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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phylogenetic, Genomic, And Biogeographic Characterization Of Anovel And Ubiquitous Marine Invertebrate-Associated Rickettsiales Parasite,Candidatus Aquarickettsia Rohweri, Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov, J. Grace Klinges, Stephanie M. Rosales, Ryan Mcminds, Koty H. Sharp Jan 2019

Phylogenetic, Genomic, And Biogeographic Characterization Of Anovel And Ubiquitous Marine Invertebrate-Associated Rickettsiales Parasite,Candidatus Aquarickettsia Rohweri, Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov, J. Grace Klinges, Stephanie M. Rosales, Ryan Mcminds, Koty H. Sharp

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Bacterial symbionts are integral to the health and homeostasis of invertebrate hosts. Notably, members of the Rickettsiales genus Wolbachia influence several aspects of the fitness and evolution of their terrestrial hosts, but few analogous partnerships have been found in marine systems. We report here the genome, phylogenetics, and biogeography of a ubiquitous and novel Rickettsiales species that primarily associates with marine organisms. We previously showed that this bacterium was found in scleractinian corals, responds to nutrient exposure, and is associated with reduced host growth and increased mortality. This bacterium, like other Rickettsiales, has a reduced genome indicative of a parasitic ...


Stability Of Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata Microbiome Is Reflected Across Different Sequencing Methodologies, Dawn B. Goldsmith, Zoe A. Pratte, Koty H. Sharp Jan 2019

Stability Of Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata Microbiome Is Reflected Across Different Sequencing Methodologies, Dawn B. Goldsmith, Zoe A. Pratte, Koty H. Sharp

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

The microbiome of the temperate coral Astrangia poculata was first described in 2017 using next-generation Illumina sequencing to examine the coral’s bacterial and archaeal associates across seasons and among hosts of differing symbiotic status. To assess the impact of methodology on the detectable diversity of the coral’s microbiome, we obtained near full-length Sanger sequences from clone libraries constructed from a subset of the same A. poculata samples. Eight samples were analyzed: two sets of paired symbiotic (brown) and aposymbiotic (white) colonies collected in the fall (September) and two sets collected in the spring (April). Analysis of the Sanger ...


Season, But Not Symbiont State, Drives Microbiome Structure In The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata., Koty H. Sharp, Zoe A. Pratte, Allison H. Kerwin Jan 2017

Season, But Not Symbiont State, Drives Microbiome Structure In The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata., Koty H. Sharp, Zoe A. Pratte, Allison H. Kerwin

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Understanding the associations among corals, their photosynthetic zooxanthella symbionts (Symbiodinium), and coral-associated prokaryotic microbiomes is critical for predicting the fidelity and strength of coral symbioses in the face of growing environmental threats. Most coral-microbiome associations are beneficial, yet the mechanisms that determine the composition of the coral microbiome remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized microbiome diversity in the temperate, facultatively symbiotic coral Astrangia poculata at four seasonal time points near the northernmost limit of the species range. The facultative nature of this system allowed us to test seasonal influence and symbiotic state (Symbiodinium density in the coral) on microbiome ...


Crassulacean Acid Metabolism As A Continuous Trait: Variability In The Contribution Of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (Cam) In Populations Of Portulacaria Afra, Lonnie J. Guralnick, Kate Gladsky Jan 2017

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism As A Continuous Trait: Variability In The Contribution Of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (Cam) In Populations Of Portulacaria Afra, Lonnie J. Guralnick, Kate Gladsky

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Portulacaria afra L. is a dominant facultative CAM species growing in the Southeastern Cape of South Africa. P. afra is well adapted to regions of the Spekboom thicket in areas of limited and sporadic rainfall. P. afra populations occur in isolated drainages. We hypothesized the utilization of CAM would vary in the different populations in response to rainfall and temperature gradients. Carbon isotope composition can be used to determine the contribution of CAM in leaf tissue. P. afra leaves of populations were analyzed in transects running south to north and east to west in locations from the coast to elevations ...


