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Biology Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Water Entry Impact Dynamics Of Diving Birds, Saburel I. Sharker, Sean Holekamp, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Tadd T. Truscott Sep 2019

Water Entry Impact Dynamics Of Diving Birds, Saburel I. Sharker, Sean Holekamp, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Tadd T. Truscott

Biology Faculty Publications

Some seabirds (such as northern gannets and brown boobies) can dive from heights as high as 30 m reaching speeds of up to 24 m s−1 as they impact the water surface. The physical geometry of plunge diving birds, particularly of the beak, allows them to limit high impact forces compared to non-diving birds. Numerically simulated data for one species (northern gannet) provides some insight into the impact forces experienced during diving, however, no reliable experimental data with real bird geometries exist for comparison purposes. This study utilizes eleven 3D printed diving bird models of three types of birds ...


Phylogeny Of The Subfamilies Of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Andrew M.R. Bennett, Sophie Cardinal, Ian D. Gauld, David B. Wahl Aug 2019

Phylogeny Of The Subfamilies Of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Andrew M.R. Bennett, Sophie Cardinal, Ian D. Gauld, David B. Wahl

Biology Faculty Publications

A combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the subfamily relationships of the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Data were obtained by coding 135 morphological and 6 biological characters for 131 exemplar species of ichneumonids and 3 species of Braconidae (the latter as outgroups). The species of ichneumonids represent all of the 42 currently recognized subfamilies. In addition, molecular sequence data (cytochrome oxidase I “DNA barcoding” region, the D2 region of 28S rDNA and part of the F2 copy of elongation factor 1-alpha) were obtained from specimens of the same species that were coded for morphology (1309 ...


Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup Aug 2019

Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup

Biology Faculty Publications

HIV reservoirs persist in infected individuals despite combination antiretroviral therapy and can be identified in secondary lymphoid tissues, in intestinal tissues, in the central nervous system as well as in blood. Clinical trials have begun to explore effects of small molecule interventions to perturb the latent viral infection, but only limited information is available regarding the impacts of HIV cure-related clinical interventions on viral reservoirs found in tissues. Of the 14 HIV cure-related clinical trials since 2012 that have evaluated the effects of small molecule interventions in vivo, four trials have examined the impacts of the interventions in peripheral blood ...


Loss Of Developmental Diapause As Prerequisite For Social Evolution In Bees, Priscila Karla Ferreira Santos, Maria Cristina Arias, Karen M. Kapheim Aug 2019

Loss Of Developmental Diapause As Prerequisite For Social Evolution In Bees, Priscila Karla Ferreira Santos, Maria Cristina Arias, Karen M. Kapheim

Biology Faculty Publications

Diapause is a physiological arrest of development ahead of adverse environmental conditions and is a critical phase of the life cycle of many insects. In bees, diapause has been reported in species from all seven taxonomic families. However, they exhibit a variety of diapause strategies. These different strategies are of particular interest since shifts in the phase of the insect life cycle in which diapause occurs have been hypothesized to promote the evolution of sociality. Here we provide a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis with phylogenetic analysis and ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) of the ecological and evolutionary factors associated with ...


Does A Carbonatite Deposit Influence Its Surrounding Ecosystem?, James M.C. Jones, Elizabeth A. Webb, Michael D.J. Lynch, Trevor C. Charles, Pedro M. Antunes, Frédérique C. Guinel Aug 2019

Does A Carbonatite Deposit Influence Its Surrounding Ecosystem?, James M.C. Jones, Elizabeth A. Webb, Michael D.J. Lynch, Trevor C. Charles, Pedro M. Antunes, Frédérique C. Guinel

Biology Faculty Publications

Carbonatites are unusual alkaline rocks with diverse compositions. Although previous work has characterized the effects these rocks have on soils and plants, little is known about their impacts on local ecosystems. Using a deposit within the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, we investigated the effect of a carbonatite on soil chemistry and on the structure of plant and soil microbial communities. This was done using a vegetation survey conducted above and around the deposit, with corresponding soil samples collected for determining soil nutrient composition and for assessing microbial community structure using 16S/ITS Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing ...


Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski

Biology Faculty Publications

Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 is one of the largest genera of the Dicrocoeliidae and is one of the best examples of the systematic complexity and taxonomic instability within this family. We present the molecular analyses based on novel sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes obtained from 56 isolates of adult flukes and larval stages of dicrocoeliids belonging to Lyperosomum, Skrjabinus, Zonorchis as well as previously available sequence data. According to obtained results we propose to return Zonorchis clathratus and Z. petiolatus into Lyperosomum, and to recognize L. alagesi as a synonym of L. petiolatum. Our study shows that L. petiolatum commonly ...


Diet, Digestion And Energy Intake In Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus): Research And Management Implications, Michael L. Power, Jessica Adams, Kirsten Solonika, Ricki J. Colman, Corinna N. Ross, Suzette D. Tardif Aug 2019

Diet, Digestion And Energy Intake In Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus): Research And Management Implications, Michael L. Power, Jessica Adams, Kirsten Solonika, Ricki J. Colman, Corinna N. Ross, Suzette D. Tardif

Biology Faculty Publications

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are susceptible to intestinal inflammation which leads to chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin D deficiency. We examined food intake and digestion in three mixed-sex groups of adult marmosets maintained on three commercial base diets. Animals underwent two consecutive 4-day digestion trials. Body mass stayed constant. Feces and diet were assayed for Mn, fat, and gross energy (GE). Apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM) was calculated by the total collection method and from dietary and fecal Mn; the methods produced correlated results (r = 0.658, p < 0.001). Apparent digestibility of energy (ADE) was calculated from ADDM and the GE of feces and diet; apparent digestibility of fat (ADfat) was calculated from ADDM and fecal fat. ADDM and ADE varied by diet (p < 0.001). We found poor digesters on all three diets. The concentration of fecal fat was inversely related to ADE (r = −0.729, p < 0.001). High fecal fat (>10%) was associated with ADfat of zero, consistent with lipid ...


Contextual Fear Learning And Memory Differ Between Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong Jul 2019

Contextual Fear Learning And Memory Differ Between Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong

Biology Faculty Publications

Animals frequently overcome stressors and the ability to learn and recall these salient experiences is essential to an individual’s survival. As part of an animal’s stress coping style, behavioral and physiological responses to stressors are often consistent across contexts and time. However, we are only beginning to understand how cognitive traits can be biased by different coping styles. Here we investigate learning and memory differences in zebrafish (Danio rerio) displaying proactive and reactive stress coping styles. We assessed learning rate and memory duration using an associative fear conditioning paradigm that trained zebrafish to associate a context with exposure ...


Contributions Of Fire Refugia To Resilient Ponderosa Pine And Dry Mixed‐Conifer Forest Landscapes, Jonathan D. Coop, Timothy J. Delory, William M. Downing, Sandra L. Haire, Meg A. Krawchuk, Carol Miller, Marc-André Parisien, Ryan B. Walker Jul 2019

Contributions Of Fire Refugia To Resilient Ponderosa Pine And Dry Mixed‐Conifer Forest Landscapes, Jonathan D. Coop, Timothy J. Delory, William M. Downing, Sandra L. Haire, Meg A. Krawchuk, Carol Miller, Marc-André Parisien, Ryan B. Walker

Biology Faculty Publications

Altered fire regimes can drive major and enduring compositional shifts or losses of forest ecosystems. In western North America, ponderosa pine and dry mixed‐conifer forest types appear increasingly vulnerable to uncharacteristically extensive, high‐severity wildfire. However, unburned or only lightly impacted forest stands that persist within burn mosaics—termed fire refugia—may serve as tree seed sources and promote landscape recovery. We sampled tree regeneration along gradients of fire refugia proximity and density at 686 sites within the perimeters of 12 large wildfires that occurred between 2000 and 2005 in the interior western United States. We used generalized linear ...


Getting To The Root Of Selenium Hyperaccumulation—Localization And Speciation Of Root Selenium And Its Effects On Nematodes, Christine N. Prins, Laura J. Hantzis, Jose R. Valdez Barillas, Jennifer J. Cappa, Sirine C. Fakra, Cecilia Milano De Tomasel, Diana H. Wall, Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits Jul 2019

Getting To The Root Of Selenium Hyperaccumulation—Localization And Speciation Of Root Selenium And Its Effects On Nematodes, Christine N. Prins, Laura J. Hantzis, Jose R. Valdez Barillas, Jennifer J. Cappa, Sirine C. Fakra, Cecilia Milano De Tomasel, Diana H. Wall, Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

Biology Faculty Publications

Elemental hyperaccumulation protects plants from many aboveground herbivores. Little is known about effects of hyperaccumulation on belowground herbivores or their ecological interactions. To examine effects of plant selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on nematode root herbivory, we investigated spatial distribution and speciation of Se in hyperaccumulator roots using X-ray microprobe analysis, and effects of root Se concentration on root-associated nematode communities. Perennial hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus, collected from a natural seleniferous grassland contained 100–1500 mg Se kg−1 root dry weight (DW). Selenium was concentrated in the cortex and epidermis of hyperaccumulator roots, with lower levels in the stele ...


