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African-American Collegiate Women's Perception And Participation In Physical Activity, Lauren Courtney Scott Jan 2018

African-American Collegiate Women's Perception And Participation In Physical Activity, Lauren Courtney Scott

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

AA COLLEGE WOMEN’’S PERCEPTION AND

PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

by

LAUREN SCOTT

March 2018

Advisor: Dr. Bo Shen

Major: Kinesiology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Overview: In the United States, adult engagement in physical inactivity has decreased since the implementation of the 2008 PA guidelines. In 2013, only 20% of Americans met the PA recommendations. In 2014, research showed that 23% of adults did not engage in any leisure PA in the United States (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). In general, females were found to be less active than males from youth through adulthood (Matthews ...


Investigation Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gpi Transamidase: Insights Into Its Activity And Subunit-Subunit Interactions, Travis Ness Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Gpi Transamidase: Insights Into Its Activity And Subunit-Subunit Interactions, Travis Ness

Wayne State University Dissertations

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is a eukaryotic, posttranslational

modification catalyzed by GPI transamidase (GPI-T). The Saccharomyces

cerevisiae GPI-T is composed of five membrane-bound subunits: Gaa1, Gpi8, Gpi16,

Gpi17, and Gab1. Structural and functional studies have been hindered by the

complexity of this enzyme. Conditions to purify the Gpi8:Gaa1:Gpi16 GPI-T heterotrimer

from yeast have been reported, but an understanding of the subunit functions,

interactions, and stoichiometry remain unclear. Furthermore, a reliable, quantitative, in

vitro assay for this important post-translational modification has remained elusive for

nearly three decades.

Our laboratory has developed an in vitro peptide cleavage assay that ...


Inflammation In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Haoshen Shi Jan 2018

Inflammation In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Haoshen Shi

Wayne State University Dissertations

The general purpose of these studies is to investigate inflammation in diabetic retinopathy in an effort to identify key intervention points to develop as treatments. Firstly, we showed that the neuropeptide VIP displayed protective immunoregulatory effects on retinal endothelial cells cultured under high glucose conditions. This effect was carried out, in part through the VPAC2 receptor.

Next, we studied the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, and its effect on the pro-resolving RvD1 pathway. Compound 49b was previously shown to suppress both inflammatory and apoptotic responses in DR. We demonstrated that Compound 49b rescued the high glucose-induced decrese in RvD1 and ...


Missing Heritability And Novel Germline Risk Loci In Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Insights From Whole Exome Sequencing And Functional Analyses, Jaime Lyn Stafford Jan 2018

Missing Heritability And Novel Germline Risk Loci In Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Insights From Whole Exome Sequencing And Functional Analyses, Jaime Lyn Stafford

Wayne State University Dissertations

While 25% of ovarian cancer (OVCA) cases are due to inherited factors, most of the genetic risk remains unexplained. This study addressed this gap by identifying previously undescribed OVCA risk loci through the whole exome sequencing (WES) of 48 BRCA1/BRCA2 wild type women diagnosed with OVCA, selected for high risk of genetic inheritance. Five clearly pathogenic variants were identified in this sample, four of which are in two genes featured on current multi-gene panels; (RAD51D, ATM). In addition, a high impact variant in FANCM (R1931*) was identified. FANCM has been recently implicated in familial breast cancer risk but is ...


Appropriate Preconditioning Of The Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibits Preterm Labor, Judith Ann Ingles Jan 2018

Appropriate Preconditioning Of The Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibits Preterm Labor, Judith Ann Ingles

Wayne State University Dissertations

Introduction: In this study, we are testing the overarching hypothesis that preconditioning the myometrial UPR allows for the maintenance of non-apoptotic CASP3 activity and thus sustains uterine quiescence. We have previously demonstrated that the pregnant uterus facilitates uterine quiescence through UPR mediated activation of non-apoptotic CASP3, yet the mechanism in which CASP3 utilizes to avoid its apoptotic cell fate is unresolved. There is a growing body of evidence including our own that demonstrates remote and direct preconditioning with minor stresses propagates cytoprotective mechanisms that allow for the avoidance of apoptotic cell death upon exposure to a subsequent more damaging stress ...


The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk Jan 2018

The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk

Wayne State University Dissertations

Pilot Part 1: The purpose was to investigate the effect of a perceived exertion based cadence on lower extremity muscle activation, as measured by surface electromyography (EMG) on a recumbent cross trainer. The purpose of this investigation was to study the EMG activity of 12 lower extremity muscles during five different stepping protocols; perceived exertion based self-selected (SS) cadence with level 1 resistance (SSL1), SS cadence with level 8 resistance (SSL8), +20% SS cadence (SS+20), -20% SS cadence (SS-20), and at a set 80 steps per minute at resistance level 1 (80L1). In order to determine SS cadence each ...