Induction Of Larval Settlement In The Reef Coral Porites Astreoides By A Cultivated Marine Roseobacter Strain, Koty H. Sharp Jan 2015

Induction Of Larval Settlement In The Reef Coral Porites Astreoides By A Cultivated Marine Roseobacter Strain, Koty H. Sharp

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Successful larval settlement and recruitment by corals is critical for the survival of coral reef ecosystems. Several closely related strains of γ-proteobacteria have been identified as cues for coral larval settlement, but the inductive properties of other bacterial taxa naturally occurring in reef ecosystems have not yet been explored. In this study, we assayed bacterial strains representing taxonomic groups consistently detected in corals for their ability to influence larval settlement in the coral Porites astreoides. We identified one α-proteobacterial strain, Roseivivax sp. 46E8, which significantly increased larval settlement in P. astreoides. Logarithmic growth phase (log phase) cell cultures of Roseivivax ...


Bending Rules For Animal Propulsion, Kelsey N. Lucas, Nathan Johnson, Wesley T. T. Beaulieu, Eric Cathcart, Gregory Tirrell, Sean Colin, Brad J. Gemmell, John O. O. Dabiri, John H. Costello Jan 2014

Bending Rules For Animal Propulsion, Kelsey N. Lucas, Nathan Johnson, Wesley T. T. Beaulieu, Eric Cathcart, Gregory Tirrell, Sean Colin, Brad J. Gemmell, John O. O. Dabiri, John H. Costello

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways ...


An Algorithm To Estimate Unsteady And Quasi-Steady Pressure Fields From Velocity Field Measurements, John O. Dabiri, Sanjeeb Bose, Brad J. Gemmell, Sean Colin, John H. Costello Jan 2014

An Algorithm To Estimate Unsteady And Quasi-Steady Pressure Fields From Velocity Field Measurements, John O. Dabiri, Sanjeeb Bose, Brad J. Gemmell, Sean Colin, John H. Costello

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for ...


Uncovering An Obscure Trade: Threatened Freshwater Fishes And The Aquarium Pet Markets, Rajeev Raghavan, Neelesh Dahanukar, Michael F. Tlusty, Andrew L. Rhyne, K. Krishna Kumar, Sanjay Molur, Alison M. Rosser Jan 2013

Uncovering An Obscure Trade: Threatened Freshwater Fishes And The Aquarium Pet Markets, Rajeev Raghavan, Neelesh Dahanukar, Michael F. Tlusty, Andrew L. Rhyne, K. Krishna Kumar, Sanjay Molur, Alison M. Rosser

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

While the collection of fish for the aquarium pet trade has been flagged as a major threat to wild populations, this link is tenuous for the unregulated wild collection of endemic species because of the lack of quantitative data. In this paper, we examine the extent and magnitude of collection and trade of endemic and threatened freshwater fishes from India for the pet markets, and discuss their conservation implications. Using data on aquarium fishes exported from India, we try to understand nature of the trade in terms of species composition, volume, exit points, and importing countries. Most trade in India ...


An In-Class Role-Playing Activity To Foster Discussion And Deeper Understanding Of Biodiversity And Ecological Webs, Loren B. Byrne Jan 2013

An In-Class Role-Playing Activity To Foster Discussion And Deeper Understanding Of Biodiversity And Ecological Webs, Loren B. Byrne

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

In a general sense, biodiversity is an intuitively simple concept, referring to the variety of Earth’s organisms. Ecologists, however, conceptualize biodiversity in a more nuanced, multidimensional way to reflect the enormous diversity of species, niches, and interspecific interactions that generate spatiotemporal complexity in communities. Students may not fully comprehend or appreciate this deeper meaning if they fail to recognize the full range of species in a community (e.g., the often-ignored microbes and small invertebrates) and how their varied interactions (e.g., mutualism, parasitism) and activities (e.g., ecosystem engineering) affect an ecosystem’s emergent structure (e.g., food ...


Propulsion In Cubomedusae: Mechanisms And Utility, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, Kakani Katija, Jamie Seymour, Kristen Kiefer Jan 2013

Propulsion In Cubomedusae: Mechanisms And Utility, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, Kakani Katija, Jamie Seymour, Kristen Kiefer

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of ...


