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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Starch By Vibrational Spectroscopy, Brandon H. Holder Dec 2012

Characterization Of Starch By Vibrational Spectroscopy, Brandon H. Holder

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

To develop a dispersive Raman spectroscopic method for measuring amylose-amylopectin ratios of corn starch mixtures, 67 mixtures were prepared by randomly mixing waxy and normal corn starches. Amylose contents were measured using a dual wavelength iodine binding colorimetric method. Raman data were collected from 250 to 3200 cm-1 using optimized instrument parameters. Partial least-squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were used to prepare multivariate calibration models; however, PLS commonly outperformed PCR. Truncating the spectra to 250 to 2000 cm-1 improved the results (r2 of validation = 0.831, SEP = 2.90%). Removal of a cold water swelling ...


New Technologies For Whole Wheat Processing: Addressing Milling And Storage Issues, Andres F. Doblado-Maldonado Nov 2012

New Technologies For Whole Wheat Processing: Addressing Milling And Storage Issues, Andres F. Doblado-Maldonado

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Whole wheat flour production and demand has increased dramatically during the last decade due to evidence supporting the benefits of whole grains in the diet. Hence, the food industry has provided a wide variety of new whole grain products. There are unique challenges that accompany whole wheat flour production, especially related to milling and storage. The present thesis provides new strategies on the adaptation of new technologies to overcome whole wheat processing issues. These issues are first discussed in a literature review and then followed by three research studies. In the first study, retail whole wheat flours were evaluated for ...


The Evolution Of Host Specificity In The Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus Reuteri, Steven Frese Nov 2012

The Evolution Of Host Specificity In The Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus Reuteri, Steven Frese

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The vertebrate gut is home to one of the densest populations of life on Earth. This microbial community has a profound effect on host health, nutrition, development, behavior, and evolution. However, very little is known about how these microbes have evolved with their vertebrate hosts, how and whether they select hosts or how they remain associated with their hosts. Recent work identified Lactobacillus reuteri as an organism that is composed of host-specific sub-populations, each population associated with a different host animal. Representatives from each host-associated population were tested for their ability to colonize gnotobiotic mice, which only rodent strains could ...


Evidence Of Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To The Tissues Or Phyllo-Plane Of Wheat, From Contaminated Soil, Seeds Or Water, Bismarck Antonio Martinez Nov 2012

Evidence Of Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To The Tissues Or Phyllo-Plane Of Wheat, From Contaminated Soil, Seeds Or Water, Bismarck Antonio Martinez

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of disease symptoms, such as bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Escherichia coli O157:H7 illness are mainly associated with undercooked beef; however, in recent years outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce such as spinach, lettuce, and sprouts. In 2009, flour was implicated as a contamination source in the consumption of raw cookie dough resulting in 77 illness-cases. The objective of this research was to determine the possible route of transmission of E. coli O157:H7 into the phyllo-plane of wheat using ...


Analysis Of Microbial Diversity By Amplicon Pyrosequencing, Ryan Legge Aug 2012

Analysis Of Microbial Diversity By Amplicon Pyrosequencing, Ryan Legge

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Microorganisms numerically dominate terrestrial biodiversity, and play important biochemical and geochemical roles in the environments they inhabit. To understand structure and function of complex ecosystems, it is essential to identify primary drivers of microbial diversity and community structure. Historically, the study of microbial ecology was reductive, limited to microbes able to be cultured and enumerated. Microbes meeting this criterion were thought to comprise the dominating members of the environments they were isolated from, however, estimates suggesting up to 99% of the endogenous species are uncultivable with existing methodologies; a concept that reflects experimental failure, rather than a verifiable conclusion. Therefore ...


Host-Microbe-Diet Interplay: Dietary Modulation Of The Gut Microbiota In Relation To Health, Inés Martínez Aug 2012

Host-Microbe-Diet Interplay: Dietary Modulation Of The Gut Microbiota In Relation To Health, Inés Martínez

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Vertebrates are associated with trillions of bacteria, with the densest populations residing in the large intestine. The symbiosis between vertebrates and their gut microbiota has resulted in important implications of the gut microbiome on host health. Diet is an important factor that shapes gut microbiota composition, and because of the interplay between host-microbiome-diet, dietary strategies that modulate gut microbiome structure are deemed a relevant tool to improve host health. However, gaps in knowledge exist with respect to these interactions, and it is essential to obtain a mechanistic understanding of how these relations take place to develop successful therapeutic strategies that ...


Validation Of Thermal Processing To Control Salmonella Spp. And Clostridium Perfringens During Prime Rib Preparation From Intact And Non-Intact Meat, Maria A. Calle May 2012

Validation Of Thermal Processing To Control Salmonella Spp. And Clostridium Perfringens During Prime Rib Preparation From Intact And Non-Intact Meat, Maria A. Calle

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Beef prime rib is a delicacy cooked at low temperatures for long period and extended hot holding prior to consumption. Due to the potential survival and outgrowth of foodborne pathogens, this process may pose a public health risk. Considering an increase in the availability of non-intact beef, the microbial safety of the preparation of prime rib from intact and mechanically tenderized beef was evaluated.

In the first study, lethality of the prime rib (from intact and non-intact, blade tenderized beef) cooking process to Salmonella spp. was evaluated. Boneless beef rib eye was surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella ...


Characterization Of Igg And Ige Binding To Parvalbumin Derived From Commercially Important Fish Species, Poi-Wah Lee May 2012

Characterization Of Igg And Ige Binding To Parvalbumin Derived From Commercially Important Fish Species, Poi-Wah Lee

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding muscle protein that is present in all vertebrates. Despite being a pan-allergen in fish and frog, fish-specific IgE and antiparvalbumin IgG antibodies displayed varying cross-reactivity among fish species. In this research, the parvalbumin-binding characteristics of several antibodies were investigated, including 3 IgG antibodies against frog, carp, and cod parvalbumins, and human IgE.

By immunoassay and IgG-immunoblotting, 3 antiparvalbumin antibodies revealed inconsistent specificity among 29 raw fish muscle extracts, which may be partially attributed to the decreased levels of fish muscle parvalbumin from anterior to posterior positions. Parvalbumin-binding by antibodies was unaffected in 112 days of frozen-stored ...


Influence Of Dietary Fibers And Whole Grains On Fecal Microbiota During In Vitro Fermentation, Junyi Yang May 2012

Influence Of Dietary Fibers And Whole Grains On Fecal Microbiota During In Vitro Fermentation, Junyi Yang

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

There has been a dramatic increase in obesity, which presents a risk of many chronic health problems. Recent studies have shown that obese individuals harbor an abnormal gut microbiota (dysbiosis), which has sparked interest in the gut microbiota as a target for weight management. Dietary fiber and whole grains that can be metabolized by gut microbiota have been shown to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Increased consumption of dietary fiber and whole grains may improve host / gut microbiota interactions in obesity and other metabolic diseases by normalizing gut dysbiosis. The present thesis describes two research projects ...