Tlr9 Agonist Mgn1703 Enhances B Cell Differentiation And Function In Lymph Nodes, Mariane H. Schleimann, Maria-Louise Kobberø, Line K. Vibholm, Katherine Kjær, Leila B. Giron, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Chi Ngai Chan, Michael Nekorchuk, Manuel Schmidt, Burghardt Wittig, Tine E. Damsgaard, Peter Ahlburg, Michel B. Hellfritzsch, Kaja Zuwala, Frederik H. Rothemejer, Rikke Olesen, Phillipp Schommers, Florian Klein, Harsh Dweep, Andrew Kossenkov, Jens R. Nyengaard, Jacob D. Estes, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S. Søgaard, Paul W. Denton Jul 2019

Tlr9 Agonist Mgn1703 Enhances B Cell Differentiation And Function In Lymph Nodes, Mariane H. Schleimann, Maria-Louise Kobberø, Line K. Vibholm, Katherine Kjær, Leila B. Giron, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Chi Ngai Chan, Michael Nekorchuk, Manuel Schmidt, Burghardt Wittig, Tine E. Damsgaard, Peter Ahlburg, Michel B. Hellfritzsch, Kaja Zuwala, Frederik H. Rothemejer, Rikke Olesen, Phillipp Schommers, Florian Klein, Harsh Dweep, Andrew Kossenkov, Jens R. Nyengaard, Jacob D. Estes, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S. Søgaard, Paul W. Denton

Biology Faculty Publications

Background

TLR9 agonists are being developed as immunotherapy against malignancies and infections. TLR9 is primarily expressed in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). TLR9 signalling may be critically important for B cell activity in lymph nodes but little is known about the in vivo impact of TLR9 agonism on human lymph node B cells. As a pre-defined sub-study within our clinical trial investigating TLR9 agonist MGN1703 (lefitolimod) treatment in the context of developing HIV cure strategies (NCT02443935), we assessed TLR9 agonist-mediated effects in lymph nodes.

Methods

Participants received MGN1703 for 24 weeks concurrent with antiretroviral therapy. Seven participants completed ...


Genome Of The Tropical Plant Marchantia Inflexa: Implications For Sex Chromosome Evolution And Dehydration Tolerance, Rose A. Marks, Jeramiah J. Smith, Quentin Cronk, Christopher J. Grassa, D. Nicholas Mcletchie Jun 2019

Genome Of The Tropical Plant Marchantia Inflexa: Implications For Sex Chromosome Evolution And Dehydration Tolerance, Rose A. Marks, Jeramiah J. Smith, Quentin Cronk, Christopher J. Grassa, D. Nicholas Mcletchie

Biology Faculty Publications

We present a draft genome assembly for the tropical liverwort, Marchantia inflexa, which adds to a growing body of genomic resources for bryophytes and provides an important perspective on the evolution and diversification of land plants. We specifically address questions related to sex chromosome evolution, sexual dimorphisms, and the genomic underpinnings of dehydration tolerance. This assembly leveraged the recently published genome of related liverwort, M. polymorpha, to improve scaffolding and annotation, aid in the identification of sex-linked sequences, and quantify patterns of sequence differentiation within Marchantia. We find that genes on sex chromosomes are under greater diversifying selection than autosomal ...


Predicting The Future: Parental Progeny Investment In Response To Environmental Stress Cues, Leah Gulyas, Jennifer R. Powell Jun 2019

Predicting The Future: Parental Progeny Investment In Response To Environmental Stress Cues, Leah Gulyas, Jennifer R. Powell

Biology Faculty Publications

Environmental stressors can severely limit the ability of an organism to reproduce as lifespan is decreased and resources are shifted away from reproduction to survival. Although this is often detrimental to the organism’s reproductive fitness, certain other reproductive stress responses may mitigate this effect by increasing the likelihood of progeny survival in the F1 and subsequent generations. Here we review three means by which these progeny may be conferred a competitive edge as a result of stress encountered in the parental generation: heritable epigenetic modifications to nucleotides and histones, simple maternal investments of cytosolic components, and the partially overlapping ...


Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasome Degradation Regulates Optic Fissure Fusion, Warlen Pereira Piedade, Sydney Veith, Jakub Konrad Famulski Jun 2019

Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasome Degradation Regulates Optic Fissure Fusion, Warlen Pereira Piedade, Sydney Veith, Jakub Konrad Famulski

Biology Faculty Publications

Optic fissure fusion is a critical event during retinal development. Failure of fusion leads to coloboma, a potentially blinding congenital disorder. Pax2a is an essential regulator of optic fissure fusion and the target of numerous morphogenetic pathways. In our current study, we examined the negative regulator of pax2a expression, Nz2, and the mechanism modulating Nlz2 activity during optic fissure fusion. Upregulation of Nlz2 in zebrafish embryos resulted in downregulation of pax2a expression and fissure fusion failure. Conversely, upregulation of pax2a expression also led to fissure fusion failure suggesting Pax2 levels require modulation to ensure proper fusion. Interestingly, we discovered Nlz2 ...


Opportunities For Self-Evaluation Increase Student Calibration In An Introductory Biology Course, Jennifer L. Osterhage, Ellen Usher, Trisha A. Douin, William M. Bailey Jun 2019

Opportunities For Self-Evaluation Increase Student Calibration In An Introductory Biology Course, Jennifer L. Osterhage, Ellen Usher, Trisha A. Douin, William M. Bailey

Biology Faculty Publications

Accurate self-evaluation is critical for learning. Calibration describes the relationship between learners’ perception of their performance and their actual performance on a task. Here, we describe two studies aimed at assessing and improving student calibration in a first-semester introductory biology course at a 4-year public institution. Study 1 investigated students’ (n = 310) calibration (the difference between estimated and actual exam performance) across one semester. Students were significantly miscalibrated for the first exam: their predicted scores were, on average, significantly higher than their actual scores. The lowest-performing students had the most inaccurate estimates. Calibration improved with each exam. By the final ...


Differences In Stress Reactivity Between Zebrafish With Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Ryan Y. Wong, Jeffrey French, Jacalyn B. Russ May 2019

Differences In Stress Reactivity Between Zebrafish With Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Ryan Y. Wong, Jeffrey French, Jacalyn B. Russ

Biology Faculty Publications

Animals experience stress in a variety of contexts and the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stress can vary among conspecifics. The responses across stressors often covary within an individual and are consistently different between individuals, which represent distinct stress coping styles (e.g. proactive and reactive). While studies have identified differences in peak glucocorticoid levels, less is known about how cortisol levels differ between stress coping styles at other time points of the glucocorticoid stress response. Here we quantified whole-body cortisol levels and stress-related behaviours (e.g. depth preference, movement) at time points representing the rise and recovery periods of ...


Antifungal Activities Of 4”,6”-Disubstituted Amphiphilic Kanamycins, Madher N. Alfindee, Yagya P. Subedi, Michelle M. Grilley, Jon Y. Takemoto, Cheng-Wei T. Chang May 2019

Antifungal Activities Of 4”,6”-Disubstituted Amphiphilic Kanamycins, Madher N. Alfindee, Yagya P. Subedi, Michelle M. Grilley, Jon Y. Takemoto, Cheng-Wei T. Chang

Biology Faculty Publications

Amphiphilic kanamycins derived from the classic antibiotic kanamycin have attracted interest due to their novel bioactivities beyond inhibition of bacteria. In this study, the recently described 4″,6″-diaryl amphiphilic kanamycins reported as inhibitors of connexin were examined for their antifungal activities. Nearly all 4″,6″-diaryl amphiphilic kanamycins tested had antifungal activities comparable to those of 4″,6″-dialkyl amphiphilic kanamycins, reported previously against several fungal strains. The minimal growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) correlated with the degree of amphiphilicity (cLogD) of the di-substituted amphiphilic kanamycins. Using the fluorogenic dyes, SYTOXTM Green and propidium iodide, the most active compounds ...