Passive Energy Recapture In Jellyfish Contributes To Propulsive Advantage Over Other Metazoans, Brad J. Gemmell, John H. Costello, Sean Colin, Colin J. Stewart, John O. Dabiri, Danesh Tafti, Shashank Priya Jan 2013

Passive Energy Recapture In Jellyfish Contributes To Propulsive Advantage Over Other Metazoans, Brad J. Gemmell, John H. Costello, Sean Colin, Colin J. Stewart, John O. Dabiri, Danesh Tafti, Shashank Priya

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views ...


Effect Of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum) On Soil Phosphorus Availability And Organic Acids, Angela R. Possinger, Loren B. Byrne, Nancy Breen E. Breen Jan 2013

Effect Of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum) On Soil Phosphorus Availability And Organic Acids, Angela R. Possinger, Loren B. Byrne, Nancy Breen E. Breen

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

As a cover crop, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) may increase soil-P availability. Buckwheat was grown in low-P and P-fertilized field plots, and organic anions were measured in rhizosphere soil. Soil-P availability was not affected by buckwheat, but the concentration of rhizosphere tartrate2– was significantly higher (p < 0.005) in low-P vs. P-fertilized plots. This suggests that organic-anion root exudation may have a role in buckwheat-rhizosphere P dynamics.


Fluid Interactions That Enable Stealth Predation By The Upstream-Foraging Hydromedusa Craspedacusta Sowerbyi, K. Lucas, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, K. Katija, E. Klos Jan 2013

Fluid Interactions That Enable Stealth Predation By The Upstream-Foraging Hydromedusa Craspedacusta Sowerbyi, K. Lucas, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, K. Katija, E. Klos

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Unlike most medusae that forage with tentacles trailing behind their bells, several species forage upstream of their bells using aborally located tentacles. It has been hypothesized that these medusae forage as stealth predators by placing their tentacles in more quiescent regions of flow around their bells. Consequently, they are able to capture highly mobile, sensitive prey. We used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to quantitatively characterize the flow field around Craspedacusta sowerbyi, a freshwater upstream-foraging hydromedusa, to evaluate the mechanics of its stealth predation. We found that fluid velocities were minimal in front and along the sides of the bell ...


Antiamoebic Properties Of The Actinomycete Metabolites Echinomycin A And Tirandamycin A, Avelina Espinosa, Aaron M. Socha, Erica Ryke, David C. Rowley Jan 2012

Antiamoebic Properties Of The Actinomycete Metabolites Echinomycin A And Tirandamycin A, Avelina Espinosa, Aaron M. Socha, Erica Ryke, David C. Rowley

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Entamoeba histolytica infects 50 million people per year, causing 100,000 deaths worldwide. The primary treatment for amoebiasis is metronidazole. However, increased pathogen resistance combined with the drug’s toxic side effects encourages a search for alternative therapeutic agents. Secondary metabolites from marine bacteria are a promising resource for antiprotozoan drug discovery. In this study, extracts from a collection of marine-derived actinomycetes were screened for antiamoebic properties, and the activities of antibiotics echinomycin A and tirandamycin A are shown. Both antibiotics inhibited the in vitro growth of a E. histolytica laboratory strain (HM-1:IMSS) and a clinical isolate (Colombia, Col ...


Shedding Light On The Larval Genus Eretmocaris: Morphological Larval Features Of Two Closely Related Trans-Isthmian Lysmata Species (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) Described On The Basis Of Laboratory Cultured Material, Cátia Bartilotti, Ricardo Calado, Andrew L. Rhyne, Antonina Dos Santos Jan 2012

Shedding Light On The Larval Genus Eretmocaris: Morphological Larval Features Of Two Closely Related Trans-Isthmian Lysmata Species (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) Described On The Basis Of Laboratory Cultured Material, Cátia Bartilotti, Ricardo Calado, Andrew L. Rhyne, Antonina Dos Santos

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Complete larval series are known for only three of the 39 valid species worldwide in the genus Lysmata. The present work deals with the larval development of two closely related trans-isthmian species of Lysmata, L. galapagensis (eastern Pacific Ocean), and L. moorei (southwestern Atlantic Ocean), using laboratory cultured material. The morphological features of the first four zoeal stages of both species, the fifth to seventh stages of L. galapagensis, and the last stage of L. moorei are described and compared with the larval descriptions currently available for the genus. Larvae of both species hatch with a similar form to L ...


