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Effect Of Hydroculture Methods On Tomato Root Morphology And Anatomy, Lia Maclellan Aug 2019

Effect Of Hydroculture Methods On Tomato Root Morphology And Anatomy, Lia Maclellan

Honors College

Three methods of hydroculture were compared for their effects on the root anatomy and morphology of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Defiant). A hydroponic deep water culture method, an ebb-flood system using expanded clay pellets as a solid medium and an aeroponic sub-mist system were compared, with a solid peat/perlite medium for control. The treatments were found to have significant effects on plant root and shoot length, as well as root and shoot biomass. Root morphology was visually distinct among treatments, and all methods of hydroculture were associated with a significant increase in vascular tissue in plant roots compared with ...


Simpson (Geddes W.) Records, 1920-2001, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine Jan 2019

Simpson (Geddes W.) Records, 1920-2001, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

Geddes Wilson Simpson received an A.B. in zoology from Bucknell University in 1929 and an A.M. in insect morphology from Cornell University in 1931. In 1935 he completed a Ph.D. in economic entomology at Cornell.

In 1931, Simpson joined the staff of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station at the University of Maine. As a research entomologist, he gained national recognition for his work on aphids, especially those affecting potato plants. In 1952, Simpson was named professor of entomology at UMaine. He remained in that position until his retirement in 1974. For many years he was editor of ...


Multi-Tactic Ecological Weed Management In A Changing Climate, Sonja K. Birthisel Dec 2018

Multi-Tactic Ecological Weed Management In A Changing Climate, Sonja K. Birthisel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is expected to impact weed communities in Maine, and the efficacy of tools and tactics farmers use to manage them. Through seedbank sampling and surveys of Maine organic farms, we identified currently rare weeds that are known to be especially abundant or problematic in warmer areas of the USA and might therefore represent an emerging agronomic risk. Many ecological weed management strategies that focus on depleting the weed seedbank are expected to remain effective in a changing climate, and become increasingly important as efficacy of cultivation and some herbicide applications diminish or become more variable. Through field experiments ...


Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach Aug 2018

Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollination of both wild and crop plants is at a crossroads; honey bee populations are experiencing losses at a higher rate than ever before, and some native bee species are declining in abundance to the point of being listed as endangered species. A few examples of these threats include pesticide exposure, habitat loss, and climate change. In response to bee population declines, conservation efforts have been initiated to increase habitat quality for bees by planting pollinator reservoirs or gardens. Plants provide nutrition to bees in the form of pollen and nectar. Several studies have shown links between higher nutritional quality ...


Band-Sowing With Hoeing For Weed Management In Organic Grains, Margaret R. Mccollough Aug 2018

Band-Sowing With Hoeing For Weed Management In Organic Grains, Margaret R. Mccollough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weeds remain the foremost production challenge for organic small grain growers in the Northeastern United States. Instead of sowing crops in narrow, single-line rows, band-sowing with inter-band hoeing is a cropping strategy that could provide superior weed control. In theory, band-sowing suppresses weeds in the intra-band zone by improving the spatial arrangement of the crop from that of typical rows to a more uniform pattern within the planted bands, maximizing interspecific and reducing intraspecific competition. Weeds in the inter-band zone are controlled by cultivating with aggressive sweeps; tine harrowing can target weeds in the intra- and inter-band zones.

Chapter one ...


Optimizing Fertilizer And Compost Rates In Organic Reduced Till Agriculture, Nicholas W. Rowley May 2018

Optimizing Fertilizer And Compost Rates In Organic Reduced Till Agriculture, Nicholas W. Rowley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Interest in reduced tillage systems has been increasing and advanced by a need to practice agriculture in a sustainable way to limit environmental degradation. The focus on preserving soil integrity has become commonplace in all scales of agriculture. Recently trends in agricultural production have given rise to numerous small farms centered on local and sustainable farming. In turn, this has led to a growing desire to implement conservation tillage into these systems.

