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All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Barriers, Roles, And Information Source Preferences For Utilizing Agricultural Science Projects Among Utah 4-H Extension Professionals, Aleigh Aurin Aug 2019

Barriers, Roles, And Information Source Preferences For Utilizing Agricultural Science Projects Among Utah 4-H Extension Professionals, Aleigh Aurin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Agriscience is the growing study of biotechnology, business, and economics within the agriculture industry. Through 4-H, youth can experience hands on learning through different program areas. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers, roles, and how Utah 4-H personnel preferred to learn about new programs. The study showed time and available volunteers were a barrier for 4-H Extension personnel to implement Agriscience projects. Other results included internet and workshops as the top choices for training programs. The Extension personnel agreed it was their job to involve and educate youth. Yet, need training in how to integrate Robotics ...


Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen Aug 2019

Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate warming in recent decades has resulted in more frequent and severe drought events in the western United States. These changes are projected to continue, making it exceedingly important to understand how forests respond to severe drought stress, and how we can manage these forests to reduce mortality during future events. The 2012-2015 California drought is a recent example of a severe, multi-year drought that was coupled with an epidemic-scale outbreak of western pine beetle, killing nearly 90% of ponderosa pines in the central and southern Sierra Nevadas. In the first portion of this study, we compared pairs of surviving ...


Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi Aug 2019

Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stephen Jay Gould, a great scientist and evolutionary biologists, suggested that if we could replay the tape of life, we would not have observed similar course of events because evolution is stochastic and if affected by several events. Since then, the possibility that evolution is repeatable or predictable has been debated. Studies using large-scale evolution experiments, long-term data for individual populations, and controlled experiments in nature, have demonstrated phenotypic and genetic convergence in several taxa. These studies suggest that despite some randomness, predictable evolutionary patterns can emerge on a large temporal and spatial scale. However, a few cases also exist ...


Genetic Mapping Of Grass Monoculture And Grass-Legume Mixture Compatibility Qtls In Intermediate Wheatgrass, John Mortenson Aug 2019

Genetic Mapping Of Grass Monoculture And Grass-Legume Mixture Compatibility Qtls In Intermediate Wheatgrass, John Mortenson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to increased environmental stewardship and fertilizer prices, there is increased interest in using legume mixes in perennial croplands. The objective of this study was to compare quantitative genetic parameters and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) when grown in 1) a non-competitive spaced environment, 2) a polyculture with alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and 3) a monoculture with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum). Traits evaluated include plant growth characteristics (Zadok’s maturity, height, and tiller count), biomass, and forage nutritive value (CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, IVTD, NDFD, NFC, ME, RFQ). A linkage map comprised of 3568 single nucleotide ...


Twenty-First Century Skills: A Needs Assessment Of School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers, Kisia J. Weeks Aug 2019

Twenty-First Century Skills: A Needs Assessment Of School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers, Kisia J. Weeks

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Preparing students to be career and work ready is a concern of educators and schools nationwide. Twenty-first century skills prepare students to enter the workforce or higher education with the ability to think critically and creatively, collaborate with others, take the initiative when approached with a task, and use technology to its fullest potential. If students are not learning the skills needed for success, it is because educators and schools are not teaching them. When students possess these skills, they are prepared to work in teams, think critically and creatively about a problem, display leadership and social skills, and communicate ...


Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye Aug 2019

Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) are migratory birds that build their nests over water and in large groups called colonies. Their typical breeding range is in central southern Canada and northern United States; however, a previously uncertain number of Eared Grebes (grebes) also nest around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, at the southern edge of their breeding range. Little is known about the habitat requirements for grebe nesting colonies at such low latitudes and if they are different from colonies found elsewhere. My objectives for this research were to determine the status of the grebe nesting population as well as ...


Electronic Transmutation: An Aid For The Rational Design Of New Chemical Materials Using The Knowledge Of Bonding And Structure Of Neighboring Elements, Katie A. Lundell Aug 2019

Electronic Transmutation: An Aid For The Rational Design Of New Chemical Materials Using The Knowledge Of Bonding And Structure Of Neighboring Elements, Katie A. Lundell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Everything in the universe is made up of elements from the periodic table. Each element has its own role that it plays in the formation of things it makes up. For instance, pencil lead is graphite. A series of honeycomb-like structures made up of carbon stacked on top of one another. Carbon’s neighbor to the left, boron doesn’t like to form such stacked honeycomb-like structures. But, what if there was a way to make boron act like carbon so it did like to form such structures? That question is the basis of the electronic transmutation concept presented in ...


Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote Aug 2019

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research presents three case studies of low temperature anomalies that occurred during the winter–spring seasons and their influence on extreme events and crop production. We investigate causes and effects of each climate event and developed prediction methods for crops based on the climate diagnostic information. The first study diagnosed the driven environmental-factors, including climate pattern, climate change, soils moisture, and sea level height, associated with the 2011 great flood in Thailand and resulting total crop loss. The second study investigated climate circulation and indices that contributed to wet-and-cold (WC) events leading to significant crop damage in Taiwan. We ...


Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom May 2019

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand for organic products has shown double-digit growth in recent years encouraging the development of a wider range of goods (Greene, 2017). Americans with an annual household income under $30,000 actively purchase organic foods at nearly the same rate as households with over $75,000 in annual incomes, 42% versus 49% (Greene et al., 2017). Previous research observed the adoption of organic farming practices on a combination of different grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products from across the globe. However, this is the first study to examine the adoption of organic wheat in the Western U ...


Landscape Of Stress: Does Drought Prevail Over Anthropogenic Activity In Influencing Cortisol Levels And Fitness In The Pacific Fisher?, Jennifer R. Kordosky May 2019

Landscape Of Stress: Does Drought Prevail Over Anthropogenic Activity In Influencing Cortisol Levels And Fitness In The Pacific Fisher?, Jennifer R. Kordosky

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fishers (Pekania pennanti) are a species of concern in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone released to mobilize energy in response to stress and has been used as an indication of an individual’s physiological response to its environment. By collecting samples of fisher hair and measuring an individual’s cortisol, we examined the physiological stress response of the animals to human disturbances (housing density, road density, habitat type, and silvicultural treatements) and drought (tree mortality) in their home ranges. Using AICc model selection, we found that levels of tree mortality within a fisher’s ...


Effects Of Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction On Carcass Measurements And Meat Quality Of Resultant Offspring, Shelby M. Quarnberg May 2019

Effects Of Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction On Carcass Measurements And Meat Quality Of Resultant Offspring, Shelby M. Quarnberg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to investigate feedlot performance and meat quality of calves born to cows that underwent a nutrient restriction during the second trimester of gestation which may be occurring in the Intermountain West. Thirty-four angus influenced calves from the same sire were used for this study. The calves were born from cows that were separated into either a maintenance group, and kept on an irrigated pasture, or a restricted group, that was placed on an unirrigated pasture and allowed to lose one body condition score during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study begins with the ...


Evaluation Of Casein Hydrolysate As An Alternative Dry-Off Treatment And Milk Quality Management Tool In Dairy Cows, Justine Elena Britten May 2019

Evaluation Of Casein Hydrolysate As An Alternative Dry-Off Treatment And Milk Quality Management Tool In Dairy Cows, Justine Elena Britten

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mastitis, an infection of the mammary gland, is the most common and expensive animal health problem for the dairy industry and affects every dairy farm to some degree. This disease complex is painful for dairy cows, increases the on-farm use of antibiotics, presents a threat to milk quality and is a waste of time, money and milk production. Each year, the dairy industry loses as much as a billion dollars to mastitis.

Many cows will experience mastitis at least once during a lactation cycle and some animals will develop recurring mastitis episodes in a single mammary quarter. These mastitic quarters ...


Latino Stepcouples’ Experiences Two Years After Stepfamily Education And A Narrative Study Regarding Changes In A Latino Stepfamily Two Years After Stepfamily Education, Sheryl Ann Goodey May 2019

Latino Stepcouples’ Experiences Two Years After Stepfamily Education And A Narrative Study Regarding Changes In A Latino Stepfamily Two Years After Stepfamily Education, Sheryl Ann Goodey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are two studies in this dissertation. Both are about couples in a stepfamily who attended stepfamily education called, Smart Steps: Embrace the Journey. The first study explored how 13 Latino stepcouples felt the concepts they learned in stepfamily education influenced their couple relationship, parenting, and their family. Participants ranged in age from 25 to 43. They were interviewed two years after participating in the course. They talked about positive changes that happened in their couple relationship, parenting relationship, and their family as a result of participating in stepfamily education. It was also found that the course helped them to ...