Alternative Strategies To Inhibit Lysine Methyltransferases And Deubiquitinases In Human Cancers, Nicholas Spellmon Jan 2018

Alternative Strategies To Inhibit Lysine Methyltransferases And Deubiquitinases In Human Cancers, Nicholas Spellmon

Wayne State University Dissertations

X-ray crystallography is the gold standard method for imagining macromolecules to atomic resolution. Three dimensional data is central to understanding the molecular mechanism how DNA, RNA and proteins function in biological events. Structural insights into these events provide a molecular window to visualize how biological molecules influence human health. Visualizing the architecture of these molecules set the stage for rational and selective drug design. The following dissertation utilizes biochemical and biophysical tools, including X-ray crystallography, to shed light on poorly understood mechanisms related to SMYD2 activity and regulation, USP10 architecture and function, and PDZ-RhoGEF dimerization. SMYD2 is one member of ...


The Relationship Between Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Regarding Eco-Justice Issues Among Middle And High School Students In Eco-Schools In Puerto Rico, Elsie Aquino Jan 2018

The Relationship Between Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Regarding Eco-Justice Issues Among Middle And High School Students In Eco-Schools In Puerto Rico, Elsie Aquino

Wayne State University Dissertations

The conservation, preservation, and protection of the environment are responsibilities that must be globally shared by human beings to “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987, p. 43). When citizens acquire the knowledge and skills needed to become agents of change, the lack of interconnectedness – a relationship to nature as one of dominion and control – that presently exists between humans and nature might subside (Winograd, 2016). Through the re-orientation of the present educational system and the development of curricula that addresses ...


Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Homo- And Heterobimetallic Complexes Bridged By A Xanthene Linker, Thilini Samangi Hollingsworth Jan 2018

Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Homo- And Heterobimetallic Complexes Bridged By A Xanthene Linker, Thilini Samangi Hollingsworth

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cooperative reactivity of bimettalics can be is observed in many different areas of chemistry and have been increasingly investigated because of the advantageous reactivity when compared to the corresponding mononuclear systems. The focus of my dissertation is on (1) investigation of the homobimetallic cooperativity in lactide polymerization catalysis; (2) investigation of the heterobimetallic cooperativity in the biomimetic studies of Mo-Cu carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) enzyme in order to make a functional model of its active site.

Three new main group bis(alkoxide) complexes Mg(OR)2(THF)2, Zn(Cl)(μ2-OR)2Li(THF) and In(OR)2(μ2-Cl)2Li(THF ...


The Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Hypertension, Salt Sensitivity And Metabolic Syndrome, Keyona Nicole King-Medina Jan 2018

The Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Hypertension, Salt Sensitivity And Metabolic Syndrome, Keyona Nicole King-Medina

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans, inactivating mutations in the Alström syndrome 1 (ALMS1) gene cause obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (metabolic syndrome). More so, SNPs in the ALMS1 gene have been associated with kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The

mechanisms causing these alterations are unclear. We recently found that the ALMS1 is expressed in the kidney thick ascending limb (TAL) where it mediates endocytosis of the renal Na/K/2Cl cotransporter termed NKCC2. To study the role of ALMS1 in renal

physiology we generated ALMS1 knockout (KO) rats in a Dahl salt-sensitive genetic background via zinc-finger nuclease targeting. We previously found that the ...


Sensitivity Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Cyanobacteria At Multiple Life History Stages, Anna Boegehold Jan 2018

Sensitivity Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Cyanobacteria At Multiple Life History Stages, Anna Boegehold

Wayne State University Dissertations

Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) originate from brackish waters of the Ponto-Caspian area and are nuisance invasive species in North American and European freshwaters. Their invasion has caused major economic and ecological damages in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Through selective filter feeding, quagga mussels have promoted the growth of cyanobacteria. Harmful cyanobacteria blooms have the potential to produce toxins, which can be toxic to humans and wildlife. Although quagga mussels can increase the prevalence of cyanobacteria blooms, it is unknown how they are physiologically affected by cyanobacteria and understanding these dynamics can be useful in the management of this invasive ...


Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande Jan 2018

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande

Wayne State University Dissertations

Eukaryotic genomes are organized into large domains of coordinated regulation. The role of small RNAs in formation of these domains is largely unexplored. An extraordinary example of domain-wide regulation is X chromosome compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males. This process occurs by hypertranscription of genes on the single male X chromosome. Extensive research in this field has shown that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex binds X-linked genes and modifies chromatin to increase expression. The components of this complex, and their actions on chromatin, are well studied. In contrast, the mechanism that results in exclusive recruitment to the X chromosome is ...


Functional Analysis Of Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Nirmalya Saha Jan 2017

Functional Analysis Of Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Nirmalya Saha

Wayne State University Dissertations

he multisubunit SIN3 complex is a global transcriptional regulator. In Drosophila, a single Sin3A gene encodes different isoforms of SIN3, of which SIN3 187 and SIN3 220 are the major isoforms. Previous studies have demonstrated functional non-redundancy of SIN3 isoforms. The role of SIN3 isoforms in regulating distinct biological processes, however, is not well characterized. In addition, how the components of the SIN3 complex modulate the gene regulatory activity of the complex is not well understood. In this study, I identified the biological processes regulated by the SIN3 isoforms. Additionally, I explored how Caf1-55 impacts the gene regulatory activity of ...


P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan Jan 2017

P120 Catenin Regulates Inflammation In Macrophage, Xiaoqing Guan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Objective: p120 catenin (p120ctn) has been reported to play a critical role in maintenance of the stability of adherens junctions. It also has potential anti-inflammatory effects in epithelial and endothelial cells. This research was designed to evaluate the effects of p120ctn on inflammatory responses in human macrophages upon LPS stimulation, as well as the possible mechanism by which p120ctn regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory response in macrophages. Methods: THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages by PMA. The isoforms of p120ctn were identified via RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression of p120ctn was examined by Western blot in THP-1 derived macrophages ...


An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng

Wayne State University Dissertations

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI.

This study aims to evaluate ...


Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang Jan 2017

Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Low level of oxygen (O2) occurs physiologically during in vivo embryo development. As developing embryos moving from fallopian tube to uterus, oxygen level gradually decreases to ≤ 5% at the time of blastocyst implantation. Blastocysts are made of two major cell populations, trophoblast cells and inner cell mass, from which trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived respectively. TSCs serve as placental stem cells that later on proliferate and differentiate into placenta. Previous study has shown that 2% O2 is the optimal O2 level for mTSC in vitro growth and potency maintenance, which agrees with their low ...


Sleep Disturbance And The Immunological Acute Phase Response In Hospitalized Post-Operative Adults., Jean Dorothy Humphries Jan 2017

Sleep Disturbance And The Immunological Acute Phase Response In Hospitalized Post-Operative Adults., Jean Dorothy Humphries

Wayne State University Dissertations

Abstract

Sleep Disturbance and the Immunological Acute Phase Response

in Postoperative Hospitalized Adults

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective and objective (actigraphy) sleep patterns, the immunological acute phase response of IL1-β and TNF-α, and the physiological stress response of cortisol and systolic blood pressure in post-operative abdominal surgical patients. Nineteen subjects, 10 men and 9 women, mean age 45.63 years (SD = 11.44) were enrolled between April 2015 and March 2016. All subjects were elective major invasive abdominal surgery patients. Laparoscopic surgery occurred in 10 patients and incisional surgery occurred in 9 patients. This ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress Generation By Oxidized Dopamine Metabolites: Implications In Parkinson's Disease, Nihar Mehta Jan 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress Generation By Oxidized Dopamine Metabolites: Implications In Parkinson's Disease, Nihar Mehta

Wayne State University Dissertations

Oxidation of dopamine to toxic metabolites is considered to be one of the prime factors involved in the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Some dopamine oxidation products have the capability to redox cycle in the presence of molecular oxygen, further contributing to oxidative stress. Therefore, our aim here was to study the redox cycling of dopamine oxidized metabolites and elucidate the underlying mechanism by which they cause oxidative stress.

Redox reactions involve transfer of one or more electrons between two compounds

resulting in either oxidation or reduction. In redox cycling, a compound undergoes

alternate oxidation and reduction ...


Horizontal And Vertical Integration Of Bio-Molecular Data, Tin Chi Nguyen Jan 2017

Horizontal And Vertical Integration Of Bio-Molecular Data, Tin Chi Nguyen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Modern biomedical research lies at the crossroads of data gathering, interpretation, and hypothesis testing. Due to noise, study bias, or too small changes in biological signals between disease and healthy, individual studies often fail to identify the true phenomenon. Data integration is the key to obtaining the power needed to pinpoint the biological mechanisms of disease states. Given this, we tried to make important contributions in both horizontal and vertical integration of high-throughput data; the former is meta-analysis of independent studies, while the latter is the integration of multi-omics data.