Notes On Rhopalosomatid Wasps Of Dominican And Mexican Amber (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) With A Description Of The First Fossil Species Of Rhopalosoma Cresson, 1865, Volker Lohrmann, Michael Ohl, Peter Michalik, James P. Pitts, Laurent Jeanneau, Vincent Perrichot May 2019

Notes On Rhopalosomatid Wasps Of Dominican And Mexican Amber (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) With A Description Of The First Fossil Species Of Rhopalosoma Cresson, 1865, Volker Lohrmann, Michael Ohl, Peter Michalik, James P. Pitts, Laurent Jeanneau, Vincent Perrichot

Biology Faculty Publications

Rhopalosomatidae are a family of aculeate wasps that are ectoparasitoids of crickets as larvae and are predominantly distributed pantropically. The published fossil record of the family is scarce. Here, we report three new fossil rhopalosomatid wasp specimens from Dominican and Mexican amber. Rhopalosoma hispaniola Lohrmann sp. nov. is described and documented from Dominican amber by two separate inclusions – one of each sex. An additional fossil female Rhopalosoma is described and documented from Mexican amber but is not named due to the insufficient preservation of the fossil. The new fossils, which are morphologically intermediate between Townes' isopus and poeyi species groups ...


Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu May 2019

Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu

Biology Faculty Publications

Majority legumes in the temperate and arctic zones have water-impermeable seeds (physical dormancy, PY). However, various authors have reported that seeds of some Caragana species are water-permeable and thus non-dormant. We (1) tested seeds of 15 species of Caragana matured in the same site in 2014, 2016 and/or 2017 for presence of PY, (2) determined if dry storage decreased or increased the percentage of seeds with PY and (3) located the site on the seed coat of 11 species where water enters the seed. Sixty-three percent and 45% of the seeds of C. roborovskyi had PY in 2016 and ...


What Does The Snake Eat? Breadth, Overlap, And Non-Native Prey In The Diet Of Three Sympatric Natricine Snakes, Emily E. Virgin, Richard B. King Apr 2019

What Does The Snake Eat? Breadth, Overlap, And Non-Native Prey In The Diet Of Three Sympatric Natricine Snakes, Emily E. Virgin, Richard B. King

Biology Faculty Publications

We investigated diet breadth and diet overlap in three sympatric snakes of similar body size: Dekay’s Brownsnakes (Storeria dekayi), Red-bellied Snakes (S. occipitomaculata), and sub-adult Common Gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), by examining recently consumed prey (n = 388) collected from wild-caught snakes (n = 263) in northern Illinois. Storeria occipitomaculata were dietary specialists, feeding nearly exclusively on slugs. Storeria dekayi fed predominately on slugs but also consumed snails and earthworms. Sub-adult T. sirtalis fed predominately on earthworms but also consumed frogs and small mammals. Diet overlap was extensive between Storeria species but relatively low between Storeria and Thamnophis. It is noteworthy that ...


The Effects Of A Bacterial Endotoxin On Behavior And Sensory-Cns-Motor Circuits In Drosophila Melanogaster, Oscar Istas, Abigail Greenhalgh, Robin L. Cooper Apr 2019

The Effects Of A Bacterial Endotoxin On Behavior And Sensory-Cns-Motor Circuits In Drosophila Melanogaster, Oscar Istas, Abigail Greenhalgh, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

The effect of bacterial sepsis on animal behavior and physiology is complex due to direct and indirect actions. The most common form of bacterial sepsis in humans is from gram-negative bacterial strains. The endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and/or associated peptidoglycans from the bacteria are the key agents to induce an immune response, which then produces a cascade of immunological consequences. However, there are direct actions of LPS and associated peptidoglycans on cells which are commonly overlooked. This study showed behavioral and neural changes in larval Drosophila fed commercially obtained LPS from Serratia marcescens. Locomotor behavior was not altered, but feeding ...


Life‐History Differences Across Latitude In Common Side‐Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey D. Smith, Peter A. Zani, Susannah S. French Apr 2019

Life‐History Differences Across Latitude In Common Side‐Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey D. Smith, Peter A. Zani, Susannah S. French

Biology Faculty Publications

  1. Life‐history strategies are known to shift with latitude in many species. While life‐history variation related to body size, reproductive investment, and behavior has been studied for years, another crucial life‐history component is the immune system, which can influence an animal's survival.
  2. We measured selected life‐history traits in side‐blotched lizards in southern Utah and Oregon in the field for two consecutive years and conducted a common‐garden experiment in the laboratory to determine how organisms from different latitudes optimize either immunity or reproduction. We observed lizards from southern populations, which are known to be shorter ...


