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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy Sep 2019

Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Large mammals are at high risk of extinction globally. To understand the consequences of their demise for community assembly, we tracked community structure through the end- Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America.We decomposed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors by analyzing co-occurrence within the mutual ranges of species pairs. Although shifting climate drove an increase in niche overlap, co-occurrence decreased, signaling shifts in biotic interactions. Furthermore, the effect of abiotic factors on cooccurrence remained constant over time while the effect of biotic factors decreased. Biotic factors apparently played a key role in continental-scale community assembly before the extinctions ...


Sex-Specific Relationships Among Iron Status Biomarkers, Athletic Performance, Maturity, And Dietary Intakes In Pre-Adolescent And Adolescent Athletes, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler, Joel T. Cramer Sep 2019

Sex-Specific Relationships Among Iron Status Biomarkers, Athletic Performance, Maturity, And Dietary Intakes In Pre-Adolescent And Adolescent Athletes, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler, Joel T. Cramer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among biomarkers of iron status, athletic performance, growth and development, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female athletes.

Methods: Two-hundred and forty-nine male (n = 179) (mean ± standard deviation for age = 12.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 156.3 ± 13.9 cm, and weight = 49.1 ± 16.5 kg) and female (n = 70) (12.0 ± 2.2 years, 152.4 ± 12.3 cm, 45.3 ± 14.5 kg) athletes volunteered for capillary blood sample, anthropometric, athletic performance, and dietary intake assessments. Outcomes included maturity offset from peak height ...


What Do Agricultural And Biological Science Students Use? A Bibliometric Analysis Of Undergraduate Research Projects, Jerome Idiegbeyan-Ose, Ayooluwa Aregbesola, Sols Owolabi, Toluwani Eyiolorunshe, Ayotunde Owolabi Sep 2019

What Do Agricultural And Biological Science Students Use? A Bibliometric Analysis Of Undergraduate Research Projects, Jerome Idiegbeyan-Ose, Ayooluwa Aregbesola, Sols Owolabi, Toluwani Eyiolorunshe, Ayotunde Owolabi

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The study investigate the citation pattern of undergraduate projects in a private university, Nigeria. Bibliometric method was adopted for the study to analyze the information sources cited in the research projects. The coverage of the study was from 2015 to 2018 set of graduates. Findings revealed that Animal Science programme accounted for the highest citations, while Agricultural Economics had the lowest citations. It was also discovered that an average of 49 citations per project were recorded. Journal articles and books were the most cited materials. The paper concluded and made recommendations.


Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla Sep 2019

Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause herediatry hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectase, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-B receptor complex and ...


Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle Sep 2019

Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Anti-CRISPR (Acr) loci/operons encode Acr proteins and Acr-associated (Aca) proteins. Forty-five Acr families have been experimentally characterized inhibiting seven subtypes of CRISPR-Cas systems. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify genomic loci containing Acr homologs and/or Aca homologs by combining three computational approaches: homology, guilt-by-association, and self-targeting spacers. Homology search found thousands of Acr homologs in bacterial and viral genomes, but most are homologous to AcrIIA7 and AcrIIA9. Investigating the gene neighborhood of these Acr homologs revealed that only a small percentage (23.0% in bacteria and 8.2% in viruses) of them have neighboring Aca homologs ...


Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley Sep 2019

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Resolvin D2 Regulates Human Placental Vascular Smooth Muscle And Extravillous Trophoblast Activities, Arzu Ulu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ana G. Yuil-Valdes, Maheswari Mukherjee, Matthew Van Ormer, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Maranda Thompson, Ann Anderson Berry, Corrine K. Hanson, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Tara M. Nordgren Sep 2019

Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Resolvin D2 Regulates Human Placental Vascular Smooth Muscle And Extravillous Trophoblast Activities, Arzu Ulu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ana G. Yuil-Valdes, Maheswari Mukherjee, Matthew Van Ormer, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Maranda Thompson, Ann Anderson Berry, Corrine K. Hanson, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Tara M. Nordgren

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Omega-3 fatty acids are important to pregnancy and neonatal development and health. One mechanism by which omega-3 fatty acids exert their protective eects is through serving as substrates for the generation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) that potently limit and resolve inflammatory processes. We recently identified that SPM levels are increased in maternal blood at delivery as compared to umbilical cord blood, suggesting the placenta as a potential site of action for maternal SPM. To explore this hypothesis, we obtained human placental samples and stained for the SPM resolvin D2 (RvD2) receptor GPR18 via immunohistochemistry. In so doing, we ...


Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley Sep 2019

Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Bovine congestive heart failure (BCHF) has become increasingly prevalent in feedlot cattle in the Western Great Plains of North America. BCHF is an untreatable complex condition involving pulmonary hypertension that culminates in right ventricular failure and death. A protein variant of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2α, encoded by the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene, EPAS1) was previously reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension at altitudes exceeding 2,000 m. Our aim was to evaluate EPAS1 haplotypes for association with BCHF in feedlot cattle raised at moderate altitudes (1,200 m).

Methods: Paired samples of clinical cases and ...


A Multi-Year Examination Of Gardening Experience And Fruit And Vegetable Intake During College, Daniel Staub, Sarah Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Wenjun Zhou, Tanya M. Horacek, Geoffrey W. Greene, Ivana Radosavljevic, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews Sep 2019

A Multi-Year Examination Of Gardening Experience And Fruit And Vegetable Intake During College, Daniel Staub, Sarah Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Wenjun Zhou, Tanya M. Horacek, Geoffrey W. Greene, Ivana Radosavljevic, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Gardening has been positively associated with fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption based on short-term studies among children, but long-term data among adolescents and young adults are lacking. This investigation sought to elucidate the association between gardening experience and FV intake among college students over a two-year period. Students (N = 593) from eight universities were assessed at the end of their freshman (Y1) and sophomore (Y2) years during the springs of 2016 and 2017, respectively. At each time point, participants completed the NCI FV Screener and questions related to gardening experience and FV-related attitudes and behaviors. Students were then categorized into ...


Potential Economic Impact Of The Goshen/Gering-Ft. Laramie Tunnel Collapse, Jessica J. Groskopf Sep 2019

Potential Economic Impact Of The Goshen/Gering-Ft. Laramie Tunnel Collapse, Jessica J. Groskopf

Cornhusker Economics

Goshen and Scotts Bluff Counties reside in the High Plains and receive less than 16 inches of average annual precipitation. This low precipitation makes surface-water irrigation a critical component of modern agriculture in this area. Farmers in these counties produce irrigated alfalfa hay, corn, sugar beets, and dry edible beans, as well as other hay and crops.

Surface-water refers to water derived from melted snow that is delivered through a series of dams and canals from the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming along the North Platte River. This infrastructure, often referred to as “The North Platte Project,” was built by ...


Variable Rate Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In West-Central Nebraska Under Full And Deficit Irrigation, J Burdette Barker, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Christopher M.U. Neale, Daran Rudnick Sep 2019

Variable Rate Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In West-Central Nebraska Under Full And Deficit Irrigation, J Burdette Barker, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Christopher M.U. Neale, Daran Rudnick

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Variable rate irrigation (VRI) may improve center pivot irrigation management, including deficit irrigation. A remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration model was implemented with Landsat imagery to manage irrigations for a VRI equipped center pivot irrigated field located in West-Central Nebraska planted to maize in 2017 and soybean in 2018. In 2017, the study included VRI using the model, and uniform irrigation using neutron attenuation for full irrigation with no intended water stress (VRI-Full and Uniform-Full treatments, respectively). In 2018, two deficit irrigation treatments were added (VRI-Deficit and Uniform-Deficit, respectively) and the model was modified in an attempt to reduce water balance drift; model ...


Bourbon Virus In Wild And Domestic Animals, Missouri, Usa, 2012–2013, Katelin C. Jackson, Thomas Gidlewski, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Aaron C. Brault, Nicholas A. Panella, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar Sep 2019

Bourbon Virus In Wild And Domestic Animals, Missouri, Usa, 2012–2013, Katelin C. Jackson, Thomas Gidlewski, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Aaron C. Brault, Nicholas A. Panella, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first isolated from a febrile patient with a history of tick bites in Bourbon County, Kansas, USA; the patient later died from severe illness in 2014 (1). Several additional human BRBV infections were reported subsequently from the midwestern and southern United States (2). BRBV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Thogotovirus, which is distributed worldwide and includes Araguari, Aransas Bay, Dhori, Jos, Thogoto, and Upolu viruses (1,3). Thogoto and Dhori viruses have been associated with human disease (4–6). Viruses within the genus Thogotovirus have been associated with hard or soft ticks (7). Recent studies ...