Influence Of Change In Ph On Whey Expulsion From Cheddar Cheese Curds Made From Recombined Concentrated Milk, Kanak Bulbul May 2019

Influence Of Change In Ph On Whey Expulsion From Cheddar Cheese Curds Made From Recombined Concentrated Milk, Kanak Bulbul

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Western Dairy Center at Utah State University funded this project to investigate cheese research using concentrated milks. Concentrated milk was provided by the South Dakota State University and starter culture for this study was prepared and donated by Vivolac Cultures Corporation, Greenfield, Indiana.

The project initiated as a continuation of a previous study on effects of protein concentration, coagulum cut size and set temperature on curd moisture loss kinetics while stirring during cheesemaking. It was aimed at determining the extent to which pH drop prior to draining and final cheese moisture when using microfiltered concentrated milk.

We performed twelve ...


Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan May 2019

Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phragmites australis is a plant that is causing problems in wetlands by outcompeting native plants that provide food and shelter for millions of migratory birds. Currently, managers try to control Phragmites australis by spraying herbicide, burning, and mowing, but these methods are costly, time consuming, and have low levels of success. Adding grazing as a tool to control Phragmites australis provides a cheap and low labor alternative. However, there are many concerns regarding if grazing will cause nutrient loading in our wetlands that will decrease water quality and alter beneficial functions of wetlands.

To better understand the effects of grazing ...


The Spatial Ecology Of Predator-Prey Interactions: A Case Study Of Yellowstone Elk, Wolves, And Cougars, Michel T. Kohl May 2019

The Spatial Ecology Of Predator-Prey Interactions: A Case Study Of Yellowstone Elk, Wolves, And Cougars, Michel T. Kohl

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The loss of large apex predators, and their subsequent reintroduction, has been identified as a substantial driver on the structure and function of ecological communities through behavioral mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs). The reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has served as foundational case study of BMTCs. In our system, it has been suggested that wolves have established a ‘landscape of fear’ in which the primary prey, elk (Cervus elaphus), now avoid risky places, which ultimately led to the recovery of the vegetation community. Although this case is frequently cited as a well-understood example of a landscape ...


Ruminal Protection And Intestinal Availability Of Rumen-Protected Methionine And Lysine In Lactating Dairy Cows, Sara Menchu May 2019

Ruminal Protection And Intestinal Availability Of Rumen-Protected Methionine And Lysine In Lactating Dairy Cows, Sara Menchu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rumen protected Methionine (MET) and Lysine (LYS) are critical for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. N-acetyl-L-methionine (NALM) is a MET derivative that consists of L-Met protected with an acetyl group that is attached to the α-amino group.N-acetyl-L-lysine (NALL) is a LYS derivative that is similarly protected. The objectives of these studies were to quantify the gastrointestinal availability of NALM and NALL. Three experiments were run as 3 × 3 Latin square using 3 second lactation Holstein cows that have been fitted with cannulas in the rumen and duodenum. The cows were fed diets containing the supplements for two weeks ...


Fire - Herbivory Interactions In An East African Savanna: Effects On Acacia Drepanolobium Trees, Eric M. Lamalfa May 2019

Fire - Herbivory Interactions In An East African Savanna: Effects On Acacia Drepanolobium Trees, Eric M. Lamalfa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Globally, changes in plant community structure have occurred in ecosystems where humans have altered natural disturbance regimes. Many plants have adaptive life histories and morphological traits that have coevolved with fire and herbivory, which allows them to thrive despite repeated tissue losses. Therefore, altering the type, frequency, or severity of disturbance affects individual plant growth and competition among species. When these changes benefit or disadvantage different plant functional groups (i.e., grasses, shrubs, trees) it alters ecosystem structure and function. Understanding and predicting these vegetation changes, is critical for conservation and management of biodiversity, wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and water ...


The Development, Implementation, And Assessment Of A Home Component To The Fit Game Healthy Eating Program, Hali King Obray May 2019

The Development, Implementation, And Assessment Of A Home Component To The Fit Game Healthy Eating Program, Hali King Obray

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers at Utah State University created a school intervention called the FIT Game that has successfully increased children’s vegetable intake during lunchtime. The aim of this project was to create a home aspect to the FIT Game for parents that would increase the availability of vegetables within the home. Studies within this thesis discuss the development and revision of parent newsletters for the FIT Game program, as well as the implementation and assessment of the revised newsletters. Results from the assessments indicate that providing parent newsletters is not enough to change the vegetable availability at home.