Identification And Functional Testing Of Novel Interacting Protein Partners For The Stress Sensors Wsc1p And Mid2p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Sahily González-Crespo, Vladimir Vélez, Nelson Martínez, Jamie Snider, Matthew Jessulat, Hiroyuki Aoki, Zoran Minic, Pearl Akamine, Inoushka Mejías, Luis M. Pérez, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina Apr 2019

Identification And Functional Testing Of Novel Interacting Protein Partners For The Stress Sensors Wsc1p And Mid2p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Sahily González-Crespo, Vladimir Vélez, Nelson Martínez, Jamie Snider, Matthew Jessulat, Hiroyuki Aoki, Zoran Minic, Pearl Akamine, Inoushka Mejías, Luis M. Pérez, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina

Biology Faculty Publications

Wsc1p and Mid2p are transmembrane signaling proteins of cell wall stress in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When an environmental stress compromises cell wall integrity, they activate a cell response through the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. Studies have shown that the cytoplasmic domain of Wsc1p initiates the CWI signaling cascade by interacting with Rom2p, a Rho1-GDP-GTP exchange factor. Binding of Rom2p to the cytoplasmic tail of Wsc1p requires dephosphorylation of specific serine residues but the mechanism by which the sensor is dephosphorylated and how it subsequently interacts with Rom2p remains unclear. We hypothesize that Wsc1p and Mid2p must be ...


Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang Apr 2019

Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...


The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski Mar 2019

The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski

Biology Faculty Publications

The direct action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) endotoxin was shown to enhance synaptic transmission and hyperpolarize the membrane potential at low doses, but block glutamatergic receptors and decrease observable spontaneous events at a high dosage. The dosage effects are LPS type specific. The hyperpolarization is not due to voltage-gated potassium channels or to activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The effects are induced directly by LPS, independent of an immune response.


Consequences Of Intraspecific Variation In Seed Dispersal For Plant Demography, Communities, Evolution And Global Change, Rebecca S. Snell, Noelle G. Beckman, Evan Fricke, Bette A. Loiselle, Carolina S. Carvalho, Landon R. Jones, Nathanael I. Lichti, Nicky Lustenhouwer, Sebastian J. Schreiber, Christopher Strickland, Lauren L. Sullivan, Brittany R. Cavazos, Itamar Giladi, Alan Hastings, Kimberly M. Holbrook, Eelke Jongejans, Oleg Kogan, Flavia Montaño-Centellas, Javiera Rudolph, Haldre S. Rogers, Rafal Zwolak, Eugene W. Schupp Mar 2019

Consequences Of Intraspecific Variation In Seed Dispersal For Plant Demography, Communities, Evolution And Global Change, Rebecca S. Snell, Noelle G. Beckman, Evan Fricke, Bette A. Loiselle, Carolina S. Carvalho, Landon R. Jones, Nathanael I. Lichti, Nicky Lustenhouwer, Sebastian J. Schreiber, Christopher Strickland, Lauren L. Sullivan, Brittany R. Cavazos, Itamar Giladi, Alan Hastings, Kimberly M. Holbrook, Eelke Jongejans, Oleg Kogan, Flavia Montaño-Centellas, Javiera Rudolph, Haldre S. Rogers, Rafal Zwolak, Eugene W. Schupp

Biology Faculty Publications

As the single opportunity for plants to move, seed dispersal has an important impact on plant fitness, species distributions and patterns of biodiversity. However, models that predict dynamics such as risk of extinction, range shifts and biodiversity loss tend to rely on the mean value of parameters and rarely incorporate realistic dispersal mechanisms. By focusing on the mean population value, variation among individuals or variability caused by complex spatial and temporal dynamics is ignored. This calls for increased efforts to understand individual variation in dispersal and integrate it more explicitly into population and community models involving dispersal. However, the sources ...