Revealing The Appetite Of The Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume And Biodiversity Of Fish Imported Into The United States, Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty, Pamela J. Schofield, Les Kaufman, James A. Morris Jr, Andrew W. Bruckner Jan 2012

Revealing The Appetite Of The Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume And Biodiversity Of Fish Imported Into The United States, Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty, Pamela J. Schofield, Les Kaufman, James A. Morris Jr, Andrew W. Bruckner

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the ...


Predator-Induced Vertical Behavior Of A Ctenophore, Josefin Titelman, Lars Johan Hansson, Trygve Nilsen, Sean Colin, John H. Costello Jan 2012

Predator-Induced Vertical Behavior Of A Ctenophore, Josefin Titelman, Lars Johan Hansson, Trygve Nilsen, Sean Colin, John H. Costello

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Although many studies have focused on Mnemiopsis leidyi predation, little is known about the role of this ctenophore as prey when abundant in native and invaded pelagic systems. We examined the response of the ctenophore M. leidyi to the predatory ctenophore Beroe ovata in an experiment in which the two species could potentially sense each other while being physically separated. On average, M. leidyi responded to the predator’s presence by increasing variability in swimming speeds and by lowering their vertical distribution. Such behavior may help explain field records of vertical migration, as well as stratified and near-bottom distributions of ...


Discrimination, Crypticity, And Incipient Taxa In Entamoeba, Avelina Espinosa, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C Jan 2012

Discrimination, Crypticity, And Incipient Taxa In Entamoeba, Avelina Espinosa, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Persistent difficulties in resolving clear lineages in diverging populations of prokaryotes or unicellular eukaryotes (protistan polyphyletic groups) are challenging the classical species concept. Although multiple integrated approaches would render holistic taxonomies, most phylogenetic studies are still based on single-gene or morphological traits. Such methodologies conceal natural lineages, which are considered “cryptic.” The concept of species is considered artificial and inadequate to define natural populations. Social organisms display differential behaviors toward kin than to nonrelated individuals. In “social” microbes, kin discrimination has been used to help resolve crypticity. Aggregative behavior could be explored in a nonsocial protist to define phylogenetic varieties ...


Cryptic Species: A Mismatch Between Genetics And Morphology In Millepora, Craig Tepper, Benjamin J. Greenstein Jan 2012

Cryptic Species: A Mismatch Between Genetics And Morphology In Millepora, Craig Tepper, Benjamin J. Greenstein

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Millepore morphology is highly variable and shows signs of phenotypic plasticity. Two species of Millepora are present around the islands of the Bahamas: one exhibiting a strong, blade-like structure, Millepora complanata, and the other having a delicate branch-like structure, Millepora alcicornis. The phylogenetic relationship of these corals has been under considerable debate for many years. The existence of a range of intermediate growth forms exhibiting characteristics of both recognized species has led to the re-examination of this species complex. Several methods were employed to examine the taxonomic relationship including ecological abundance surveys, morphological thin-section analysis, and sequencing of rDNA internal ...


Multi-Partner Interactions In Corals In The Face Of Climate Change, Koty H. Sharp, Kim B. Ritchie Jan 2012

Multi-Partner Interactions In Corals In The Face Of Climate Change, Koty H. Sharp, Kim B. Ritchie

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Recent research has explored the possibility that increased sea-surface temperatures and decreasing pH (ocean acidification) contribute to the ongoing decline of coral reef ecosystems. Within corals, a diverse microbiome exerts significant influence on biogeochemical and ecological processes, including food webs, organismal life cycles, and chemical and nutrient cycling. Microbes on coral reefs play a critical role in regulating larval recruitment, bacterial colonization, and pathogen abundance under ambient conditions, ultimately governing the overall resilience of coral reef systems. As a result, microbial processes may be involved in reef ecosystem-level responses to climate change. Developments of new molecular technologies, in addition to ...


