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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman Aug 2019

Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blackberries are grown worldwide for commercial fresh markets, but there is limited information on consumer perceptions of this fruit. In this study, physiochemical and consumer sensory attributes of three Arkansas-grown fresh-market blackberry genotypes were evaluated and consumer perceptions of fresh-market blackberries were also investigated though an online survey. Two cultivars (Natchez and Ouachita) and one advanced selection (A-2418) were evaluated for compositional and nutraceutical analysis and consumer sensory analysis. Natchez had the highest berry weight, length, drupelets and pyrenes/berry, and pyrene weight/berry. Ouachita had the highest soluble solids content (11.9%), pH (3.18) and soluble solids/titratable ...


Anthocyanin Stability In Food Products Made With Freeze-Dried Blueberry Powder, Samantha Findley May 2019

Anthocyanin Stability In Food Products Made With Freeze-Dried Blueberry Powder, Samantha Findley

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study evaluated the stability of anthocyanins in six blueberry products (gummy, graham bar, oatmeal bar, rice krispy bar, ice pop and juice) prepared with freeze-dried wild blueberry powder during processing and over eight weeks storage. Total anthocyanins were determined by HPLC before processing and at day 0 and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of storage. Thermal processing of gummy and graham bar products resulted in significant losses of anthocyanins (50% and 31%, respectively). An eight-week storage time also resulted in a significant decrease in anthocyanins (7% to 51%) in products stored at ambient temperature. The ice pop, which ...


Concentration Of Hot Water Extracts Of Anthocyanins Obtained From Muscadine Grape Pomace Using Membrane-Osmotic Distillation, Chuqiao Mai May 2019

Concentration Of Hot Water Extracts Of Anthocyanins Obtained From Muscadine Grape Pomace Using Membrane-Osmotic Distillation, Chuqiao Mai

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Anthocyanins are well known for their health-promoting benefits. The goal of this study was to evaluate a distillation-based membrane technology to concentrate aqueous anthocyanins extracted from muscadine grape pomace using polypropylene (PP) or ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) membranes. A hot water extraction method was utilized to extract the anthocyanins from the pomace. A pre-experimental run using DI water as feed was conducted to optimize the NaCl brine concentration for osmotic distillation and it was determined that 4M was the optimal concentration. The aqueous anthocyanins extraction was filtrated through a series of filter of different pore sizes before the distillation process. Membrane ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank May 2019

Geospatial Analysis Of Rickettsial Species, Amy Frank

Entomology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular, arthropod-borne bacteria with a potential to cause multiple diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Fleas, mites, and ticks serve as vectors for Rickettsia, but ticks are the primary vector of interest. RMSF and other rickettsial diseases have continued to gain importance in both human and veterinary medicine as RMSF is the most common tick-borne disease within the United States according to the Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. A statewide citizen science project was utilized to determine the prevalence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia in Arkansas. This project yielded results in 64 of ...


Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay May 2019

Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: The Hispanic population is the largest growing minority ethnic group in the United States today. Minority groups have an added struggle with obesity and have higher rates of obesity in this country than the caucasian counterparts. While minority group parents want more for their children they face many cultural and language barriers related to proper nutrition and hydration. This prevents these families from gaining adequate nutrition.

Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the impact of nutrition education on obesity rates through implementation of a year long educational intervention for minority group mothers and their children through and already established ...


The Effect Of Labeling Information Framing On Genetically Modified Food Choices: A Query Theory Account, Taylor Pruitt May 2019

The Effect Of Labeling Information Framing On Genetically Modified Food Choices: A Query Theory Account, Taylor Pruitt

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The progression of policy that regulates genetically modified (GM) food in the US is a prime example of how the role of the government reformulates in relation to societal changes. Support for various labeling programs is formed around key themes which center on the benefits and costs associated with GM labels. The goal of this experiment was to explore the effect of information framing on GM food choices. This was accomplished by presenting information for or against GM labeling in terms of the benefits (positive framing) or costs (negative framing) to consumers. 1,410 consumers participated in an economic experiment ...