Susceptibility Of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Sand Flies To Insecticide After An Extended Period Of Exposure In Western São Paulo, Brazil, Mikel A. González, Melissa J. Bell, Scott A. Bernhardt, Reginaldo P. Brazil, Erin Dilger, Orin Courtenay, James G. C. Hamilton Mar 2019

Susceptibility Of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Sand Flies To Insecticide After An Extended Period Of Exposure In Western São Paulo, Brazil, Mikel A. González, Melissa J. Bell, Scott A. Bernhardt, Reginaldo P. Brazil, Erin Dilger, Orin Courtenay, James G. C. Hamilton

Biology Faculty Publications

Background

In Brazil, members of the sand fly species complex Lutzomyia longipalpis transmit Leishmania infantum, a protist parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Male Lu. longipalpis produce a sex pheromone that is attractive to both females and males. During a cluster randomised trial, to determine the combined effect of synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone and insecticide on Le. infantum transmission Lu. longipalpis had been continuously exposed to insecticide for 30 months. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of continuous exposure to the insecticides used in the trial on the susceptibility of Lu. longipalpis population.

Methods

During the trial the ...


A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel Mar 2019

A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel

Biology Faculty Publications

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis between terrestrial plants and AM fungi is regulated by plant hormones. For most of these, a role has been clearly assigned in this mutualistic interaction; however, there are still contradictory reports for cytokinin (CK). Here, pea plants, the wild type (WT) cv. Sparkle and its mutant E151 (Pssym15), were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. E151 has previously been characterized as possessing high CK levels in non-mycorrhizal (myc-) roots and exhibiting high number of fungal structures in mycorrhizal (myc+) roots. Myc- and myc+ plants were treated 7, 9, and 11 days after inoculation (DAI ...


Silkworms With Spider Silklike Fibers Using Synthetic Silkworm Chow Containing Calcium Lignosulfonate, Carbon Nanotubes, And Graphene, Xiaoli Zhang, Ana Laura Licon, Thomas I. Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Bailey J. Mcfarland, Blake E. Taurone, Brittney J. Walsh, Brianne E. Bell, Caleb T. Walker, Randolph V. Lewis, Justin A. Jones Mar 2019

Silkworms With Spider Silklike Fibers Using Synthetic Silkworm Chow Containing Calcium Lignosulfonate, Carbon Nanotubes, And Graphene, Xiaoli Zhang, Ana Laura Licon, Thomas I. Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Bailey J. Mcfarland, Blake E. Taurone, Brittney J. Walsh, Brianne E. Bell, Caleb T. Walker, Randolph V. Lewis, Justin A. Jones

Biology Faculty Publications

Silkworm silk has become increasingly relevant for material applications. However, the industry as a whole is retracting because of problems with mass production. One of the key problems is the inconsistent properties of the silk. A means by which to improve the silk material properties is through enhanced sericulture techniques. One possible technique is altering the feed of the silkworms to include single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) or graphene (GR). Recently published results have demonstrated substantial improvement in fiber mechanical properties. However, the effect of the surfactant used to incorporate those materials into the feed on the fiber mechanical properties in ...


Draft Genome Assembly And Population Genetics Of An Agricultural Pollinator, The Solitary Alkali Bee (Halictidae: Nomia Melanderi), Karen M. Kapheim, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Charles Blatti Ill, Brock A. Harpur, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Beryl M. Jones, Clement F. Kent, Livio Ruzzante, Laura Sloofman, Eckart Stolle, Robert M. Waterhouse, Amro Zayed, Guojie Zhang, William T. Wcislo Mar 2019

Draft Genome Assembly And Population Genetics Of An Agricultural Pollinator, The Solitary Alkali Bee (Halictidae: Nomia Melanderi), Karen M. Kapheim, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Charles Blatti Ill, Brock A. Harpur, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Beryl M. Jones, Clement F. Kent, Livio Ruzzante, Laura Sloofman, Eckart Stolle, Robert M. Waterhouse, Amro Zayed, Guojie Zhang, William T. Wcislo

Biology Faculty Publications

Alkali bees (Nomia melanderi) are solitary relatives of the halictine bees, which have become an important model for the evolution of social behavior, but for which few solitary comparisons exist. These ground-nesting bees defend their developing offspring against pathogens and predators, and thus exhibit some of the key traits that preceded insect sociality. Alkali bees are also efficient native pollinators of alfalfa seed, which is a crop of major economic value in the United States. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated a high-quality draft genome of 299.6 Mbp for this species. Repetitive content makes up more than one-third of this ...