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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fabrication Of High Aspect Ratio Nanopillars Using Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary, Hiromichi Yamamoto Mar 2019

Fabrication Of High Aspect Ratio Nanopillars Using Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

This report describes fabrication of 100 to 200 nm diameter silicon nanopillars with ~140:1 aspect ratio using Metal Assisted Chemical Etching (MacEtch) process giving a high etch rate of ~930 nm/min, and also discusses an area dependence of the etch uniformity and rate, using 0.5 and 1 µm diameter, and 2 mm x 2 mm Au films. It is found that the etching using the Au film with the area of 0.2 µm2 is uniform, but that with the area of more than 0.8 µm2 is not, suggesting that the diffusion length of ...


Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr Mar 2019

Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This paper looks at institutions and sustainability of community-owned borehole water suppliers in Chiredzi Rural District of Zimbabwe. It examines the findings in Wards 13, 14 and 15 of Sengwe Communal Lands. The total number of boreholes in the mentioned wards amounts to 58. The paper also investigates the involvement of local institutions in the management of community boreholes, the socio-economic characteristics of the users of the boreholes, the number of boreholes and their functionality, and suggests a measurement

of sustenance of the boreholes in the study area. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Data were collected from ...


Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha Mar 2019

Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The participation of women is crucial in the domain of water management, given the vital role women play in the collection and maintenance of communal water supplies, and in regulating and controlling its use. Unfortunately, they are seldom considered in the development of water policies, and rarely are they members of bodies regulating water management. Current evidence suggests that the participation of women in rural water supply projects leads to improved outcomes for both women and the wider community. Using interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and field observation, this paper explores the participation of women in the One Million Rural Cisterns ...


How Important Is Gender In Transboundary Groundwater Governance?: A Question For The Ramotswa Aquifer In Southern Africa, Stephanie Hawkins, Nicole Lefore, Saniso Sakuringwa, Matshidiso Thathana Mar 2019

How Important Is Gender In Transboundary Groundwater Governance?: A Question For The Ramotswa Aquifer In Southern Africa, Stephanie Hawkins, Nicole Lefore, Saniso Sakuringwa, Matshidiso Thathana

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater is a critical resource for rural livelihoods given the pressures on surface water and lack of piped delivery. Socially defined gen- der roles in water management often create disparities and inequalities regarding water access, use, and labour, making consideration of gender issues an important component of groundwater governance. Resources shared across borders raises the question about the relevance of and approach to gender in transboundary ground- water governance. This paper explores this question in light of the lack of gender responsive governance arrangements over transboundary groundwater resources. It uses qualitative methodologies to examine the need ...


Interview With Philadelphia Water Expert Tiffany Ledesma, Mahvish Ilyas Mar 2019

Interview With Philadelphia Water Expert Tiffany Ledesma, Mahvish Ilyas

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Tiffany Ledesma leads the Public Engagement Team for the Public Affairs Division at the Philadelphia Water Department, where she has spent 15 years as a contract employee, currently employed by CDM Smith. Tiffany’s background is in water resources and her expertise is in public affairs, partnership development, capacity- building and strategic communications. Tiffany is especially passionate about work in urban communities. The Public Engagement Team helps facilitate the implementation of infrastructure investments in the City of Philadelphia, including Green City, Clean Waters, through creative community outreach, public participation and program development. Tiffany holds a bachelor of arts from Villanova ...


Comparison Of Students ́Acceptance Of Conventional And Ecological Sanitation In Rural Schools, Claudia Wendland Mar 2019

Comparison Of Students ́Acceptance Of Conventional And Ecological Sanitation In Rural Schools, Claudia Wendland

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In rural areas of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) without reliable piped water supply, the conventional school sanitation system – the pit latrine – is leading to hygienic and environmental problems. Urine diverting dry toilets (UDDT) have been demonstrated to be an alternative, ecological sanitation solution for rural schools of the EECCA region. This study compares the acceptance, perception and absenteeism of students at schools served by the two different sanitation systems (ecosan versus pit latrine), comprising 18 schools in six countries of the region. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was applied: absenteeism data from ...


