes B virus is a deadly zoonotic agent that can be transmitted to humans from the macaque monkey, an animal widely used in biomedical research. Currently, there is no cure for human B virus infection and treatments require a life-long daily regimen of antivirals, namely acyclovir and ganciclovir. Long-term antiviral treatments have been associated with significant debilitating side effects, thus, there is an ongoing search for alternative efficacious antiviral treatment. In this study, the antiviral activity of genistein was quantified against B virus in a primary cell culture model system. Genistein prevented plaque formation of B virus and reduced virus ...


Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, F. Matthew Mihelic May 2019

Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor in which electron spin qubits are held coherently in each nucleotide in a logically and thermodynamically reversible enantiomeric symmetry, and can be coherently conducted along the pi-stacking interactions of aromatic nucleotide bases, while simultaneously being spin-filtered via the helicity of the DNA molecule. Entangled electron pairs can be separated by that spin-filtering, held coherently at biological temperatures in the topologically insulated nucleotide quantum gates, and incorporated into separate DNA strands during DNA replication. Two separate DNA strands that share quantum entangled electrons can be mitotically divided into individual cells ...


Five Decades Of Research On Mitochondrial Nadh-Quinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I), Tomoko Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, John C. Salerno Jun 2018

Five Decades Of Research On Mitochondrial Nadh-Quinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I), Tomoko Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, John C. Salerno

Faculty Publications

NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest and most complicated enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is the entry site into the respiratory chain for most of the reducing equivalents generated during metabolism, coupling electron transfer from NADH to quinone to proton translocation, which in turn drives ATP synthesis. Dysfunction of complex I is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, and it is proposed to be involved in aging. Complex I has one non-covalently bound FMN, eight to 10 iron-sulfur clusters, and protein-associated quinone molecules as electron transport components. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR ...


Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jan 2018

Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1. We find that the catalytic UD domains of both ScUlp1 and ...


Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibition Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase, John M. Goodwin, Hassan Rana, Joan Ndungu, Gaurab Chakrabarti, Ellen W. Moomaw May 2017

Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibition Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase, John M. Goodwin, Hassan Rana, Joan Ndungu, Gaurab Chakrabarti, Ellen W. Moomaw

Faculty Publications

Oxalate oxidase is a manganese containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx) is the first fungal and bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Potential applications of oxalate oxidase for use in pancreatic cancer treatment, to prevent scaling in paper pulping, and in biofuel cells have highlighted the need to understand the extent of the hydrogen peroxide inhibition of the CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate. We apply a membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) assay to directly ...


A Polyaniline-Based Sensor Of Nucleic Acids, Partha Sengupta, Jared Gloria, Marcus K. Parker, Alex S. Flynt Nov 2016

A Polyaniline-Based Sensor Of Nucleic Acids, Partha Sengupta, Jared Gloria, Marcus K. Parker, Alex S. Flynt

Faculty Publications

Detection of nucleic acids is at the center of diagnostic technologies used in research and the clinic. Standard approaches used in these technologies rely on enzymatic modification that can introduce bias and artifacts. A critical element of next generation detection platforms will be direct molecular sensing, thereby avoiding a need for amplification or labels. Advanced nanomaterials may provide the suitable chemical modalities to realize label-free sensors. Conjugated polymers are ideal for biological sensing, possessing properties compatible with biomolecules and exhibit high sensitivity to localized environmental changes. In this article, a method is presented for detecting nucleic acids using the electroconductive ...


Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley Aug 2016

Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley

Faculty Publications

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that transforms B cells and causes several malignancies including Burkitt’s lymphoma. EBV differentially expresses at least 49 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in various infected epithelial and B cells. Recent high-throughput studies and functional assays have begun to reveal the function of the EBV miRNAs suggesting roles in latency, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. In particular, the central executioner of apoptosis, Caspase 3 (CASP3), was proposed as a target of select EBV miRNAs. However, whether CASP3 is truly a target of EBV miRNAs, and if so, which specific miRNAs target CASP3 ...


Virulence Factors Of Aeromonas Hydrophila: In The Wake Of Reclassification, Cody R. Rasmussen-Ivey, Maria J. Figueras, Donald Mcgarey, Mark R. Liles Aug 2016

Virulence Factors Of Aeromonas Hydrophila: In The Wake Of Reclassification, Cody R. Rasmussen-Ivey, Maria J. Figueras, Donald Mcgarey, Mark R. Liles

Faculty Publications

The ubiquitous “jack-of-all-trades,” Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by ...


Identification Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator Sbtr By The Combinatorial Approach Repsa, Michael W. Van Dyke, Matthew D. Beyer, Emily Clay, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jul 2016

Identification Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator Sbtr By The Combinatorial Approach Repsa, Michael W. Van Dyke, Matthew D. Beyer, Emily Clay, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type ...