In 2015 and 2016 a collaborative effort between the University of Maine at the Maine Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station: Highmoor Farm and Cornell University at the Homer ...


Mr448: Bees And Their Habitats In Four New England States, Alison C. Dibble, Francis A. Drummond, Anne L. Averill, Kalyn Bickerman-Martens, Sidney C. Bosworth, Sara L. Bushman, Aaron K. Hoshide, Megan E. Leach, Kim Skyrm, Eric Venturini, Annie White May 2018

Mr448: Bees And Their Habitats In Four New England States, Alison C. Dibble, Francis A. Drummond, Anne L. Averill, Kalyn Bickerman-Martens, Sidney C. Bosworth, Sara L. Bushman, Aaron K. Hoshide, Megan E. Leach, Kim Skyrm, Eric Venturini, Annie White

Miscellaneous Reports

Bees are crucial to pollination in unmanaged ecosystems and some crops, and their roles are increasingly understood in four states in the Northeastern U.S., abbreviated “NNE” in this paper: Maine (ME), Massachusetts (MA), New Hampshire (NH), and Vermont (VT). The four states have in common many native bee and plant species, forest types, and natural communities. They share drought events and risk of wildfire (Irland 2013). They are exposed to many of the same major storms (e.g., hurricanes, Foster 1988), pollution events (Hand et al. 2014), and effects ascribed to climate change (Hayhoe et al. 2008). Beekeeping enterprises ...


Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton May 2018

Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The response of field-grown vegetable crops to reduced tillage and mulching in permanent beds was evaluated through measuring crop yields, weed pressure, earthworm counts, and soil basal respiration. Two vegetable crops (“Bush Delicata” squash and “Farao” cabbage) were started in April and May of 2016 and 2017 respectively, transplanted in late June, and harvested on 15-Sep-2016 and 25-Aug-2017. Fruit number and weight of squash, and head weight and feeding damage of cabbage were measured. These results suggest that intensive tillage (8” rototill every year) can be successfully reduced to alternating years of shallow (2”) rototilling and a less intensive form ...


Rearing Queen Honey Bees: A Bullet Journal, Marianna Mead Jan 2018

Rearing Queen Honey Bees: A Bullet Journal, Marianna Mead

Sweet Spot

This bullet journal documents a summer research project focused on rearing queen honey bees in Maine. Containing time logs, checklists, timelines, and pictures, this annotated journal provides information on how to rear queen honey bees. It includes details on how to make a starter hive, the dangers of disease, the benefits of queen rearing and a grafting day checklist.


Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station (University Of Maine) Records, 1888-1987, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine Jan 2018

Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station (University Of Maine) Records, 1888-1987, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

In 1883, the Maine Board of Agriculture called for the establishment of a formal experiment station in Orono. With the support of state funds the Maine Fertilizer Control and Agricultural Experiment Station (later becoming the Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station). Eventually the Station would expand its research into genetics and breeding, entomology, forestry, food, potatoes, blueberries, and dairy. Such studies have been funded by both state and federal agriculture grants.

The records mainly contain textual information created and curated by the University of Maine's Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station. The record series Administrative Records includes: budget reports including spending ...


Eggert (Franklin P.) Records, 1959-1993, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine Jan 2018

Eggert (Franklin P.) Records, 1959-1993, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

Franklin Paul Eggert was born in 1920 in Buffalo, New York. He came to the University of Maine in 1949 as extension fruit specialist and head of the horticulture department of the Agricultural Experiment Station. He was dean of the Graduate School from 1963 to 1975. He retired from the University in 1986. Franklin Paul Eggert died age 83 on October 23, 2003.

The records include the various correspondence of Eggert related to his time as chairperson of the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences including regarding horticulture research both at the University of Maine and elsewhere, professional meetings and ...


