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University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cellular and Molecular Physiology

2012

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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey Dec 2012

Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey

GSBS Student Publications

Comment on: Ling H, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:3779–91; PMID:23022877; http://0-dx.doi.org.library.simmons.edu/10.4161/cc.21985


The Cpeb Protein Orb2 Has Multiple Functions During Spermatogenesis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shuwa Xu, Nathaniel Hafer, Blessing Agunwamba, Paul Schedl Nov 2012

The Cpeb Protein Orb2 Has Multiple Functions During Spermatogenesis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shuwa Xu, Nathaniel Hafer, Blessing Agunwamba, Paul Schedl

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) proteins are translational regulators that can either activate or repress translation depending on the target mRNA and the specific biological context. There are two CPEB subfamilies and most animals have one or more genes from each. Drosophila has a single CPEB gene, orb and orb2, from each subfamily. orb expression is only detected at high levels in the germline and has critical functions in oogenesis but not spermatogenesis. By contrast, orb2 is broadly expressed in the soma; and previous studies have revealed important functions in asymmetric cell division, viability, motor function, learning, and memory. Here ...


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Jul 2012

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

GSBS Student Publications

Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in ...


Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis Jul 2012

Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in cancer, but the role of JNK in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the JNK signaling pathway reduces the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) conditional deletion model of prostate cancer. Mice with JNK deficiency in the prostate epithelium (DeltaJnk DeltaPten mice) develop androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer more rapidly than control (DeltaPten) mice. Similarly, prevention of JNK activation in the prostate epithelium (DeltaMkk4 DeltaMkk7 DeltaPten mice) causes rapid development of invasive adenocarcinoma. We found that JNK signaling defects cause an ...


Increased Oxidative Capacity Of Circulating Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils (Pmns) In Non-Diabetic Nash Patients, Timea Csak, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Dora Lippai, Michal Ganz, Christopher Marshall, Gyongyi Szabo May 2012

Increased Oxidative Capacity Of Circulating Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils (Pmns) In Non-Diabetic Nash Patients, Timea Csak, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Dora Lippai, Michal Ganz, Christopher Marshall, Gyongyi Szabo

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are key factors in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are capable to produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NADPH oxidase complex. Increased hepatic neutrophil infiltration has been described in steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the in vitro ROS generation by neutrophils of NASH patients and the hepatic NADPH oxidase activity in murine steatohepatitis.

Material and methods: PMNs were isolated from peripheral blood of NASH patients (n=16) and healthy controls (n=16). In vitro ROS production was measured by luminol chemiluminescence after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized ...


Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn May 2012

Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn

Davis Lab Publications

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse and human macrophages and thereby indirectly inhibits insulin signaling in cocultured adipocytes. This occurs through activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways independent of the RBP4 receptor, STRA6. RBP4 effects are markedly attenuated in JNK1-/- JNK2-/- macrophages and TLR4- ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Endocytosis: Trafficking And Functional Requirements For The Transferrin Receptor, Small Interfering Rnas And Dopamine Transporter: A Dissertation, Deanna M. Navaroli Apr 2012

Molecular Mechanisms Of Endocytosis: Trafficking And Functional Requirements For The Transferrin Receptor, Small Interfering Rnas And Dopamine Transporter: A Dissertation, Deanna M. Navaroli

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Endocytosis is an essential function of eukaryotic cells, providing crucial nutrients and playing key roles in interactions of the plasma membrane with the environment. The classical view of the endocytic pathway, where vesicles from the plasma membrane fuse with a homogenous population of early endosomes from which cargo is sorted, has recently been challenged by the finding of multiple subpopulations of endosomes. These subpopulations vary in their content of phosphatidylinositol 3- phosphate (PI3P) and Rab binding proteins. The role of these endosomal subpopulations is unclear, as is the role of multiple PI3P effectors, which are ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved ...


Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy Apr 2012

Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Diabetes mellitus comprises a cohort of genetic and metabolic diseases which are characterized by the hallmark symptom of hyperglycemia. Diabetic subtypes are based on their pathogenetic origins: the most prevalent subtypes are the autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the metabolic disease of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Genetic factors are major contributory aspects to diabetes development, particularly in T2DM where there is close to 80% concordance rates between monozygotic twins. However, the functional state of the pancreatic β cell is of paramount importance to the development of diabetes. Perturbations that lead to β cell dysfunction impair insulin production ...