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Comparative Study Of The D-Values Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium In Wheat Flour, Didier Dodier Dec 2015

Comparative Study Of The D-Values Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium In Wheat Flour, Didier Dodier

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Low-moisture foods contaminated with Salmonella spp. have been implicated in several foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States. The food industry has to incorporate preventive control in their process and validate thermal processes to assure food safety. The thermal destruction of Enterococcus faecium ATTC 8459 and Salmonella spp. was determined at 3 water activity levels (0.11, 0.18 and 0.33) at 80ºC, 85ºC and 90ºC. Aerobic plates counts petrifilms were used as non-selective medium for both bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae petrifilms were used as selective medium for Salmonella spp., and peptone water modified with sodium azide as a selective medium ...


Inactivation Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli (Stec) Throughout Beef Summer Sausage Production And The Use Of High Pressure Processing As An Alternative Intervention To Thermal Processing, Eric L. Oliver Dec 2015

Inactivation Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli (Stec) Throughout Beef Summer Sausage Production And The Use Of High Pressure Processing As An Alternative Intervention To Thermal Processing, Eric L. Oliver

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six additional serogroups of Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC-7) have been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks related to fermented sausage products and are considered adulterants by the USDA-FSIS. The objective of this study was to evaluate high pressure processing (HPP) as an alternative to thermal treatment to reduce STEC-7 meeting the USDA-FSIS performance standards (5.0-log reduction). A rifampicin-resistant, non-pathogenic E. coli (surrogate) cocktail, was used in manufacturing testing. Sausages were fermented at ~42.2°C, slowly increased to 54.4°C internal temperature, cold showered, and chilled for 6 hours. Sampling occurred post-fermentation (PF ...


Efficacy Of Galactooliosaccharide (Gos) And/Or Rhamnose-Based Synbiotics In Enhancing Ecological Performance Of Lactobacillus Reuteri In The Human Gut And Characterization Of Its Gos Metabolic System, Monchaya Rattanaprasert Dec 2015

Efficacy Of Galactooliosaccharide (Gos) And/Or Rhamnose-Based Synbiotics In Enhancing Ecological Performance Of Lactobacillus Reuteri In The Human Gut And Characterization Of Its Gos Metabolic System, Monchaya Rattanaprasert

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Probiotic L. reuteri has potential to produce antimicrobial compounds and secrete immunosuppressive factors. These metabolic attributes could benefit the human host by providing colonization resistance (competitive and metabolic exclusion) against enteropathogens and mitigating inflammation. As metabolically active cells are fundamental to such probiotic properties, synbiotic approaches that supply L. reuteri with a source(s) of carbon, energy, and/or external electron acceptor for cell growth in the gut environment could therefore prompt the probiotic to engage in beneficial activities. In this study, the efficacy of GOS and/or rhamnose-based synbiotic approaches in promoting colonization persistence and metabolic activity of L ...


Preference Mapping Of Whole Grain And High Fiber Products: Whole Wheat Bread And Extruded Rice And Bean Snack, Ashley J. Bernstein Dec 2015

Preference Mapping Of Whole Grain And High Fiber Products: Whole Wheat Bread And Extruded Rice And Bean Snack, Ashley J. Bernstein

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The rise of unhealthy lifestyles and diets among Americans is leading to an influx of health-conscious consumers on the search for more nutritious, health-promoting food options that match their taste preferences. The aim of this research is to determine consumer preferences and specific attributes of whole grain and high fiber products that drive acceptability through descriptive analysis and preference mapping on whole wheat breads and an extruded pinto bean and brown rice flour snack puff.

Commercial whole wheat breads, characterized by 26 appearance, aroma, flavor, and texture attributes, were separated into two distinct groups. The first group consisted of attributes ...


Phenolic Rich Extracts Obtained From Small Red Beans In Preventing Macrophage Mediated Chronic Inflammation, Nidhi Sharma Nov 2015

Phenolic Rich Extracts Obtained From Small Red Beans In Preventing Macrophage Mediated Chronic Inflammation, Nidhi Sharma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Small red beans, commonly called Mexican beans, are a part of the legume family, the genus Phaseolus vulgaris, i.e., dry edible beans or the common bean. In addition to being a rich source of nutrients, small red beans also contain phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins that have shown a plethora of health benefits against such conditions as obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. In particular, the phenolic compounds common to the red beans have been reported to protect against chronic inflammation that if left unchecked can lead to various other chronic degenerative diseases. These ...