A Comparison Of Seed- And Seedling-Focused Ecologically Based Weed Management Strategies, Bryan Brown May 2017

A Comparison Of Seed- And Seedling-Focused Ecologically Based Weed Management Strategies, Bryan Brown

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many farmers target weeds at the seedling stage, aiming to control weeds with the minimum amount of labor necessary to avoid crop yield loss. Other farmers with a more long-term, seed-focused approach aim to prevent weeds from setting seed so that emergence will be decreased in subsequent crops. These strategies likely vary in short- and long-term effects on farm ecological and economic health. In 2014–2016, I compared these strategies in a test crop of onion. Unexpectedly, due to high yields, the more labor intensive, seed-focused strategy was the most profitable. Case-study interviews of farmers who have adopted each approach ...


Use Of Endomaxx Mycorrhizal Seed Treatment To Improve Potato Production In Maine, John M. Jemison Jr. Feb 2017

Use Of Endomaxx Mycorrhizal Seed Treatment To Improve Potato Production In Maine, John M. Jemison Jr.

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

With the increasing cost of fertilizer and the ever-decreasing supply of apatite worldwide, improving phosphorus (P) uptake should be a goal for all producers. Due to our high levels of iron and aluminum oxides in Maine soils, P efficiency is very poor. As a result, potato farmers tend to over apply P to ensure that their crop will have adequate P. Over time, this has led to increasing plant available soil test P levels. I recently requested the Maine Soil Test Lab director for potato soil tests over the past ten years. The percentage of soils testing above 40 lbs ...


Nurse Cropping In Potato Systems, John M. Jemison Jr. Feb 2017

Nurse Cropping In Potato Systems, John M. Jemison Jr.

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

In the summer of 2016, a study was conducted at the Rogers Farm in Stillwater, Maine to study the effect of short-term nurse crops on potato yield and quality. The study was designed as a randomized complete block design with six replications. The study compared two sowing rates (winter rye at 100 vs. 200 lbs/ac) to 20 lbs of annual ryegrass or a check plot (no nurse crop). In addition, each of the winter rye treatments was either killed with an herbicide prior to one-pass hilling or just hilled. To address the question of how long to grow a ...


Joseph Henry Bodwell Becomes First County Agent In Piscataquis County, Mary Annis Jan 2017

Joseph Henry Bodwell Becomes First County Agent In Piscataquis County, Mary Annis

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

The story of Joseph H. Bodwell starting his career as the new county agent in Piscataquis County. Full of the trials and tribulations of working in the early twentieth century. His first transportation was a horse and buggy. Learn how Joe was able to capture the hearts and minds of area farmers.


Social Ecological Food Systems: Sustainability Lessons From Maine Dairy Networks, Julia B. Mcguire Aug 2016

Social Ecological Food Systems: Sustainability Lessons From Maine Dairy Networks, Julia B. Mcguire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Milk production has played an integral role in the culture, landscape, and economy of Maine’s agriculture. Maine dairy farmers have faced numerous sustainability challenges to economic, environmental, and social aspects of their industry. Like many other complex social ecological systems, the Maine dairy industry faces a gap between scientific knowledge and actionable management or policy. A cultural dichotomy exists between conventional and organic farming. Shifting the focus from this binary, metrics such as social capital may play a key role in solving sustainability issues. Difficulties arise in the governance of complex social ecological systems when the scales of assessment ...


Biological, Behavioral And Preventative Management Of The Invasive Insect Pest, Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii Matsumura), In Maine Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium Aiton), Gabe Alnajjar Aug 2016

Biological, Behavioral And Preventative Management Of The Invasive Insect Pest, Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii Matsumura), In Maine Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium Aiton), Gabe Alnajjar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research was conducted in order to identify the potential for utilization of various management techniques against the invasive Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), using Maine lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) as a model crop system. These included evaluations of three prospective approaches often considered when developing agricultural pest management programs for novel insect pests: 1) biological control through the intended release of natural enemies, in this case entomopathogenic fungi; 2) behavioral management through mass trap deployment in order to capture and kill adult SWD, and; 3) prevention through the deployment of insect ...


