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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Biological Analysis Of Prebiotics In Various Processed Food Matrices, Kristina Elise Moore Dec 2011

Biological Analysis Of Prebiotics In Various Processed Food Matrices, Kristina Elise Moore

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The addition of prebiotic to a variety of food products has become a more common occurrence in recent years. Although research on the stability of prebiotics has been conducted, knowledge of the stability of prebiotics in processed foods is limited. The purpose of this research was to determine the biological stability of five prebiotics in a variety of food matrices when processed under various conditions. A biological test, the prebiotic activity assay, was used to test for stability of six food products (muffin, cookie, granola bar, breakfast cereal, sports drink, and bread) containing five different prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, galactooligosaccharides ...


Adaptation And Validation Of Food Product Specific Analytical Methods For Monitoring Prebiotics Present In Different Types Of Processed Food Matrices, Rebbeca M. Duar Dec 2011

Adaptation And Validation Of Food Product Specific Analytical Methods For Monitoring Prebiotics Present In Different Types Of Processed Food Matrices, Rebbeca M. Duar

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Prebiotic carbohydrates are now added to a variety of processed foods to beneficially affect the gut microbial composition and activities. However, published data remain limited on the stability of prebiotics during food processes, such as baking, extrusion, pasteurization, high temperature heating, low pH condition, etc. As the complexity of the food matrix may also affect the ability to test for prebiotics, product specific analytical methods, including UV-vis spectroscopy, GC and HPLC, were developed and validated to monitor the stability of FOS, inulin and GOS in different types of processed food (breakfast cereal, cookie, muffin, sports drink and a nutritional bar ...


Identification And Characterization Of Putative Allergens In Pecan Species, Jelena Spiric Dec 2011

Identification And Characterization Of Putative Allergens In Pecan Species, Jelena Spiric

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The identification and characterization of soluble pecan proteins was found to be qualitatively dependent on the chemical characteristics of the extraction buffer that also had a significant influence on the total protein content of an extract. The ionic strength of the extraction buffer had a greater impact on protein extractability than pH. A high salt phosphate buffer (0.01 M PBS, 1M NaCl, pH 7.2) was used as an optimal extraction solution that allowed remarkable detection of clinically relevant allergens.

The 2S albumin family of seed storage proteins has been shown to be one of the most stable allergens ...


Studies On The Adherence Properties Of Plant Lectins And Bacterial Adhesins And Their Inhibition By Prebiotic Oligosaccharides And Bovine Colostrum Fractions, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez Nov 2011

Studies On The Adherence Properties Of Plant Lectins And Bacterial Adhesins And Their Inhibition By Prebiotic Oligosaccharides And Bovine Colostrum Fractions, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

To initiate colonization and infection, most microbial pathogens must first recognize and adhere to cells in the host tissues. Adherence inhibition, therefore, can be used as a strategy for preventing infectious disease. In this research, we developed a simplified model using plant lectins and HEp-2 tissue culture cells to simulate bacterial adhesins-receptors interactions. The effect of lectin ligands and two prebiotic carbohydrates, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX) was measured with this approach. Lectins that were able to bind to the target cells were inhibited in the presence of the cognate ligands and at least one of the prebiotic carbohydrates. The ...


Effect Of Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Erythorbate And Organic Acid Salts On Germination And Outgrowth Of Clostridium Perfringens Spores In Ham During Abusive Cooling, Mauricio A. Redondo Sep 2011

Effect Of Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Erythorbate And Organic Acid Salts On Germination And Outgrowth Of Clostridium Perfringens Spores In Ham During Abusive Cooling, Mauricio A. Redondo

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), sodium erythorbate, sodium chloride (NaCl) and organic acid salts (potassium lactate and sodium diacetate) on C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ham was evaluated. The research was divided in two parts. The first experiment consisted of potential C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ham containing combinations of NaNO2 (0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) and sodium erythorbate (0 or 557 ppm) during cooling. This experiment included the evaluation of residual nitrite levels as affected by temperature (heat shock at 75°C for 20 min and subsequent cooling from 54 ...


Pulsed Electric Field (P.E.F) And Pectinase For The Extraction Of Polyphenols From Grape Pomace And Peel, Julien Khalil Aug 2011

Pulsed Electric Field (P.E.F) And Pectinase For The Extraction Of Polyphenols From Grape Pomace And Peel, Julien Khalil

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Grapes are an important source of bioactive compounds such as gallic acid, resveratrol, and catechin. The consumption of grapes is associated with a lower risk of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Grape pomace and skins are good sources of many phytochemicals known for their antioxidant potential.

In this research, the peel of the Chilean “Flame” grape cultivar and the pomace of St. Croix, Frontenac and St. Pepin grape cultivars were subjected to a pulsed electric field (5 KV, 1 μFarad, 20 Pulses) and to an enzymatic treatment (Pectinase, 5KU). The total phenolic content, determined in ...