Introduction: Why People Do Not Accept Evolution: Using Protistan Diversity To Promote Evolution Literacy, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa Jan 2012

Introduction: Why People Do Not Accept Evolution: Using Protistan Diversity To Promote Evolution Literacy, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

The controversy evolution vs. creationism is inherent to the incompatibility between scientific rationalism/empiricism and the belief in supernatural causation. To test this hypothesis, we conceptualized a Cartesian landscape where the dependent variable acceptance of evolution was plotted as function of three factors, each represented by an index (value range 0 to 3): Religiosity Index (RI), Science Index (SI), and Evolution Index (EI). The indexes summarized an individual's personal religious convictions, familiarity with the processes and forces of change in organisms (= concept of evolution), and understanding the essence of science (= method to explore reality). We compared and contrasted acceptance ...


Trends In The Marine Aquarium Trade: The Influence Of Global Economics And Technology, Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty Jan 2012

Trends In The Marine Aquarium Trade: The Influence Of Global Economics And Technology, Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

The marine aquarium hobby is a global industry with trade chains on six continents. This industry is undergoing rapid changes in hob byist preferences that are in part driven by global economies and technology. In an effort to better assess the past trends and help provide insight into future growth and demand, we assessed three different trade data sources, the United States-State of Florida Marine Life Landings, CITES stony coral imports, and United States Fish and Wildlife Service’s Law Enforcement Information Systems import data for ‘live rock’. Data for the past 10 years were analyzed and a clear trend ...


Diversity And Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Early Life Stages Of The Caribbean Coral Porites Astreoides, Koty H. Sharp, Dan Distel, Valerie J. Paul Jan 2012

Diversity And Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Early Life Stages Of The Caribbean Coral Porites Astreoides, Koty H. Sharp, Dan Distel, Valerie J. Paul

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis ...


Hormone And Metabolite Changes Associated With Extended Breeding Fasts In Male Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga Angustirostris), Daniel E. Crocker, Rudy M. Ortiz, Dorian S. Houser, Paul M. Webb, Daniel P. Costa Jan 2012

Hormone And Metabolite Changes Associated With Extended Breeding Fasts In Male Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga Angustirostris), Daniel E. Crocker, Rudy M. Ortiz, Dorian S. Houser, Paul M. Webb, Daniel P. Costa

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

We measured metabolic hormones and several key metabolites in breeding adult male northern elephant seals to examine the regulation of fuel metabolism during extended natural fasts of over 3 months associated with high levels of energy expenditure. Males were sampled twice, early and late in the fast, losing an average of 23% of body mass and 47% of adipose stores between measurements. Males exhibited metabolic homeostasis over the breeding fast with no changes in glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, or blood urea nitrogen. Ketoacids increased over the fast but were very low when compared to other fasting species. Changes within individuals ...


Flow Structure And Transport Characteristics Of Feeding And Exchange Currents Generated By Upside-Down Cassiopea Jellyfish, Arvind Santhanakrishnan, Makani Dollinger, Christina L. Hamlet, Sean Colin, Laura A. Miller Jan 2012

Flow Structure And Transport Characteristics Of Feeding And Exchange Currents Generated By Upside-Down Cassiopea Jellyfish, Arvind Santhanakrishnan, Makani Dollinger, Christina L. Hamlet, Sean Colin, Laura A. Miller

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography ...


Biomimetic And Live Medusae Reveal The Mechanistic Advantages Of A Flexible Bell Margin, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, John O. Dabiri, Alex Villanueva, John B. B. Blottman, Brad J. Gemmell, Shashank Priya Jan 2012

Biomimetic And Live Medusae Reveal The Mechanistic Advantages Of A Flexible Bell Margin, Sean Colin, John H. Costello, John O. Dabiri, Alex Villanueva, John B. B. Blottman, Brad J. Gemmell, Shashank Priya

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Flexible bell margins are characteristic components of rowing medusan morphologies and are expected to contribute towards their high propulsive efficiency. However, the mechanistic basis of thrust augmentation by flexible propulsors remained unresolved, so the impact of bell margin flexibility on medusan swimming has also remained unresolved. We used biomimetic robotic jellyfish vehicles to elucidate that propulsive thrust enhancement by flexible medusan bell margins relies upon fluid dynamic interactions between entrained flows at the inflexion point of the exumbrella and flows expelled from under the bell. Coalescence of flows from these two regions resulted in enhanced fluid circulation and, therefore, thrust ...