For horizontal meta-analysis, we developed two frameworks: DANUBE and the ...


Structural Basis Of Membrane Protein Scaffolding And Signaling In Human Disease, Joshua Holcomb Jan 2017

Structural Basis Of Membrane Protein Scaffolding And Signaling In Human Disease, Joshua Holcomb

Wayne State University Dissertations

Protein structural elucidation by means of X-ray crystallography is a powerful approach for both insight into a proteins biophysical properties and function. To date X-ray crystallography remains the gold standard in high resolution structural determination and serves as the basis for rational drug design for the purpose of combating a number of human diseases. Such an approach also allows for the exploitation of how various proteins interact with their substrates providing a molecular basis for their physiological function. In this dissertation, using X-ray crystallographic analysis along with other biophysical characterization methods, we seek to understand the mechanistic foundation for which ...


Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel Jan 2017

Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel

Wayne State University Dissertations

Clinically available treatments are insufficient to achieve full functional recovery in large (>3cm) peripheral nerve injuries (PNI). The objectives in this thesis were 1) to study often overlooked elements of intrinsic PNI repair including release of inhibitory CSPGs and post-injury responses of inflammatory macrophages and dedifferentiated Schwann cells; 2) to create biomaterial scaf-folds featuring topographical and adhesive cues to enhance neurite outgrowth; and 3) to test the ability of those cues to direct macrophages and Schwann cells towards a pro-regenerative phe-notype. It is hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the PNI microenvi-ronment can better improve regeneration. The ...


Biofidelity Assessment Of 6-Year-Old Anthropometric Test Devices (Atds) And Scaling Laws In Lateral Impact, Jennifer Yaek Jan 2017

Biofidelity Assessment Of 6-Year-Old Anthropometric Test Devices (Atds) And Scaling Laws In Lateral Impact, Jennifer Yaek

Wayne State University Dissertations

There is a clear need to further develop the design and biofidelity of the 6-Year-Old ATDs for future child safety research and child occupant protection in side impacts. Due to the scarcity of pediatric PMHS impact testing, specifically in the lateral direction, alternative means of obtaining relevant data for pediatric models need to be considered.

In this first portion of this study, assessment of the mechanical behavior and biofidelity of existing 6-Year-Old ATDs in lateral impact were performed. None of the three 6-year-old ATDs (HIII, Q6, and Q6s) tested were found to be considered good tools for assessing side impact ...


Targeting Host Defense: The Dynamic Nd10 Interaction And The Differential Substrate Recognition Of Hsv-1 Icp0, Yi Zheng Jan 2017

Targeting Host Defense: The Dynamic Nd10 Interaction And The Differential Substrate Recognition Of Hsv-1 Icp0, Yi Zheng

Wayne State University Dissertations

ICP0 is one of the immediate early viral proteins and essential for HSV-1 replication in low MOI infection. ICP0 is involved in manipulating various cellular pathways and attenuating their inhibitory functions on viral replication through either protein-protein interaction or using its E3 ligase activity to degrade restrictive factors. Upon infection, HSV-1 viral DNA is injected into the nucleus and found to be closely associated with ND10. ND10 association with viral DNA causes the repression of viral gene expression, which is inactivated by ICP0. HSV-1 employs ICP0 to target key ND10 components PML and Sp100 for proteasomal degradation, leading to the ...


The In Vivo Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics (Opp) In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rats Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Yan Wu Jan 2017

The In Vivo Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics (Opp) In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rats Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Yan Wu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the aging population. It is characterized by cognitive decline and deposition of ß-amyloid plaques in the hippocampus. It has been shown that hypercholesterolemia induced by high cholesterol diet is associated with AD development. Increased level of oxidative stress has also been observed in AD patients. An important strategy to treat or delay the impairment is based on dietary modification, using food supplements. OPP, a water soluble fraction from oil palm fruit, rich in phenolics has been found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Its beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases ...