Assessment Of Factors That Impact Hydration Status Of Professional And Collegiate Mascots, Caroline Atwell May 2019

Assessment Of Factors That Impact Hydration Status Of Professional And Collegiate Mascots, Caroline Atwell

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mascots have unique physical demands and nutrition needs. They exert themselves tremendously on a variety of game days and at practices throughout the week. Hydration is as significant for mascots as it is for any other athlete, yet there is little to no known research available to help this population achieve a good hydration status. Studying similar populations such as cheerleaders, band members, football players, and firefighters provided a better understanding of mascot hydration. The purpose of this study was to examine the level of hydration knowledge in mascots performing at the collegiate and professional levels and determine the different ...


Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment May 2019

Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment

Theses and Dissertations

Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) are cellular regions of microtubule nucleation. The best known MTOCs are those associated with the centrosome, but several non-centrosomal MTOCs are known in eukaryotes, especially in land plants. MTOCs are poorly characterized across the breadth of amoebozoan diversity, but are well-known in certain amoebozoan lineages, including the genus of protosteloid slime molds Protostelium. The structure of the MTOC is known for two non-ciliated species, P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga, as well as P. aurantium, which can reversibly become ciliated under appropriate conditions. P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga have acentriolar centrosomal MTOCs while P. aurantium has a ...


Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty May 2019

Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty

Theses and Dissertations

The conglomeration of myriad activities in neural systems often results in prominent oscillations. The primary goal of the research presented in this thesis was to study effects of sensory stimulus on the olfactory system of rats, focusing on the olfactory bulb (OB) and the anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Extracellular electrophysiological measurements revealed distinct frequency bands of oscillations in OB and aPC. However, how these oscillatory fluctuations help the animal to process sensory input is not clearly understood. Here we show high frequency oscillations in olfactory bulb carry feedforward signals to anterior piriform cortex whereas feedback from the aPC is predominantly ...


Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long May 2019

Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long

Theses and Dissertations

In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...


Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones May 2019

Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost ...


Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins May 2019

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Due to the obesity epidemic, many studies have compared nutrient intake to human body composition. However, previous studies have not used gold standard measures of body composition in a college population. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how dietary behaviors, overall energy intake, and macronutrient intake are associated with the body composition factors measured in a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. We hypothesize higher body fat percentage will be associated with higher fat and carbohydrate intake, but not total energy intake. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done as part of Exercise is Medicine® On Campus ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould May 2019

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Increasing Low-Income Residents’ Access To Fresh Produce Through A Local Mobile Pantry, Laura Wasson May 2019

Increasing Low-Income Residents’ Access To Fresh Produce Through A Local Mobile Pantry, Laura Wasson

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Seeds that Feed (STF) is a mobile food pantry located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. STF receives produce from local farmers to distribute to residents in low-income housing sites throughout Northwest Arkansas. According to Feeding America, food insecurity affected 14.3% Washington County, Arkansas’ population in 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine if STF’s model is an effective way to increase individuals’ access to fresh fruits and vegetables and increase their potential to meet the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Patterns (USDA-FP) for to fruit and vegetable consumption. Twenty-three participants from three sites completed the study ...


The Effects Of Pre And Post Exercise Low-Level Laser Therapy On Biochemical Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Equines, Carson Freeman May 2019

The Effects Of Pre And Post Exercise Low-Level Laser Therapy On Biochemical Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Equines, Carson Freeman

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Our objective was to determine whether administering low-level laser therapy before or after exercise had the greatest effect on biochemical markers of skeletal muscle fatigue in equines such as cortisol and blood lactate. Twelve quarter horses were divided into three groups: Group A received no laser therapy, Group B received laser therapy before exercise, and Group C received laser therapy after exercise. A Class II ERCHONIA ® PL500 handheld low-level laser was utilized for treatment with a wavelength of 635nm. Exercise was utilized using a horse walker system for 30 minutes five days a week for three weeks. Blood was collected ...


The Association Between Fruit And Vegetable Consumption And Mental Health Among Young Adults, Natalie Miller May 2019

The Association Between Fruit And Vegetable Consumption And Mental Health Among Young Adults, Natalie Miller

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

While the majority of the American population is aware that fruits and vegetables can improve physical health, research also suggests that mental health may benefits as well. With depression and anxiety rates increasing and fruit and vegetable consumption decreasing across the country there is potential that the two are related. It has been found that majority of American adults do not meet fruit and vegetable recommendations, while 16 million adults face depression and anxiety. Young adults reported the lowest amount of fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as some of the highest rates of depression and anxiety. The purpose of ...


Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard May 2019

Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary goal of this research is to access the feasibility of implementing and operating small scale aquaponic systems in a home setting to serve as a means of producing high quality fresh produce and fish protein to supplement similar store-bought products. Factors such as system cost, skill level and management requirements will be addressed alongside customizable, educational and sustainable aspects of aquaponic systems to determine whether home aquaponic systems are a feasible option for the home grower. To elaborate, feasibility in this research will refer to both economic costs relative to costs of the system. Outlined in this short ...


Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark May 2019

Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark

Theses and Dissertations

As Americans are spending greater portions of their dollar on food consumed outside the home, the foodservice industry plays more of an integral part of daily existence compared to previous generations. Given the numerous annual foodborne illness outbreaks that threaten human lives while undermining confidence in the food supply, food safety is a pertinent issue for industry stakeholders, government regulators, and consumers. Food worker handwashing reduces the risk of foodborne illness transmission, yet compliance with this simple behavior is a complex problem. This dissertation addresses, predominantly, the issue of sub-optimal handwashing practices through applying psychology and technology, including wearable computers ...


Fitness Vs Fatness And Cardiovascular Health In Adolescents, Ashley E. Hensley May 2019

Fitness Vs Fatness And Cardiovascular Health In Adolescents, Ashley E. Hensley

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Adolescent obesity has been on the rise with studies showing obesity tracks into adulthood. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); CVD is the leading cause of adult death in the U.S. Previous research shows a strong positive relationship between physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular (CV) health even in an obese adult population. Thus, the relationship between adolescent physical fitness and lifetime risk for CVD and all-cause mortality should be investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine associations between PA and adiposity with cardiovascular health in obese and non-obese weight adolescents, with ...


The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem May 2019

The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are major maternal dietary supplements due to their positive benefits on neurological tissue growth during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Previous studies show that EPA and DHA inhibit muscle formation but promote adipogenesis. However, no research has addressed the question whether high intake of EPA and DHA affects brown fat development during gestation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of EPA and DHA supplement on brown adipogenesis and potential pathways related to mitochondrial biosynthesis using fibroblasts as in vitro model. Using Oil-Red-O staining ...


Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter May 2019

Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study explores the husbandry methodologies on a backyard poultry farm in Dangriga, Belize, with the purpose of producing a set of guidelines for backyard poultry growers that have limited resources in similar regions. The majority of data collection occurred through survey questions approved by the IRB, necropsies approved by IACUC, and general observations. There has been a steady increase in poultry production in developing regions due to its positive effects on income and relative nutrition. However, due to a lack of accessible communication and education regarding effective and safe poultry production, these operators typically see poor productivity and/or ...


Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry May 2019

Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

As global population continues to grow improving agricultural production become even more important. Smallholder farmers make up a large portion of agricultural production in developing countries (Gueye, 2000; Upton, 2000). East Africa is one sector which has seen growth in poultry production over the pas five years. (Vernooij, Masaki, & Meiher-Willems, 2018). One major constraint to smallholder production is lack of access to educational materials and production guidelines (Mack et al., 2005).

The purpose of the study was to describe methods of production utilized by smallholder farmers in Rwanda and determine what information should be included in a production guide. The ...


Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon May 2019

Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Today’s grocery stores are filled aisle to aisle with an overwhelming variety of options for the consumer. In a consumer-driven market structure, the food industry has grown to encompass many niche markets which meet the ever changing demands of consumers. From organically produced food to more modern agriculture practices and even to finding non-meat protein alternatives, the options are endless. However, in the United States (a country with a higher level of disposable income compared to others), the question arises are customers educated about what the products truly are that they are spending a price premium on?

This study ...