Cinderella And The Missing Slipper: Gender Dynamics In Water Management In The Coastal Region Of Bangladesh, Khalid Md. Bahauddin, Hamidul Huq Mar 2019

Cinderella And The Missing Slipper: Gender Dynamics In Water Management In The Coastal Region Of Bangladesh, Khalid Md. Bahauddin, Hamidul Huq

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The water world is socially constructed, reflecting continuous gender inequalities and discrimination by those who hold dominant perspectives on water. This qualitative study was conducted in coastal areas of Bangladesh i.e. Bajua and Laodob union of Dacope upazilla of Khulna district. This study explored the gendered roles, responsibilities, and inequalities of access to and control over water management in the household, irrigation and agriculture. Results of this study lightened the importance of taking into account the complexity of power and negotiation in local water structures within women’s social realities. This study observed that there are considerable gender imbalance ...


Characterization And Optimization Of Parylene-C Deposition Process Using Scs Parylene Coater, Hannah Hastings, Eric D. Johnston, Gyuseok Kim Jan 2019

Characterization And Optimization Of Parylene-C Deposition Process Using Scs Parylene Coater, Hannah Hastings, Eric D. Johnston, Gyuseok Kim

Tool Data

Parylene-C has been deposited on bare Si wafers by physical vapor deposition using the SCS Coating Systems. Results show a 12 µm thick Parylene-C film with 10 g of dimer and negligible thickness variation across a wafer. We find a positive linear relationship between film thickness and mass of dimer at a range of 1 g to 18 g. However, the Al boat for dimer was burnt with 18 g of dimer, suggesting multiple depositions with 1 g to 10 g of dimer are recommended to achieve the Parylene-C film thicker than 12 µm.


Seasons Winter/Spring 2019 Volume 48 Number 1, Anthony S. Aiello, Pamela Olshefski, Paul W. Meyer, Joyce H. Munro, Jessica Slade, Liza Hawley Jan 2019

Seasons Winter/Spring 2019 Volume 48 Number 1, Anthony S. Aiello, Pamela Olshefski, Paul W. Meyer, Joyce H. Munro, Jessica Slade, Liza Hawley

Seasons Newsletter

  • Winter-Flowering Shrubs
  • A Fallen Monarch : The Bender Oak
  • The Architect of the Swan Pond Love Temple Revealed
  • Botany for Beginners - Part II (Conifers)
  • A Royal Exchange (Staff Exchange Program)
  • Nature Play


Seasons Fall 2018 Volume 47 Number 3, Leslie Crane, Pamela Olshefski, Jason Lubar, Anthony S. Aiello, Susan Crane Oct 2018

Seasons Fall 2018 Volume 47 Number 3, Leslie Crane, Pamela Olshefski, Jason Lubar, Anthony S. Aiello, Susan Crane

Seasons Newsletter

Highlights :

  • Thompson-Morris Plot Restoration Complete
  • Botany for Beginners
  • Preserving Our Tree Canopy
  • Three Great Native Trees
  • ArbNet Accreditation


Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet Aug 2018

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner Jul 2018

Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner

Department of Physics Papers

We give detailed recipes for a number of classroom demonstrations relevant to biological physics instruction. We developed them mainly for use in 2nd-3rd year undergraduate Physics courses. But you can (and we do) use them for primary school, through high school, up to PhD candidates. You adapt the words for each audience, but a phenomenon is a phenomenon.

We also outline a 1-hour introduction to Python for undergraduate scientific computing.

Finally we document some outcomes from courses taught at U Pennsylvania using these resources and others cited here. This material was presented at a workshop at the AAPT meeting in ...