Estimating The Variables Of The Nonlinear Dynamical Theory Of Acute Cell Injury, Fika Tri Anggraini Jan 2017

Estimating The Variables Of The Nonlinear Dynamical Theory Of Acute Cell Injury, Fika Tri Anggraini

Wayne State University Dissertations

This Dissertation is the first to estimate the variables D and S of the nonlinear theory of acute cell injury in hippocampal regions CA1 and CA3 using a rat model of global brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). D was estimated by quantifying protein aggregates using ubiquitin Western blotting. S was estimated by quantifying changes in polysomal mRNAs as measured by microarray chips. D and S time courses were sampled at 0.5, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 hrs of reperfusion after 10 min brain ischemia. CA1 dies and CA3 survives. The theory predicts D will be larger in ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Network-Based Approaches To Identify The Impacted Genes And Active Interactions, Sahar Ansari Jan 2017

Network-Based Approaches To Identify The Impacted Genes And Active Interactions, Sahar Ansari

Wayne State University Dissertations

A very important step in system biology is the identification of the networks that are most impacted in the given phenotype.

Such networks explain where the target genes are affected by some other genes, and therefore describe the mechanisms involved in a biological process.

The identified networks are used to: 1) predict the disease or the responses of the system to a specific impact, 2) find the subset of genes that interact with each other and play an important role in the condition of interest, and 3) understand the mechanisms involved in that condition.

In this thesis, we propose an ...


Pet Imaging Of Early Therapeutic Response In Solid Tumors, Stephanie J. Blocker Jan 2017

Pet Imaging Of Early Therapeutic Response In Solid Tumors, Stephanie J. Blocker

Wayne State University Dissertations

An important pillar of precision medicine for oncology is the ability to identify patients who respond to treatment early into their therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows physicians and researchers to measure changes in tumor behavior prior to noticeable differences in morphology.

Objective: Determine the utility of multiple tracers for PET in assessing early changes in tumor activity that result from treatment.

Methods: Two tracers for PET were studied. 64Cu-labeled liposomes were used to assess changes in liposome delivery two solid colon tumors early into treatment with bevacizumab (Bev). 18F-FMAU thymidine analog (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)thymine), was utilized to ...


Psychosocial Predictors Of College Student Athlete Burnout And Engagement, Brigid Byrd Jan 2017

Psychosocial Predictors Of College Student Athlete Burnout And Engagement, Brigid Byrd

Wayne State University Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess salient psychosocial predictors of both academic and athletic burnout and engagement in college student athletes. Method: One-hundred and seventy-nine male and female college student athletes were recruited from a Midwestern University to complete a questionnaire at one time point. Results: The prediction model for athlete burnout was statistically significant, F (4,174) = 16.41, p<.001, and accounted for approximately 27% of the variance. The prediction model for athlete engagement was also statistically significant, F (4,174) = 9.25, p ≤ .001, and accounted for approximately 18% of the variance. The prediction model for student burnout was statistically significant, F (6,172) = 3.79, p<.005, and accounted for approximately 10% of the variance. The prediction model for student engagement was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Athletes who felt misunderstood by their coach, felt their coach did not provide options and choices, and who felt their coach was not confident in their sport ability experienced symptoms of athlete burnout while athletes who felt understood by their coach, felt their coach provided options and choices, and who felt their coach had confidence in their sport ability, believed in their ability to accomplish their sport goals, felt engaged in their sport. Also, athletes who felt their coach was less friendly and supportive if they were not training and competing well, felt intimidated by their coach, and who felt their coach tried to control their free time and who also felt their teammates did not encourage them to study or did not make sure they got to class had high student burnout. Application: Coaches should aim to create an autonomy supportive coaching climate in which athletes feelings of autonomy are enhanced. Exploratory findings also suggest decreasing controlling coaching behaviors and increasing teammate academic social support may be important in thwarting feelings of student burnout in student athletes.


Analyzing The Regulation, Stability And Functional Differences Between Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Ashlesha Chaubal Jan 2017

Analyzing The Regulation, Stability And Functional Differences Between Sin3 Isoforms In Drosophila, Ashlesha Chaubal

Wayne State University Dissertations

SIN3 is a master transcriptional regulator, conserved from yeast to mammals, that acts as a scaffold protein for a histone modifying complex. In Drosophila, a single Sin3A gene is alternatively spliced to produce distinct SIN3 isoforms; SIN3 220, SIN3 190 and SIN3 187, that differ only at their C-terminus. These isoforms are differentially expressed during development. We have shown that there is an interplay between the predominant isoforms of SIN3, SIN3 220 and SIN3 187, that possibly regulates the overall level of SIN3 in the cell. Exogenous expression of SIN3 187 reduces the level of transcript and accelerates the proteasomal ...