Extraction Of Bioactive Compounds From Whole Red Cabbage And Beetroot Using Pulsed Electric Fields And Evaluation Of Their Functionality, Valli Kannan May 2011

Extraction Of Bioactive Compounds From Whole Red Cabbage And Beetroot Using Pulsed Electric Fields And Evaluation Of Their Functionality, Valli Kannan

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Application of high voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF) to plant tissues increases porosity of the plant cells, enhancing juice extraction from fruits and vegetables. Red cabbage and beetroot are rich sources of bioactive compounds anthocyanins and betalains, respectively. Pulsed electric field (red cabbage: 1 kV/cm electric field strength, 0.66 µF and 20 pulses; red beets: 1.5 kV/cm electric field strength, 0.66 µF and 20 pulses) was applied to whole red cabbage and beetroot to enhance juice extraction. Total polyphenols, anthocyanins (red cabbage), betalains (beetroot) and total antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) of the extracted juice ...


Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flour, Onesmo N.O. Mella May 2011

Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flour, Onesmo N.O. Mella

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Sorghum is an ancient crop grown almost everywhere in the world and used for different purposes. In the U.S, and other developed countries, sorghum is used largely for animal feeding. In developing countries, especially in Africa and Asia, it is used primarily as human food.

Sorghum is a dependable food crop in Tanzania and its production and use ranks second after maize. Different traditional methods including malting and fermentation have been used in addition to decorticating and milling to process sorghum for the purpose of providing diverse materials. However, sorghum has major drawbacks of poor starch and protein digestibilities ...


Adaptation And Validation Of Existing Analytical Methods For Monitoring Prebiotics Present In Different Types Of Processed Food Matrices, Pei Tze Ang May 2011

Adaptation And Validation Of Existing Analytical Methods For Monitoring Prebiotics Present In Different Types Of Processed Food Matrices, Pei Tze Ang

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Interest in resistant starch (RS) as a prebiotic is increasing due to its putative impacts on the gastrointestinal microbiome and thus colon health. Application of RS as a food ingredient is also increasing because of its unique functionality. However, a major obstacle when correlating RS containing food systems to the potential health benefits is the discrepancy in the analytical tests applied and the limitations of those methods used throughout the literature. Therefore, the Megazyme resistant starch assay was adapted and developed to monitor RS present in different types of products commonly consumed in the United States, including an extruded ready-to-eat ...


Adherence Inhibition Of Cronobacter Sakazakii And Other Pathogens By Prebiotic Oligosaccharides, Plant Extracts, And Other Naturally Derived Molecules, Maria I. Quintero Apr 2011

Adherence Inhibition Of Cronobacter Sakazakii And Other Pathogens By Prebiotic Oligosaccharides, Plant Extracts, And Other Naturally Derived Molecules, Maria I. Quintero

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

For most bacterial pathogens, adherence of the bacterium to the surface of the host cell tissue is a necessary first step for colonization and infection. Agents that inhibit adherence, therefore, could be useful for preventing infections. The goal of this research was to assess the anti-adherent activity of several food-grade prebiotic carbohydrates, plant extracts, and other naturally-derived molecules against enteric pathogens. First, the antiadherent effect of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), polydextrose (PDX), and a GOS-PDX blend was tested against two strains of Cronobacter “Enterobacter” sakazakii. When measured microscopically or by cultural methods, significant reductions in adherence (56% and 71%, respectively) of C ...


Evaluation And Analysis Of Beef Contamination By Low Levels Of Ammonia, Sely Prajitna Apr 2011

Evaluation And Analysis Of Beef Contamination By Low Levels Of Ammonia, Sely Prajitna

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Leakage of ammonia in food facilities has been known to occur in the past. Ammonia leaks often lead to food contamination in food plants and can cause illness among consumers who accidentally consume the food products contaminated with high levels of ammonia. Therefore, a rapid, simple yet accurate method has to be established for on-site ammonia level screening in food plants to ensure the food is safe. One of the primary objectives in this study was to verify and optimize an ion selective electrode (ISE) method for its accuracy and reproducibility in determining ammonia in meat. Different extraction procedures (blending ...


Electromagnetic And Heat Transfer Modeling Of Microwave Heating In Domestic Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai Apr 2011

Electromagnetic And Heat Transfer Modeling Of Microwave Heating In Domestic Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Microwave (MW) ovens are used extensively for heating a variety of not-ready-to-eat food products. It is vital to achieve target temperature uniformly throughout the food to inactivate foodborne pathogens to assure safety. Non-uniform heating of foods in microwave ovens is the major concern in assuring microbiological safety of such products. The non-uniform heating of foods in domestic microwave ovens is due to complex interactions of microwaves with foods. A comprehensive coupled electromagnetic and heat transfer model was developed using finite-difference time-domain based numerical method to understand the complex interaction of microwaves with foods. Simulation parameters such as cell size, heating ...