The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al. May 2016

The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al.

Faculty Publications

UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with paramyosin. Paramyosin is an invertebrate-specific coiled-coil dimer protein that is homologous to the rod portion of myosin heavy chains and resides in thick filament cores. Minimally, this interaction requires UNC-89’s SH3 domain and residues 294–376 of paramyosin and has a KD of ∼1.1 μM. In unc-89 loss-of-function mutants that lack the SH3 domain ...


The Evolution Of The Surface Of The Mineral Schreibersite In Prebiotic Chemistry, Nikita L. La Cruz, Danna Qasim, Heather Abbott-Lyon, Claire Pirim May 2016

The Evolution Of The Surface Of The Mineral Schreibersite In Prebiotic Chemistry, Nikita L. La Cruz, Danna Qasim, Heather Abbott-Lyon, Claire Pirim

Faculty Publications

We present a study of the reactions of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P, focusing primarily on surface chemistry and prebiotic phosphorylation. In this work, a synthetic analogue of the mineral was synthesized by mixing stoichiometric proportions of elemental iron, nickel and phosphorus and heating in a tube furnace at 820 °C for approximately 235 hours under argon or under vacuum, a modification of the method of Skála and Drábek (2002). Once synthesized, the schreibersite was characterized to confirm the identity of the product as well as to elucidate the oxidation processes affecting the surface. In addition to characterization ...


Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans Apr 2016

Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans

Faculty Publications

The Helicobacter pylori energy sensor TlpD determines tactic behaviour under low energy conditions and is important in vivo. We explored protein-protein interactions of TlpD and their impact on TlpD localisation and function. Pull-down of tagged TlpD identified protein interaction partners of TlpD, which included the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheAY2, the central metabolic enzyme aconitase (AcnB) and the detoxifying enzyme catalase (KatA). We confirmed that KatA and AcnB physically interact with TlpD. While the TlpD-dependent behavioural response appeared not influenced in the interactor mutants katA and acnB in steady-state behavioural assays, acetone carboxylase subunit (acxC) mutant behaviour was altered. TlpD was ...


Hoxd Expression In The Fin-Fold Compartment Of Basal Gnathostomes And Implications For Paired Appendage Evolution, Frank J. Tulenko, Gaius J. Augustus, James L. Massey, Seth E. Sims Mar 2016

Hoxd Expression In The Fin-Fold Compartment Of Basal Gnathostomes And Implications For Paired Appendage Evolution, Frank J. Tulenko, Gaius J. Augustus, James L. Massey, Seth E. Sims

Faculty Publications

The role of Homeobox transcription factors during fin and limb development have been the focus of recent work investigating the evolutionary origin of limb-specific morphologies. Here we characterize the expression of HoxD genes, as well as the cluster-associated genes Evx2 and LNP, in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula, a basal ray-finned fish. Our results demonstrate a collinear pattern of nesting in early fin buds that includes HoxD14, a gene previously thought to be isolated from global Hoxregulation. We also show that in both Polyodon and the catsharkScyliorhinus canicula (a representative chondrichthyan) late phaseHoxD transcripts are present in cells of the fin-fold ...


Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson Feb 2016

Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson

Faculty Publications

During development of the nervous system, growing axons rely on guidance molecules to direct axon pathfinding. A well-characterized family of guidance molecules are the membrane-associated ephrins, which together with their cognate Eph receptors, direct axon navigation in a contact-mediated fashion. InC. elegans, the ephrin-Eph signaling system is conserved and is best characterized for their roles in neuroblast migration during early embryogenesis. This study demonstrates a role for theC. elegansephrin EFN-4 in axon guidance. We provide both genetic and biochemical evidence that is consistent with theC. elegansdivergent L1 cell adhesion molecule LAD-2 acting as a non-canonical ephrin receptor to EFN-4 to ...


Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Uncovers Substrate Promiscuity Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase From Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora, Hassan Rana, Patricia Moussatche, Lis Souza Rocha, Ellen W. Moomaw Feb 2016

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Uncovers Substrate Promiscuity Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase From Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora, Hassan Rana, Patricia Moussatche, Lis Souza Rocha, Ellen W. Moomaw

Faculty Publications

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) may be used to determine the kinetic parameters of enzymecatalyzed reactions when neither products nor reactants are spectrophotometrically visible and when the reaction products are unknown. We report here the use of the multiple injection method of ITC to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase (OxOx) from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx), a manganese dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. The multiple injection ITC method of measuring OxOx activity involves ...