Ag Lenders Panel Provides Insight Into Beef Systems Initiative, Jay Parsons, D. D. Redfearn, M. E. Drewnoski Aug 2019

Ag Lenders Panel Provides Insight Into Beef Systems Initiative, Jay Parsons, D. D. Redfearn, M. E. Drewnoski

Cornhusker Economics

In 2017, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Institute of Agricultural and Natural Resources (IANR) and Nebraska Extension made a commitment to implement a multidisciplinary Beef Systems Initiative (BSI). The BSI is administered by the Center for Grassland Studies and is comprised of six projects designed to develop and support the implementation of beef production systems that optimize feed resource use, natural resource conservation, and producer success in Nebraska through improved management of perennial grasslands and systems of integrated crop-beef cattle production. In addition to the BSI, a parallel project funded by the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR) is studying ...


Managing Farm/Ranch Transfer To Next Generation, Allan Vyhnalek Aug 2019

Managing Farm/Ranch Transfer To Next Generation, Allan Vyhnalek

Cornhusker Economics

The first step to have the next generation come back to the farm or ranch is to get them there. The next step is to keep them there. This requires thought about how to transfer management and ownership of the operation over a period of time. Four phases of transfer have been identified and are discussed in this article.

The first phase is Testing. Before transferring management and ownership, the current owner needs to feel like the younger generation is ‘tested’ or able to effectively help with the operation. One older farmer said to me, “I think my sons want ...


Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. Vannatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol Aug 2019

Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. Vannatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Field immobilization of native or invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is challenging. Drug combinations commonly used often result in unsatisfactory immobilization, poor recovery, and adverse side effects, leading to unsafe handling conditions for both animals and humans. We compared four chemical immobilization combinations, medetomidine–midazolam–butorphanol (MMB), butorphanol–azaperone–medetomidine (BAM™), nalbuphine–medetomidine–azaperone (NalMed-A), and tiletamine– zolazepam–xylazine (TZX), to determine which drug combinations might provide better chemical immobilization of wild pigs. We achieved adequate immobilization with no post-recovery morbidity withMMB. Adequate immobilization was achieved with BAM™; however, we observed post-recovery morbidity. Both MMB and BAM™ produced more optimal ...


Accounting For Risk: Agricultural Land Leases And Natural Disasters, Jim Jansen, Jeff Stokes Aug 2019

Accounting For Risk: Agricultural Land Leases And Natural Disasters, Jim Jansen, Jeff Stokes

Cornhusker Economics

According to recent findings from the USDA Agricultural and Resource Management Survey, agricultural land rent totaled $2.44 billion in Nebraska for 2018. The survey found rent as the third largest farm and ranch production expense (USDANASS 2019). Natural disasters limiting the ability of farmers or ranchers to fully utilize rented land pose a financial risk to these operators.

The 2019 floods and related natural disasters lave left many landlords and tenants across Nebraska wondering how resulting damages will influence their agricultural properties . Contractual lease arrangements may have not fully accounted for these natural disasters. This article provides guidance on ...


Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Scott J. Werner Aug 2019

Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Scott J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian vision is fundamentally different from human vision; however, even within birds there are substantial between species differences in visual perception in terms of visual acuity, visual coverage, and color vision. However, there are not many species that have all these visual traits described, which can constrain our ability to study the evolution of visual systems in birds. To start addressing this gap, we characterized multiple traits of the visual system (visual coverage, visual acuity, centers of acute vision, and color vision) of the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), one of the most abundant and studied birds in North America. We ...


Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman Aug 2019

Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Design of environmentally friendly lubricants derived from renewable resources is highly desirable for many practical applications. Here, Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) seed oil is found to have superior lubrication properties, and this is based on the unusual structural features of the major lipid species— triacylglycerol (TAG) estolides. Ov TAG estolides contain two non-hydroxylated, glycerol-bound fatty acids (FAs) and one dihydroxylated FA with an estolide branch. Estolide branch chains vary in composition and length, leading to their thermal stability and functional properties. Using this concept, nature-guided estolides of castor oil were synthesized. As predicted, they showed improved lubrication properties similar to Ov ...