Socioeconomic Status And The Brain: Prospects For Neuroscience-Informed Policy, Martha J. Farah Jun 2018

Socioeconomic Status And The Brain: Prospects For Neuroscience-Informed Policy, Martha J. Farah

Neuroethics Publications

Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health (physical and mental) and cognitive ability. Understanding and ameliorating the problems of low SES have long been goals of economics and sociology; in recent years, these have also become goals of neuroscience. However, opinion varies widely on the relevance of neuroscience to SES-related policy. The present article addresses the question of whether and how neuroscience can contribute to the development of social policy concerning poverty and the social and ethical risks inherent in trying. I argue that the neuroscience approach to SES-related policy has been both prematurely celebrated and peremptorily dismissed and that ...


Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary May 2018

Comparison Between Silicon Nanopillars Prepared By Bosch Process And Metal Assisted Chemical Etching, Rimjhim Chaudhary

Protocols and Reports

Nanopillars fabricated by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching (MacEtch) wet-etch process have been compared with those by Bosch dry-etch process. The Bosch process in this study gave vertical nanopillars with smooth side walls, which was better than the typical Bosch process. However, the verticality of the nanopillars depended on the location within the wafer where they were etched. On the other hand, MacEtch process gave a very consistent feature from 100 to 1000 nm diameter using 20 nm thick Au film without an expensive etching tool. The present technical report discuss the difference between MacEtch and Bosch processes.


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman May 2018

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel May 2018

Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Neuroimaging measures have been used to forecast complex behaviors, including how individuals change decisions about their health in response to persuasive communications, but have rarely incorporated metrics of brain network dynamics. How do functional dynamics within and between brain networks relate to the processes of persuasion and behavior change? To address this question, we scanned forty-five adult smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed antismoking images. Participants reported their smoking behavior and intentions to quit smoking before the scan and one month later. We focused on regions within four atlas-defined networks and examined whether they formed consistent network ...


Surface Roughness Dependence Of Inkjet Printing Of Ag Nanoparticles, Ming Yuan Chuang Apr 2018

Surface Roughness Dependence Of Inkjet Printing Of Ag Nanoparticles, Ming Yuan Chuang

Protocols and Reports

This report describes dependence of the inkjet printing on the surface roughness of normal PI film, ultra-smooth PI film, and polished Si wafer. The printing line width and LER are discussed by the line spreading constraint due to the limited volume of the droplet, vaporization of the solvent by the substrate temperature, the contact angle of the ink, and the surface roughness of the substrate. It is also shown that the minimum line width of ~21um is achieved on the Si wafer. Furthermore, the optimization of the substrate temperature for sintering of Ag nanoparticle is discussed.


Nia-Aa Research Framework: Toward A Biological Definition Of Alzheimer's Disease, Clifford R. Jack, David A. Bennett, Kaj Blennow, Maria C. Carrillo, Billy Dunn, Samantha Budd Haeberlein, David M. Holtzman, William Jagust, Frank Jessen, Jason Karlawish, Enchi Liu, Jose Luis Molineuvo, Thomas Montine, Creighton Phelps, Katherine P. Rankin, Christopher C. Rowe, Philip Scheltens, Eric Seimers, Heather M. Snyder, Reisa Sperling Apr 2018

Nia-Aa Research Framework: Toward A Biological Definition Of Alzheimer's Disease, Clifford R. Jack, David A. Bennett, Kaj Blennow, Maria C. Carrillo, Billy Dunn, Samantha Budd Haeberlein, David M. Holtzman, William Jagust, Frank Jessen, Jason Karlawish, Enchi Liu, Jose Luis Molineuvo, Thomas Montine, Creighton Phelps, Katherine P. Rankin, Christopher C. Rowe, Philip Scheltens, Eric Seimers, Heather M. Snyder, Reisa Sperling

Neuroethics Publications

In 2011, the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association created separate diagnostic recommendations for the preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific progress in the interim led to an initiative by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association to update and unify the 2011 guidelines. This unifying update is labeled a “research framework” because its intended use is for observational and interventional research, not routine clinical care. In the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association Research Framework, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by its underlying pathologic processes that ...


Associations Between Coherent Neural Activity, Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett, Emily B. Falk Apr 2018

Associations Between Coherent Neural Activity, Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Objective: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior.