This home component ...


Evaluating Michigan's Food, Agriculture, And Resources In Motion (Farm) Science Lab As A Modality For Agricultural Literacy, Amelia J. Miller May 2019

Evaluating Michigan's Food, Agriculture, And Resources In Motion (Farm) Science Lab As A Modality For Agricultural Literacy, Amelia J. Miller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Michigan’s Food, Agriculture, and Resources in Motion (FARM) Science Lab is a 40-foot mobile classroom outfitted with 10 learning stations including scientific equipment and iPads. This quasi-experimental study analyzed preexisting data provided by Michigan Agriculture in the Classroom to evaluate the effectiveness of the FARM Science Lab mobile classroom as a method of teaching agriculture-themed, standards-based lessons to third- through fifth-grade students in order to increase their understanding of agriculture. From January through June 2018, more than 1,258 students participated in these lessons and completed the pretest and posttest and 72 teachers completed the post survey. Research questions ...


Monitoring Desert Ungulates Via Fecal Dna-Based Capture Recapture, Stephen S. Pfeiler May 2019

Monitoring Desert Ungulates Via Fecal Dna-Based Capture Recapture, Stephen S. Pfeiler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Estimates of population abundance and survival are critical for effective wildlife management. Obtaining estimates of these kind using traditional wildlife monitoring techniques (i.e. ground and aerial surveys) has proven to be difficult, especially for species that are wide ranging and exist in small, patchily distributed populations.

My objective was to implement fecal DNA-based capture-recapture surveys to estimate abundance and survival of two different ungulate populations that inhabit the deserts of southeastern California. I also compared fecal DNA-based capture-recapture techniques to traditional methods by evaluating the costs and precision associated with both methods. Using artificial water sources as focal sampling ...


Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges May 2019

Phosphorus Rate Effects With And Without Avail® On Dryland Winter Wheat In An Eroded Calcareous Soil, Ryan C. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soluble phosphorus fertilizer is bound in the soil rapidly after application in soils high in calcium. A fertilizer additive known as AVAIL® (J.R. Simplot Company) is purported to keep applied phosphorus fertilizer more available to plants by binding to soil minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, thereby reducing phosphorus binding. This could prove useful due to the attraction of AVAIL® with cations such as Ca2+, but is fairly unstudied for dryland wheat production on alkaline, calcium-rich soils. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-rate fertilizer treatments with AVAIL® on dryland small grain ...


Assessing The Ecological Implications Of The Altered Flow And Sediment Regimes Of The Rio Grande Along The West Texas-Mexico Border, Demitra E. Blythe Dec 2018

Assessing The Ecological Implications Of The Altered Flow And Sediment Regimes Of The Rio Grande Along The West Texas-Mexico Border, Demitra E. Blythe

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Large, exotic (those whose headwaters are in distant places) rivers are some of the most unique and diverse ecosystems on earth. Because they often flow through a multitude of biomes and climates, their waters are a vital resource not only for the organisms that inhabit these rivers, but for human societies as well. Thus, large rivers, like the Rio Grande, that flow through arid and agricultural regions are highly regulated and diverted. Regulation and dewatering upset a river’s natural flow regime (e.g., magnitude, duration, timing of large flood events), subsequently impacting the river’s ability to transport its ...


Efficacy Of Translocation As A Management Tool For Urban Mule Deer In Utah, Channing R. Howard Dec 2018

Efficacy Of Translocation As A Management Tool For Urban Mule Deer In Utah, Channing R. Howard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An increase in urbanization in the United States has led to an increase in human-wildlife interactions with deer (Odocoileus spp.) which have been able to adapt and thrive in these urban environments. In Utah, urbanization has occurred along the Wasatch Front which was once traditional mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) winter range habitat. This urban expansion coupled with an increasing use of these urban areas by mule deer, have led to increasing conflicts with deer. Overabundant urban deer have led to increased concerns over safety from deer-vehicle collisions, and damage to personal property including gardens and landscaping. Lethal methods of urban ...


Influence Of Environmental Variables On Survival Rates Of Pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana) Neonates Across Idaho, Brett R. Panting Dec 2018

Influence Of Environmental Variables On Survival Rates Of Pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana) Neonates Across Idaho, Brett R. Panting

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was completed to better understand pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) populations found throughout Idaho. Antelope were studied in three separate and distinct study areas. The Big Desert, Camas Prairie, and Little Lost and Pahsimeroi valleys were all selected as study sites. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) is concerned with current pronghorn populations found throughout Idaho. Pronghorn are a valued big game species found in Idaho. Increasing pronghorn populations in Idaho is a focus of IDFG.