An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik Aug 2019

An Attenuated Zika Virus Encoding Non-Glycosylated Envelope (E) And Non-Structural Protein 1 (Ns1) Confers Complete Protection Against Lethal Challenge In A Mouse Model, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Zack P. Guinn, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver, David J. Steffen, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Thomas M. Petro, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases, including congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although many vaccine platforms are at various stages of development, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Previously, we described a mutant MR766 ZIKV (m2MR) bearing an E protein mutation (N154A) that prevented its glycosylation, resulting in attenuation and defective neuroinvasion. To further attenuate m2MR for its potential use as a live viral vaccine, we incorporated additional mutations into m2MR by substituting the asparagine residues in the glycosylation sites (N130 and N207) of NS1 with alanine ...


2018 Nebraska Top Efficient Farms, Tina N. Barrett Aug 2019

2018 Nebraska Top Efficient Farms, Tina N. Barrett

Cornhusker Economics

A quarter doesn’t buy much these days so it’s easy to dismiss the value, but when 25 cents is what separates the cost of production per bushel of corn between two groups, the difference in net return starts to add up.

In 2018 the net farm income average of all farms included in the Nebraska Farm Business, Inc. group was $94,121. That was a surprisingly high number, but when compared to the net income of $261,059 for the group called the Top Efficient Farms, it shows there is a significant difference. The Top Efficient Farms group ...


Expression Of Multi-Domain Lytic Peptide Genes In Transgenic Plants For Disease Resistance, George Biliarski Aug 2019

Expression Of Multi-Domain Lytic Peptide Genes In Transgenic Plants For Disease Resistance, George Biliarski

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Four non-plant multi-domain lytic peptide genes coding for antimicrobial peptides were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and tested against three fungal pathogens: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium sp. Detached-leaf bioassay was performed for the transgenic plants carrying multi-domain lytic peptide constructs and compared with transgenic and wild type control plants. Symptom area of each leaf was measured with high precision using the Compu-Eye software and processed by SAS statistical package. The transgenic lines ORF13 and RSL1 showed substantial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection producing significantly smaller lesion areas compared to control plants. However, these lines were not ...


Oxygenation And Activation Of The Vastus Lateralis During Dynamic Constant External Resistance Leg Extension Muscle Actions In Older Women With And Without Sarcopenia, Brianna D. Mckay Aug 2019

Oxygenation And Activation Of The Vastus Lateralis During Dynamic Constant External Resistance Leg Extension Muscle Actions In Older Women With And Without Sarcopenia, Brianna D. Mckay

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The purpose of the present study was to compare muscle strength, size, activation, and oxygenation between older women with and without sarcopenia during dynamic fatiguing leg extension bouts with high (5-repetition maximum[5-RM]) and low (30% of estimated 1-RM[30%1-RM]) loads. Eleven women (n = 6 non-sarcopenic [mean ± SE; age = 75.8 ± 2.6y] and n = 5 sarcopenic [age = 74.5 ± 3.1y]) were screened for eligibility and sarcopenic status. Descriptive assessments including demographics (age, height, and weight), body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (fat mass[FM], fat-free mass[FFM] and percent body fat[BF%]), muscle size by ultrasonography (leg ...


Promoting Bee Communities Through Habitat Enhancements On Public And Private Lands In Nebraska, Kayla A. Mollet Aug 2019

Promoting Bee Communities Through Habitat Enhancements On Public And Private Lands In Nebraska, Kayla A. Mollet

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Wild and managed bees are the most effective pollinators, accounting for about 80% of the pollination of flowering plants and 75% of fruits, nuts, and vegetables in the United States (USDA, 2019; USFWS, 2019). An estimated 4,000 species of bees reside in North America, the majority of which are wild and unmanaged. Wild bee communities are critical for maintaining healthy ecosystems, as they sustain native flora that provides soil stability and habitat for other wildlife. In a changing landscape, floral enhancements on privately and publicly-owned lands may have great impact for improving habitat for pollinators across the United States ...