Method: A group of smokers (N = 45) viewed GWL-inspired and control antismoking ads while undergoing ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Executive Function Performance Among Children, Gwendolyn M. Lawson, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah Mar 2018

A Meta-Analysis Of The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Executive Function Performance Among Children, Gwendolyn M. Lawson, Cayce J. Hook, Martha J. Farah

Neuroethics Publications

The relation between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and executive function (EF) has recently attracted attention within psychology, following reports of substantial SES disparities in children’s EF. Adding to the importance of this relation, EF has been proposed as a mediator of socioeconomic disparities in lifelong achievement and health. However, evidence about the relationship between childhood SES and EF is mixed, and there has been no systematic attempt to evaluate this relationship across studies. This meta-analysis systematically reviewed the literature for studies in which samples of children varying in SES were evaluated on EF, including studies with and without primary ...


Rhesus Macaques Form Preferences For Brand Logos Through Sex And Social Status Based Advertising, M. Yavus Acikalin, Karli K. Watson, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, Michael L Platt Feb 2018

Rhesus Macaques Form Preferences For Brand Logos Through Sex And Social Status Based Advertising, M. Yavus Acikalin, Karli K. Watson, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, Michael L Platt

Neuroethics Publications

Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals and high status monkeys. Moreover, monkeys sustain preferences for these brand logos even though choosing them provided no tangible rewards, a finding that cannot be ...


Testing Biological Controls For Heliothrips Haemorrhoidalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), A Serious Pest Of The Morris Arboretum Greenhouse Complex, Amanda Quadrel Jan 2018

Testing Biological Controls For Heliothrips Haemorrhoidalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), A Serious Pest Of The Morris Arboretum Greenhouse Complex, Amanda Quadrel

Internship Program Reports

The greenhouse thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis) is a serious pest of fruits and ornamental plants. In the Morris Arboretum’s greenhouse complex, this thrip has been prevalent, and could cause major damage to the young plants that are being propagated. The purpose of this project was to search for a suitable biological control of the thrips since chemicals have only been marginally effective. A predatory spider mite (Amblyseius cucumeris) and minute pirate bugs (Orius insidiousus) were chosen for the study. The results suggest that the minute pirate bugs are highly effective at hunting thrips, while the spider mites had no measurable ...


Garden Railway ‘Foyer’ Redesign, Jennifer Monico Jan 2018

Garden Railway ‘Foyer’ Redesign, Jennifer Monico

Internship Program Reports

The Garden Railway is one of the most highly visited areas of the Morris Arboretum, so it is important for it to be well kept. Surrounding areas are just as important because of the increased foot traffic to the adjacent Garden Railway. The focus of this project, the ‘Foyer’, is one of those important surrounding areas. It encompasses the area just outside of the entrance path to the Railway. The ‘Foyer’ needed a new design that would solve some of the challenges presented by the traffic and previous bed layout. One of the beds in the area was half empty ...


Fernery Interpretation Redesign: Highlighting Morris Arboretum’S Collection, Jennie Ciborowski Jan 2018

Fernery Interpretation Redesign: Highlighting Morris Arboretum’S Collection, Jennie Ciborowski

Internship Program Reports

After over twenty years of exposure to the elements, the panels in the fernery plaza were in need of an update. Their content was not only outdated, but weathered to a point where the text had become illegible. When an interpretative panel falls into this state of disrepair it loses educational value and cannot fulfill its designated purpose. My project focused on updating the design, content, and graphics of all interpretive panels in the fernery plaza. This collaborative project was completed with the help of the interpretation committee, a graphic designer, and many other key staff members at Morris Arboretum ...


What Is A Tree Worth? An Appraisal Of The University Of Pennsylvania’S Tree Population, Eric Moore Jan 2018

What Is A Tree Worth? An Appraisal Of The University Of Pennsylvania’S Tree Population, Eric Moore

Internship Program Reports

In 2018, the University of Pennsylvania received a level 2 arboretum accreditation. This new status provides incentive for establishing rigorous tree protection protocols and policies. To preserve and protect a healthy urban forest, it is necessary to develop a plant health care and maintenance program, which can be a costly process. By appraising Penn’s campus tree population, and by determining the monetary benefits trees provide through their environmental and ecosystem services, we can advocate for a tree care budget that is consistent with the value of the asset.

