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University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cellular and Molecular Physiology

GSBS Student Publications

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of Fatty Acid Oxidation And Lipogenesis In Mouse Primary Hepatocytes, Thomas E. Akie, Marcus P. Cooper Aug 2015

Determination Of Fatty Acid Oxidation And Lipogenesis In Mouse Primary Hepatocytes, Thomas E. Akie, Marcus P. Cooper

GSBS Student Publications

Lipid metabolism in liver is complex. In addition to importing and exporting lipid via lipoproteins, hepatocytes can oxidize lipid via fatty acid oxidation, or alternatively, synthesize new lipid via de novo lipogenesis. The net sum of these pathways is dictated by a number of factors, which in certain disease states leads to fatty liver disease. Excess hepatic lipid accumulation is associated with whole body insulin resistance and coronary heart disease. Tools to study lipid metabolism in hepatocytes are useful to understand the role of hepatic lipid metabolism in certain metabolic disorders. In the liver, hepatocytes regulate the breakdown and synthesis ...


The Putative Na(+)/Cl(-)-Dependent Neurotransmitter/Osmolyte Transporter Inebriated In The Drosophila Hindgut Is Essential For The Maintenance Of Systemic Water Homeostasis, Zhuo Luan, Caitlin Quigley, Hong-Sheng Li Jan 2015

The Putative Na(+)/Cl(-)-Dependent Neurotransmitter/Osmolyte Transporter Inebriated In The Drosophila Hindgut Is Essential For The Maintenance Of Systemic Water Homeostasis, Zhuo Luan, Caitlin Quigley, Hong-Sheng Li

GSBS Student Publications

Most organisms are able to maintain systemic water homeostasis over a wide range of external or dietary osmolarities. The excretory system, composed of the kidneys in mammals and the Malpighian tubules and hindgut in insects, can increase water conservation and absorption to maintain systemic water homeostasis, which enables organisms to tolerate external hypertonicity or desiccation. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis by the excretory system have not been fully characterized. In the present study, we found that the putative Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated (ine) is expressed in the basolateral membrane of anterior hindgut ...


A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano Dec 2014

A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano

GSBS Student Publications

Wolfram syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by diabetes and neurodegeneration and considered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disease. Despite the underlying importance of ER dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome and the identification of two causative genes, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), a molecular mechanism linking the ER to death of neurons and β cells has not been elucidated. Here we implicate calpain 2 in the mechanism of cell death in Wolfram syndrome. Calpain 2 is negatively regulated by WFS2, and elevated activation of calpain 2 by WFS2-knockdown correlates with cell death. Calpain activation is also induced ...


Morning And Evening Oscillators Cooperate To Reset Circadian Behavior In Response To Light Input, Pallavi Lamba, Diana Wentworth, Patrick Emery, Yong Zhang May 2014

Morning And Evening Oscillators Cooperate To Reset Circadian Behavior In Response To Light Input, Pallavi Lamba, Diana Wentworth, Patrick Emery, Yong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM), and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET). However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M) and the evening (E) oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in ...


Functional Overlap Among Distinct G1/S Inhibitory Pathways Allows Robust G1 Arrest By Yeast Mating Pheromones, Patricia A. Pope, Peter M. Pryciak Dec 2013

Functional Overlap Among Distinct G1/S Inhibitory Pathways Allows Robust G1 Arrest By Yeast Mating Pheromones, Patricia A. Pope, Peter M. Pryciak

GSBS Student Publications

In budding yeast, mating pheromones arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase via a pheromone-activated Cdk-inhibitor (CKI) protein, Far1. Alternate pathways must also exist, however, because deleting the cyclin CLN2 restores pheromone arrest to far1 cells. Here we probe whether these alternate pathways require the G1/S transcriptional repressors Whi5 and Stb1 or the CKI protein Sic1, whose metazoan analogues (Rb or p27) antagonize cell cycle entry. Removing Whi5 and Stb1 allows partial escape from G1 arrest in far1 cln2 cells, along with partial derepression of G1/S genes, which implies a repressor-independent route for inhibiting G1/S transcription. This ...