Effects Of Alternative Carbohydrate Sources And Soybean-Derived Isoflavones On The Microbiome And Immune System Of Nursery Piglets And Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Line J-2, Sydney Kinstler Aug 2019

Effects Of Alternative Carbohydrate Sources And Soybean-Derived Isoflavones On The Microbiome And Immune System Of Nursery Piglets And Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Line J-2, Sydney Kinstler

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four experiments were conducted to characterize the microbiome of the piglet and observe effects of diet on growth performance and immunity. In Exp. 1, 96 nursery piglets were fed varying carbohydrate sources and in Exp. 2, 64 piglets were fed a soy protein concentrate or soybean meal as-is or supplemented with an isoflavone concentrate. Body and feeder weights were measured for growth performance estimation. Luminal contents and scrapings were isolated for microbial composition analysis. Fecal and blood samples were extracted in Exp. 2 for microbiome and immunity analysis. Diets did not affect growth performance (P > 0.10); however, Exp. 1 ...


Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle Aug 2019

Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season monocot that is indigenous to locations in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and is considered a model grass for biofuel feedstock production. As switchgrass production increases, diseases pose a potential threat to biomass production and ethanol extraction. The two predominant switchgrass diseases in Nebraska are rust caused by Puccinia spp. and a viral mosaic disease caused by Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and its associated Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV). In this thesis, one study determined how SPMV affects PMV infection and systemic spread in two populations of switchgrass at different ...


3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids Induce Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Lipoapoptosis, Mona Hadidi Aug 2019

3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids Induce Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Lipoapoptosis, Mona Hadidi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) plays an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, especially during catabolic stress. Genetic mutation in gene that encodes for mitochondrial FAO enzymes could result in metabolic stress especially during fasting or hypoglycemic condition. Mutation in the active site residue (1528G>C) of long chain 3-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) results in the loss of LCHAD enzyme activity. Children’s with LCHAD mutation were known to accumulate 3-hydroxy fatty acids such as 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy myristic acids, long chain free fatty acids, acyl carnitine and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid due to their defective enzyme activity ...


Inhibitory Effects Of Shiitake-Derived Exosome-Like Nanoparticles On Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation, Yizhu Lu Aug 2019

Inhibitory Effects Of Shiitake-Derived Exosome-Like Nanoparticles On Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation, Yizhu Lu

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical mediator of inflammation and consists of the sensor NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), the adaptor apoptotic speck protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and the effector caspase-1. Dysregulated or excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the NLRP3 inflammasome is a promising therapeutic target for treating these diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed tiny particles released by almost any type of cells and they are involved in the intercellular communication by transferring their cargos including RNAs ...


Evaluation Of Alpha Amylase Containing Corn On Beef Cattle Performance And Digestibility And Double-Cropped Annual Forages Following Corn Harvest, Mckenna Brinton Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Alpha Amylase Containing Corn On Beef Cattle Performance And Digestibility And Double-Cropped Annual Forages Following Corn Harvest, Mckenna Brinton

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

One digestion and three feedlot trials evaluated the effect of a new corn hybrid containing an α-amylase enzyme trait, Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn (SYT-EFC) on site and extent of digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and feedlot performance. Experiments utilized corn containing the enzymatic gene (SYT-EFC) compared to commercially available corn (CON), processed as corn silage (CS) kernel processed or not (KP), dry-rolled corn (DRC), high-moisture corn (HMC), or a blend of DRC and HMC. Growing calves fed high inclusions of CS, displayed increased G:F when CS was KP, resulting in a 6.5% improvement in G:F. Hybrid and kernel ...


Investigating Parental Effects On End-Use Quality In Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Hybrids, Anthony Delaney Aug 2019

Investigating Parental Effects On End-Use Quality In Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Hybrids, Anthony Delaney

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

To optimize the performance and marketing of hybrid wheat, breeders need to understand the impact parents have on end-use quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the inheritance of end-use quality traits of hard winter wheat reciprocal hybrids produced by Easterly (2017). The 2016 analysis included 71 reciprocal hybrid combinations from 13 parents and the 2017 analysis included 79 reciprocal hybrid combinations from 14 parents. The reciprocals were composed of crosses between the top performing and bottom performing parents with respect to end-use quality as quantified by a Mixograph, a SDS sedimentation assay, and a SDS-SRC hybrid assay ...