Bioinformatics Resources For Microrna Discovery, Alyssa C. Moore, Jonathan S. Winkjer, Tsai-Tien Tseng Jan 2016

Bioinformatics Resources For Microrna Discovery, Alyssa C. Moore, Jonathan S. Winkjer, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Faculty Publications

Biomarker identification is often associated with the diagnosis and evaluation of various diseases. Recently, the role of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in the development of diseases, particularly cancer. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the amount of data on miRNA has increased tremendously in the last decade, requiring new bioinformatics approaches for processing and storing new information. New strategies have been developed in mining these sequencing datasets to allow better understanding toward the actions of miRNAs. As a result, many databases have also been established to disseminate these findings. This review focuses on several curated databases of miRNAs and ...


Micrornas Expressed During Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential And Therapeutic Considerations, Jennifer Louten, Michael Beach, Kristina Palermino, Maria Weeks, Gabrielle Holenstein Jan 2016

Micrornas Expressed During Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential And Therapeutic Considerations, Jennifer Louten, Michael Beach, Kristina Palermino, Maria Weeks, Gabrielle Holenstein

Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus.


Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jan 2016

Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

The use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as biomolecular delivery vehicles holds great promise for therapeutic and other applications, but development has been stymied by poor delivery and lack of endosomal escape. We have developed a CPP-adaptor system capable of efficient intracellular delivery and endosomal escape of user-defined protein cargos. The cell penetrating sequence of HIV transactivator of transcription was fused to calmodulin, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to proteins containing a calmodulin binding site. Our strategy has tremendous advantage over prior CPP technologies because it utilizes high affinity noncovalent, but reversible coupling between CPP and cargo. Three different cargo ...


Water Soluble Cationic Porphyrin Sensor For Detection Of Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, And Cu2+, Matibur Zamadar, Christopher Orr, Miranda Uherek Jan 2016

Water Soluble Cationic Porphyrin Sensor For Detection Of Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, And Cu2+, Matibur Zamadar, Christopher Orr, Miranda Uherek

Faculty Publications

Here we report the sensing properties of the aqueous solution of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetrachloride (1) for simultaneous detection of toxic metal ions by using UV-vis spectroscopy. Cationic porphyrin 1 displayed different electronic absorptions in UV-vis region upon interacting with Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ ions in neutral water solution at room temperature. Quite interestingly, the porphyrin 1 showed that it can function as a single optical chemical sensor and/or metal ion receptor capable of detecting two or more toxic metal ions, particularly Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ ions coexisting in a water sample. Porphyrin 1 in an aqueous solution ...


Tryptophan 207 Is Crucial To The Unique Properties Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel, Hhv1, Vladimir V. Cherny, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Susan M. E. Smith Oct 2015

Tryptophan 207 Is Crucial To The Unique Properties Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel, Hhv1, Vladimir V. Cherny, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Susan M. E. Smith

Faculty Publications

Part of the “signature sequence” that defines the voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a tryptophan residue adjacent to the second Arg in the S4 transmembrane helix: RxWRxxR, which is perfectly conserved in all high confidence HV1 genes. Replacing Trp207 in human HV1 (hHV1) with Ala, Ser, or Phe facilitated gating, accelerating channel opening by 100-fold, and closing by 30-fold. Mutant channels opened at more negative voltages than wild-type (WT) channels, indicating that in WT channels, Trp favors a closed state. The Arrhenius activation energy, Ea, for channel opening decreased to 22 kcal/mol from 30–38 kcal/mol for WT ...


Precise Repair Of Mping Excision Sites Is Facilitated By Target Site Duplication Derived Microhomology, David M. Gilbert, M. Catherine Bridges, Ashley E. Strother, Courtney E. Burckhalter, James M. Burnette Iii, C. Nathan Hancock Sep 2015

Precise Repair Of Mping Excision Sites Is Facilitated By Target Site Duplication Derived Microhomology, David M. Gilbert, M. Catherine Bridges, Ashley E. Strother, Courtney E. Burckhalter, James M. Burnette Iii, C. Nathan Hancock

Faculty Publications

A key difference between the Tourist and Stowaway families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) is the manner in which their excision alters the genome. Upon excision, Stowaway-like MITEs and the associated Mariner elements usually leave behind a small duplication and short sequences from the end of the element. These small insertions or deletions known as “footprints” can potentially disrupt coding or regulatory sequences. In contrast, Tourist-like MITEs and the associated PIF/Pong/Harbinger elements generally excise precisely, returning the genome to its original state. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying these ...