Crosstalk Between Casein Kinase Ii And Ste20-Related Kinase Nak1, Lubos Cipak, Sneha Gupta, Iva Rajovic, Quan-Wen Jin, Dorothea Anrather, Gustav Ammerer, Dannel Mccollum, Juraj Gregan Mar 2013

Crosstalk Between Casein Kinase Ii And Ste20-Related Kinase Nak1, Lubos Cipak, Sneha Gupta, Iva Rajovic, Quan-Wen Jin, Dorothea Anrather, Gustav Ammerer, Dannel Mccollum, Juraj Gregan

GSBS Student Publications

Although the sterile 20 (Ste20) serine/threonine protein kinase was originally identified as a component of the S. cerevisiae mating pathway, it has homologs in higher eukaryotes and is part of a larger family of Ste20-like kinases. Ste20-like kinases are involved in multiple cellular processes, such as cell growth, morphogenesis, apoptosis and immune response. Carrying out such a diverse array of biological functions requires numerous regulatory inputs and outputs in the form of protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Hence, a thorough knowledge of Ste20-like kinase binding partners and phosphorylation sites will be essential for understanding the various roles of these ...


Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey Dec 2012

Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey

GSBS Student Publications

Comment on: Ling H, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:3779–91; PMID:23022877; http://0-dx.doi.org.library.simmons.edu/10.4161/cc.21985


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Jul 2012

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

GSBS Student Publications

Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in ...


High-Resolution Phenotypic Profiling Defines Genes Essential For Mycobacterial Growth And Cholesterol Catabolism, Jennifer E. Griffin, Jeffrey D. Gawronski, Michael A. Dejesus, Thomas R. Ioerger, Brian J. Akerley, Christopher M. Sassetti Sep 2011

High-Resolution Phenotypic Profiling Defines Genes Essential For Mycobacterial Growth And Cholesterol Catabolism, Jennifer E. Griffin, Jeffrey D. Gawronski, Michael A. Dejesus, Thomas R. Ioerger, Brian J. Akerley, Christopher M. Sassetti

GSBS Student Publications

The pathways that comprise cellular metabolism are highly interconnected, and alterations in individual enzymes can have far-reaching effects. As a result, global profiling methods that measure gene expression are of limited value in predicting how the loss of an individual function will affect the cell. In this work, we employed a new method of global phenotypic profiling to directly define the genes required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A combination of high-density mutagenesis and deep-sequencing was used to characterize the composition of complex mutant libraries exposed to different conditions. This allowed the unambiguous identification of the genes that are ...


The Mitosis-To-Interphase Transition Is Coordinated By Cross Talk Between The Sin And Mor Pathways In Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Samriddha Ray, Kazunori Kume, Sneha Gupta, Wanzhong Ge, Mohan Balasubramanian, Dai Hirata, Dannel Mccollum Sep 2010

The Mitosis-To-Interphase Transition Is Coordinated By Cross Talk Between The Sin And Mor Pathways In Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Samriddha Ray, Kazunori Kume, Sneha Gupta, Wanzhong Ge, Mohan Balasubramanian, Dai Hirata, Dannel Mccollum

GSBS Student Publications

The mechanisms that regulate cytoskeletal remodeling during the transition between mitosis and interphase are poorly understood. In fission yeast the MOR pathway promotes actin polarization to cell tips in interphase, whereas the SIN signaling pathway drives actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. We show that the SIN inhibits MOR signaling in mitosis by interfering with Nak1 kinase-mediated activation of the most downstream MOR component, the NDR family kinase Orb6. Inactivation of the MOR may be a key function of the SIN because attenuation of MOR signaling rescued the cytokinetic defects of SIN mutants and allowed weak SIN signaling to trigger ectopic ...