We used methods outlined in the Council for Tree and Landscape ...


Time To Stop Telling Biophysics Students That Light Is Primarily A Wave, Philip C. Nelson Jan 2018

Time To Stop Telling Biophysics Students That Light Is Primarily A Wave, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Standard pedagogy introduces optics as though it were a consequence of Maxwell’s equations, and only grudgingly admits, usually in a rushed aside, that light has a particulate character that can somehow be reconciled with the wave picture. Recent revolutionary advances in optical imaging, however, make this approach more and more unhelpful: How are we to describe two-photon imaging, FRET, localization microscopy, and a host of related techniques to students who think of light primarily as a wave? I was surprised to find that everything I wanted my biophysics students to know about light, including image formation, x-ray diffraction, and ...


An Evaluation And Interpretation Of The Roses In The Rose Garden, Erin Conley Jan 2018

An Evaluation And Interpretation Of The Roses In The Rose Garden, Erin Conley

Internship Program Reports

This project aims to assist current and future rosarians in evaluating the roses in the Morris Arboretum’s Rose Garden. This will be accomplished by updating the current Rose Garden database and researching the histories of selected roses. An updated database, plus the monthly evaluations of the roses, will allow for the determination of the best performing roses for this area. The histories will serve to highlight the importance of the Rose Garden and Rosa as a genus. Acknowledging the lack of consolidated information about the Rose Garden available to the public, this need will also be addressed. A website ...


Index Of Invasiveness Of Cultivars Of Acer Palmatum, Wayne Schmitt Jan 2018

Index Of Invasiveness Of Cultivars Of Acer Palmatum, Wayne Schmitt

Internship Program Reports

Recent publications have detected fluctuations in the native ranges of many plant species, as well as indications that invasive species are spreading into areas that were once not suitable for them (Hellmann 2008). Acer palmatum is a species whose presence has been documented in the Wissahickon Park and the natural areas around the Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia as well as at the National Arboretum in Washington, D.C. With many cultivars having high seed yields, it is important to look into viability and germination rates as indicators of their invasiveness, as previously researched for Ailanthus altissima (Wickert et. al 2017 ...


Induction Of Antibodies To Hiv-1 Envelope Using Simian Adenovirus Vaccines, Kristel Lucie Emmer Jan 2018

Induction Of Antibodies To Hiv-1 Envelope Using Simian Adenovirus Vaccines, Kristel Lucie Emmer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has infected 76 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. The first evidence that an HIV-1 vaccine could prevent infection in humans was provided in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. RV144 demonstrated 31.2% efficacy and immune correlate analyses indicated that antibodies targeting the variable 2 (V2) region of HIV-1 envelope (Env) correlated with decreased risk of infection. However, significant improvements are needed to develop a globally effective vaccine against HIV-1.

Several approaches can be employed to improve upon vaccination strategies: heterologous prime-boost regimens, immunogen design, and alternative adjuvants. To enhance Env-specific antibodies ...


Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate Retinal Disease Pathogenesis And To Develop Gene-Based Therapies, Thu Thi Duong Jan 2018

Use Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models To Elucidate Retinal Disease Pathogenesis And To Develop Gene-Based Therapies, Thu Thi Duong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare monogenic, X-linked recessive inherited retinal degenerative disease caused by mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) encoding CHM gene. CHM is characterized by childhood-onset night blindness (nyctalopia), progressive peripheral vision loss due to the degeneration of neural retina, RPE and choroid in a peripheral-to-central fashion. Most of CHM mutations are loss-of-function mutations leading to the complete lacking of REP1 protein. However, the primary retinal cell type leading to CHM and molecular mechanism remains unknown in addition to the fact of lacking proper disease models. In this study, we explored the utility of induced pluripotent stem ...