Opportunities For Public Aquariums To Increase The Sustainability Of The Aquatic Animal Trade, Michael F. Tlusty, Andrew L. Rhyne, Les Kaufman, Michael Hutchins, Gordon Mcgregor Reid, Chris Andrews, Paul Boyle, Jay Hemdal, Frazer Mcgilvray, Scott Dowd Jan 2012

Opportunities For Public Aquariums To Increase The Sustainability Of The Aquatic Animal Trade, Michael F. Tlusty, Andrew L. Rhyne, Les Kaufman, Michael Hutchins, Gordon Mcgregor Reid, Chris Andrews, Paul Boyle, Jay Hemdal, Frazer Mcgilvray, Scott Dowd

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

The global aquatic pet trade encompasses a wide diversity of freshwater and marine organisms. While relying on a continual supply of healthy, vibrant aquatic animals, few sustainability initiatives exist within this sector. Public aquariums overlap this industry by acquiring many of the same species through the same sources. End users are also similar, as many aquarium visitors are home aquarists. Here we posit that this overlap with the pet trade gives aquariums significant opportunity to increase the sustainability of the trade in aquarium fishes and invertebrates. Improving the sustainability ethos and practices of the aquatic pet trade can carry a ...


Educators Of Prospective Teachers Hesitate To Embrace Evolution Due To Deficient Understanding Of Science/Evolution And High Religiosity, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa Jan 2012

Educators Of Prospective Teachers Hesitate To Embrace Evolution Due To Deficient Understanding Of Science/Evolution And High Religiosity, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Acceptance of evolution by educators of prospective teachers remains superficially studied despite their role in having mentored schoolteachers whose weak support of evolution is known. Here, we contrast the views of New England educators of prospective teachers (n = 62; 87% Ph.D./doctorate holders in 32 specializations) with those of the general faculty (n = 244; 93% Ph.D./doctorate holders in 40 disciplines), both members of 35 colleges and universities, and with college students (n = 827; subsample of the 35 institutions) who were polled on: (1) the controversy evolution vs. creationism vs. intelligent design (ID), (2) their understanding of how ...


Nutritional Properties Of The Invasive Lionfish: A Delicious And Nutritious Approach For Controlling The Invasion, James A. Morris, Jr., Amber Thomas, Andrew L. Rhyne, Nancy Breen, Lad Akins, Barry Nash Jan 2011

Nutritional Properties Of The Invasive Lionfish: A Delicious And Nutritious Approach For Controlling The Invasion, James A. Morris, Jr., Amber Thomas, Andrew L. Rhyne, Nancy Breen, Lad Akins, Barry Nash

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Lionfish, Pterois volitans and P. miles, are native to the Indo-Pacific and have recently invaded the Western Atlantic Ocean. Strategies for control of this invasion have included limited removal programs and promotion of lionfish consumption at both local and commercial scales. We demonstrate that lionfish meat contains higher levels of healthy n-3 fatty acids than some frequently consumed native marine fish species. Mean lionfish fillet yield was 30.5% of the total body wet weight, a value that is similar to that of some grouper and porgy species. A sensory evaluation indicated that lionfish meet the acceptability threshold of most ...


Faking Giants: The Evolution Of High Prey Clearance Rates In Jellyfishes, José Luis Acuña, Ángel López-Urrutia, Sean Colin Jan 2011

Faking Giants: The Evolution Of High Prey Clearance Rates In Jellyfishes, José Luis Acuña, Ángel López-Urrutia, Sean Colin

Arts & Sciences Faculty Publications

Jellyfishes have functionally replaced several overexploited commercial stocks of planktivorous fishes. This is paradoxical, because they use a primitive prey capture mechanism requiring direct contact with the prey, whereas fishes use more efficient visual detection. We have compiled published data to show that, in spite of their primitive life-style, jellyfishes exhibit similar instantaneous prey clearance and respiration rates as their fish competitors and similar potential for growth and reproduction. To achieve this production, they have evolved large, water-laden bodies that increase prey contact rates. Although larger bodies are less efficient for swimming, optimization analysis reveals that large collectors are advantageous ...