Simulation And Validation Of Radio Frequency Heating Of Shell Eggs, Soon Kiat Lau Jul 2015

Simulation And Validation Of Radio Frequency Heating Of Shell Eggs, Soon Kiat Lau

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Finite element models were developed with the purpose of finding an optimal radio frequency (RF) heating setup for pasteurizing shell eggs. Material properties of the yolk, albumen, and shell were measured and fitted into equations that were used as inputs for the model. When the egg was heated by itself, heating tend to be focused at the air cell to result in a “coagulation ring.” The focused heating near the air cell of the egg prevented satisfactory pasteurization of the egg, but deeper analysis of the simulation results offered a new perspective on how non-uniform RF heating could occur in ...


Influence Of Native And Processed Cereal Grain Fibers On Gut Health, Junyi Yang Jul 2015

Influence Of Native And Processed Cereal Grain Fibers On Gut Health, Junyi Yang

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Cereal fibers that can be metabolized by gut microbiota have been shown to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Increased consumption of cereal fibers may improve host / gut microbiota interactions in obesity and other metabolic diseases by normalizing gut dysbiosis. The present dissertation describes four research projects to assess the impact of cereal dietary fibers on gut microbiota and host metabolism. In the first study, we determined the treatment temperatures for production of soluble, non-digestible, feruloylated oligo- and polysaccharides (FOPS) from maize bran and wheat bran, and determined the fermentation properties of partially purified FOPS from maize ...


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr May 2015

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


Effects Of Blanching On Color, Texture And Sodium Chloride Content During Storage Time Of Frozen Vegetable Soybean Modeling For Commercial Scale, Pimsiree Suwan May 2015

Effects Of Blanching On Color, Texture And Sodium Chloride Content During Storage Time Of Frozen Vegetable Soybean Modeling For Commercial Scale, Pimsiree Suwan

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] are a green stage of soybeans, which have become increasingly popular among health-conscious Americans as an alternative low-fat and heart-healthy food. Vegetable soybeans (VSB) are also an excellent source of protein and fiber. However, the vast majority of the VSB consumed are imported, as they are not extensively grown and processed in the United States. The situation results in short supply and limited processing information.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of water blanching (at 86, 92, 98 °C for 1m30s, 2m, 2m30s) and steam blanching (at 86, 92, 98 ...


The Influence Of The Bovine Fecal Microbiota On The Shedding Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli (Stec) By Beef Cattle, Nirosh D. Aluthge May 2015

The Influence Of The Bovine Fecal Microbiota On The Shedding Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli (Stec) By Beef Cattle, Nirosh D. Aluthge

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

During the past three decades, Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) have emerged as an important food safety concern. Although initially E. coli O157 was the main focus, recent outbreaks and resulting investigations have shown that certain non-O157 STEC are as much a threat to food safety as their O157 counterparts. To the beef industry, STEC have been of particular concern due to the frequent association of beef and beef products as vehicles of STEC infection. As a result, along with E. coli O157, six non-O157 STEC serogroups (known as the ‘big six’) are now regulated as adulterants in certain raw ...


Corn Characterization And Development Of A Convenient Laboratory Scale Alkaline Cooking Process, Shreya N. Sahasrabudhe May 2015

Corn Characterization And Development Of A Convenient Laboratory Scale Alkaline Cooking Process, Shreya N. Sahasrabudhe

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Nixtamalized (alkaline cooked) corn (Zea mays L.) products are increasing in popularity due to their affordable cost, ease of production, and the diversity of products that can be made using similar unit operations. The nixtamal produced after alkaline cooking depends on the processing parameters used during cooking and steeping, as well as the physicochemical properties of the corn hybrids used. Processors incur high costs in narrowing down hybrids suitable for a given process, or they must be able to adjust cooking conditions to obtain the desired end-product characteristics. Improper processing generates large quantities of waste. Researchers have developed small scale ...


Viability Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Dds 1-10 Encapsulated With An Alginate-Starch Matrix, Liya Mo May 2015

Viability Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Dds 1-10 Encapsulated With An Alginate-Starch Matrix, Liya Mo

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

L. acidophilus DDS1-10 was encapsulated using an alginate, potato starch and type 4 resistant starch (RS4) matrix. The wall material was optimized by varying levels of alginate (1.6 to 4.4%), while maintaining potato starch and RS4 ratio fixed at 2, and the total solid content at 5%. Particles were prepared using an emulsion and an extrusion method. Particles obtained from the emulsion method were smaller with a non-uniform distribution in size while those obtained by the extrusion method were bigger and uniform in size. The emulsion method did not seem to offer protection to the probiotic cells against ...


A Finite Element Method Based Microwave Heat Transfer Modeling Of Frozen Multi-Component Foods, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai Apr 2015

A Finite Element Method Based Microwave Heat Transfer Modeling Of Frozen Multi-Component Foods, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Microwave heating is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform heating in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food products based on “cook-and-look” approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food product design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave heating in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of ...