Functional, Sub-100 Nm Polymer Nanoparticles Via Thiol-Ene Miniemulsion Photopolymerization, Douglas Amato, Dahlia Amato, Alex S. Flynt, Derek L. Patton Aug 2015

Functional, Sub-100 Nm Polymer Nanoparticles Via Thiol-Ene Miniemulsion Photopolymerization, Douglas Amato, Dahlia Amato, Alex S. Flynt, Derek L. Patton

Faculty Publications

In this work, sub-100 nm crosslinked polythioether nanoparticles were synthesized via thiol–ene photopolymerization in miniemulsion using high-energy homogenization. The effects of the miniemulsion formulation and homogenization parameters – including inhibitor concentration, surfactant concentration, organic weight fraction, ultrasonication time and amplitude – on nanoparticle size and size distribution were investigated. Thiol–ene nanoparticles with a mean particle diameter of 46 nm were obtained under optimized conditions for the current system at 2.5 wt% organic fraction and 20 mM surfactant concentration. In an effort to demonstrate potential utility of thiol–ene nanoparticles, we exploit the step-growth radical mechanism of thiol–ene photopolymerization ...


Weak Interactions Between Salmonella Enterica Flhb And Other Flagellar Export Apparatus Proteins Govern Type Iii Secretion Dynamics, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Tohru Minamino, Yukio Furukawa, Joshua W. Francis Aug 2015

Weak Interactions Between Salmonella Enterica Flhb And Other Flagellar Export Apparatus Proteins Govern Type Iii Secretion Dynamics, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Tohru Minamino, Yukio Furukawa, Joshua W. Francis

Faculty Publications

The bacterial flagellum contains its own type III secretion apparatus that coordinates protein export with assembly at the distal end. While many interactions among export apparatus proteins have been reported, few have been examined with respect to the differential affinities and dynamic relationships that must govern the mechanism of export. FlhB, an integral membrane protein, plays critical roles in both export and the substrate specificity switching that occurs upon hook completion. Reported herein is the quantitative characterization of interactions between the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB (FlhBC) and other export apparatus proteins including FliK, FlhAC and FliI. FliK and FlhAC bound ...


Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Bacteriophage Φ241 Isolated From An Industrial Cucumber Fermentation At High Acidity And Salinity, Zhongjing Lu, Fred Breidt Feb 2015

Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Bacteriophage Φ241 Isolated From An Industrial Cucumber Fermentation At High Acidity And Salinity, Zhongjing Lu, Fred Breidt

Faculty Publications

A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the ...


Accidental Poison: Analysis Of 1,4-Butanediol In A Popular Children's Arts And Crafts Toy, Christopher R. Dockery, John H. Shugart, Jonathan D. Parker, William J. Lawson Jan 2015

Accidental Poison: Analysis Of 1,4-Butanediol In A Popular Children's Arts And Crafts Toy, Christopher R. Dockery, John H. Shugart, Jonathan D. Parker, William J. Lawson

Faculty Publications

A popular children's arts and crafts toy made international headlines when it was discovered that 1,4-butanediol had been substituted into some of its formulations. The chemical 1,4-butanediol rapidly converts to the date-rape drug g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) upon ingestion and resulted in the accidental poisoning of some children. In this experiment, students extract 1,4-butanediol from commercially available toy beads (or prepared simulations) using their knowledge of pharmaceutical chemistry, solubility, etc. Using case studies available in the literature, students develop a quantitative analysis experiment for 1,4-butanediol extracted from the toy beads and, through approximation, relate the extractable ...


Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Rural Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant In Nacogdoches, East Texas (Usa) (Abstract), Kefa Karimu Onchoke, Michael Janusa, Salomey Asantewaa Sasu Jan 2015

Evaluation Of The Performance Of A Rural Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant In Nacogdoches, East Texas (Usa) (Abstract), Kefa Karimu Onchoke, Michael Janusa, Salomey Asantewaa Sasu

Faculty Publications

The performance of a rural wastewater treatment facility, Nacogdoches Wastewater Treatment Plant

(NWWTP), in East Texas, USA, was assessed from January 2013 through June 2014. The elemental concentrations (Na, Mg, Ca, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cr, Mo, and Cu, Al, As, B, Ba, Ag, Cd, Fe, Hg, K, Se, Zn, Co, P, and S) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The anion concentrations (Br−, NO3- , NO2- , PO34-,F−, Cl−, and SO24−) were measured by ion chromatography. In general, the NWWTP was found efficient in removal to ≥ 96% for metals. The removal efficiency for anions was in the range ...


Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw Dec 2014

Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw

Faculty Publications

Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), an enzyme of the bicupin superfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbon dioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence of oxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through an oxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing two equivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied by measuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was ...


Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry Reveals That Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Is Inhibited By Nitric Oxide, Ellen W. Moomaw, Richard Uberto, Tu Chingkuang Jun 2014

Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry Reveals That Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase Is Inhibited By Nitric Oxide, Ellen W. Moomaw, Richard Uberto, Tu Chingkuang

Faculty Publications

Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) uses a semipermeable membrane as an inlet to a mass spectrometer for the measurement of the concentration of small uncharged molecules in solution. We report the use of MIMS to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.4) from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx). Oxalate oxidase is a manganese dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. The MIMS method of measuring OxOx activity involves ...