The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson May 2019

The Diversity Of Terrestrial Mammals Surrounding Waterfall At Billy Barquedier National Park, Kelsey Johnson

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Billy Barquedier is a National Park located in the Stann Creek district of Belize that contains Neotropical vegetation and wildlife. This study was performed in order to provide a baseline inventory and appearance frequency patterns of the terrestrial mammals located within Zone 1 of the park near a waterfall. The goal of the data and information collected during this study is to gain a greater understanding of the biodiversity and activity patterns of terrestrial mammals within the park and across Belize as a whole. The use of camera traps, small Sherman live traps, large live traps, and tracking methods were ...


Evaluation Of Drought Tolerance In Arkansas Cowpea Lines At Seedling Stage, Qirui Cui May 2019

Evaluation Of Drought Tolerance In Arkansas Cowpea Lines At Seedling Stage, Qirui Cui

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.] is not only a healthy, nutritious and versatile leguminous crop, it also has a relatively high adaptation to drought. Researches have shown that cowpea lines have a high tolerance to drought, and many of them can survive over 40 days under very hot and dry conditions. The cowpea (Southern pea) breeding program at the University of Arkansas (UA) has been active for over 50 years and has produced more than 1,000 advanced breeding lines. And the purpose of this study is to evaluate the drought-tolerant ability in Arkansas cowpea lines and use the drought ...


Determination Of Optimum Harvest Date For Winter Malting Quality Barley In Northwest Arkansas, Paul Wolf May 2019

Determination Of Optimum Harvest Date For Winter Malting Quality Barley In Northwest Arkansas, Paul Wolf

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the strict quality requirements, only 10 percent of worldwide barley is used for malting, though malting quality barley comes with a price increase of up to 50 percent or higher. With the craft brewery industry growing in Northwest Arkansas there is a growing demand for locally sourced malt quality barley. However, data is lacking regarding production practices for barley in Arkansas. The optimum harvest date for malting quality barley is at physiological maturity. This is because many of the malting traits (such as germination energy) decline as harvest is delayed, which will make it difficult to meet the ...


Vincent Van Gogh's Wheatfields And Piet Oudolf's Meadows: Color, Contrast And Change In The Landscape, Erin A. Cox May 2019

Vincent Van Gogh's Wheatfields And Piet Oudolf's Meadows: Color, Contrast And Change In The Landscape, Erin A. Cox

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Honors Theses

This capstone investigates the unique relationship between Vincent Van Gogh and planting designer Piet Oudolf's vibrant use of color and contrast in their work as it relates to their perception of the landscape. The project is mainly a comparison of the two artists, exploring Van Gogh's use of complementary colors and brushstroke techniques to create vivid contrast in his renderings of agrarian landscapes, and Oudolf's parallel approach to creating painterly meadows and prairie gardens. The project focuses on Van Gogh’s study of wheat field landscapes, which are essentially the same in structure and composition but can ...


Phylogenomics And Geometric Morphometrics Define Species Flocks Of Snowtrout (Teleostei: Schizothorax) In The Central Himalayas, Binod Regmi May 2019

Phylogenomics And Geometric Morphometrics Define Species Flocks Of Snowtrout (Teleostei: Schizothorax) In The Central Himalayas, Binod Regmi

Theses and Dissertations

Schizothorax (Snowtrout) is a genus of medium-sized minnows (Cypriniformes) inhabiting glacier-fed streams, rivers, and lakes in the Himalayas. There are more than 30 species of Schizothorax across the region. The speciation and diversity of the Snowtrout in the vast hinterlands of the Himalayan Region has not been fully explored. Three species in Lake Rara, Western Nepal are considered a species flock, comprising endemic ecotypes that are morphologically differentiated and reproductively isolated.

My dissertation research examined the diversity of Schizothorax in the Central Himalayan region and evolutionary relationships among species distributed in the Tibet, Central and Southeast Asia. Chapter I describes ...


Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany May 2019

Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany

Theses and Dissertations

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ions (Ag+) can be the new generation of antibiotics due to their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and other microbes. Many studies have shown that AgNPs and suppress the growth of bacteria and damage the cell walls of the microbes; therefore, treating bacterial cells with AgNPs may be a promising method to terminate multi-resistant bacteria. In this work, the effect of AgNPs with two different surface coatings on the spatial reorganization of histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) proteins in Escherichia coli bacteria was investigated using quantitative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to understand the toxicity and antimicrobial mechanism of AgNPs ...