We captured and VHF-collared pronghorn fawns found in our three study areas. Fawns were monitored daily with telemetry equipment for survival. Field ...


Organic Matter Sources, Composition, And Quality In Rivers And Experimental Streams, Julia E. Kelso Dec 2018

Organic Matter Sources, Composition, And Quality In Rivers And Experimental Streams, Julia E. Kelso

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organic matter (OM) is often considered the “currency” for ecosystem processes, such as respiration and primary production. OM in aquatic ecosystems is derived from multiple sources, and is a complex mixture of thousands of different chemical constituents. Therefore, it is difficult to identify all the sources of OM that enter and exit aquatic ecosystems. As humans develop undisturbed land, the rate at which terrestrial OM (e.g.soil and plants) and associated nutrients (e.g.nitrogen) enters rivers has increased. Increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production from aquatic plants and algae, potentially causing eutrophication and harmful algal blooms ...


An Evaluation Of Bull Trout Movement Dynamics In The Walla Walla River, Courtney Newlon Dec 2018

An Evaluation Of Bull Trout Movement Dynamics In The Walla Walla River, Courtney Newlon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bull trout are a fish species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.Historically, they ranged from Northern California at the southernmost extent, into Canada at the northern most extent, and east into Nevada and Montana. Bull trout are highly migratory and require large, unfragmented habitats to persist and are thus highly susceptible to human induced land-use practices. The goal of my thesis was to obtain a better understanding of bull trout movement patterns in the Walla Walla River, Washington using complimentary techniques; Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT)technology and otolith microchemistry. PIT tags can be injected into a fish ...


Geospatial Modeling Of Land Cover Change In The Chocó-Darien Global Ecoregion Of South America: Assessing Proximate Causes And Underlying Drivers Of Deforestation And Reforestation, José Camilo Fagua Dec 2018

Geospatial Modeling Of Land Cover Change In The Chocó-Darien Global Ecoregion Of South America: Assessing Proximate Causes And Underlying Drivers Of Deforestation And Reforestation, José Camilo Fagua

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Chocó-Darien Global Ecoregion (CGE) in South America is one of 25 global biodiversity hotspots prioritized for conservation. I performed the first land-use and land-cover (LULC) change analysis for the entire CGE in this dissertation. There were three main objectives: 1) Select the best available imagery to build annual land-use and land-cover maps from 2001 to 2015 across the CGE. 2) Model LULC across the CGE to assess forest change trends from 2002 to 2015 and identify the effect of proximate causes of deforestation and reforestation. 3) Estimate the effects of underlying drivers on deforestation and reforestation across the CGE ...


Co-Digestion Of Cattle Manure And Cheese Whey For Biogas Production And Characterization Of Biomass Effluent, Dillon Fallon Dec 2018

Co-Digestion Of Cattle Manure And Cheese Whey For Biogas Production And Characterization Of Biomass Effluent, Dillon Fallon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Western Dairy Center at Utah State University had recognized through traiing of cheesemaking that a challenge that can exist for farmstead and artisan cheese manufacturing operations is disposal or utilization of the whey that is produced when milk is converted into cheese. Land application of whey is limited and can cause odor problems which would be detrimental to a cheesemaking operation located at the rual-urban interface.

The project provided information in support of a research grant from the Western Sustainable Agribulture Research and Education program that was investigating economics and feasiblity of using anaerobic digestion for treatment of whey ...


Evaluation Of Antioxidant Properties Of Native Utah Berries And Their Potential For Use In Meats, Xiaoxi Wang Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Antioxidant Properties Of Native Utah Berries And Their Potential For Use In Meats, Xiaoxi Wang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In industry, antioxidants are added to prevent changes that affect quality due to oxidation, such as the development of off flavors, unacceptable odors and discoloration. New resources that are familiar to consumers and may work as antioxidants should be studied.

The changes in antioxidant activity were determined for four freeze-dried native wild berry powder species in Utah, including skunkbush (Rhus trilobata), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), river hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), during cold storage (-20 °C) for 6 months. The total antioxidant activity was stable in most of the berry powders during the six months of frozen storage ...