B854: Cost Of Producing Milk In Maine: Results From The 2013 Cost-Of-Production Survey, Xuan Chen,, Gary Anderson, Dylan Bouchard, Julia Mcguire, George K. Criner, David Marcinkowski May 2016

B854: Cost Of Producing Milk In Maine: Results From The 2013 Cost-Of-Production Survey, Xuan Chen,, Gary Anderson, Dylan Bouchard, Julia Mcguire, George K. Criner, David Marcinkowski

Bulletins

The state of Maine has a unique tier-pricing program for dairy farms, established in 2004, which has been funded by milk-handling fees paid by processors. Given the nature of volatile production costs in dairy farming, it is important to update the baseline cost estimates for each tier every three years. This study aims to provide a precise baseline estimate of cost of production for each tier so that state legisla­tors can better manage the tier-pricing program. The authors provide a historic overview of past Maine dairy cost-of-production studies. They analyze the trend of the cost of producing milk in ...


The Black Bear Food Guild: Student-Run Community Supported Agriculture From Roots To Fruition, Sara L. Lyons May 2016

The Black Bear Food Guild: Student-Run Community Supported Agriculture From Roots To Fruition, Sara L. Lyons

Honors College

The University of Maine is a Land Grant Institution developed, among other reasons, to promote education in the agricultural sciences. Sustainable Agriculture emerged as a new discipline, reflecting the sentiment of the times. The concept of Community Supported Agriculture gained popularity in the United States in the late 1970s. In Maine, Community Supported Agriculture farms have increased steadily since their establishment in the United States. The University of Maine Black Bear Food Guild is an entirely student-run Community Supported Agriculture operation that provides several benefits to the university and the surrounding community. These benefits include: student learning, student work opportunities ...


Using The Real Food Calculator To Assess The University Of Maine's Dining Purchases Within A Food System Context, Ashely Thibeault Oct 2015

Using The Real Food Calculator To Assess The University Of Maine's Dining Purchases Within A Food System Context, Ashely Thibeault

Honors College

This study investigated the University of Maine’s food purchasing using the Real Food Calculator to determine the Real Food percentage. Real Food is defined by the Real Food Challenge as local, humane, fair, and ecologically sound. The Real Food Challenge is an organization that seeks to create systemic food system change through student efforts on college campuses by shifting food purchasing to 20% Real Food by 2020. The University of Maine had 5% Real Food in the 2012-2013 academic year. While there are limitations to Real Food and the Real Food Calculator, it may produce a change in the ...


Method Development For Vitamin C Quantification In Two Complex Matrices, Hannah D. Hutt Aug 2015

Method Development For Vitamin C Quantification In Two Complex Matrices, Hannah D. Hutt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The following liquid chromatographic (LC) method developments and applied research studies were done using two complex food matrices, potatoes and elderberries, which are common to the state of Maine. Potatoes are Maine’s largest agricultural crop, a staple food in most U.S. households, and are, from an analytical standpoint, considered a complex matrix due to the high starch content that can be difficult to remove without degrading or removing nutrients in the process. Elderberries are an emerging crop in the U.S. because of their antioxidant and anti-viral properties and are found growing wild, throughout Maine. Elderberries are also ...


The Enhancement Of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) For Pollination Security, Eric M. Venturini Aug 2015

The Enhancement Of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) For Pollination Security, Eric M. Venturini

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The acreage of pollinator-dependent crops continues to expand across the globe. Simultaneously, honey bee hives – an annually rented commodity that growers rely on – are more expensive every year and in some cases, scarce. In response, pollinator-dependent growers seek alternative pollinators. One approach is installing bee pasture on farms, a strategy that enables systems-based farmers to become in-situ farm-scale habitat managers. This thesis first presents a review of the literature on bee pasture plantings and provides a brief overview of some methods for assessing their impacts on the pollinator community. There are three major gaps in current bee pasture research. First ...


Career: Dynamics Of Hierarchical Householdstructured Epidemiological Models, David Hiebeler May 2015

Career: Dynamics Of Hierarchical Householdstructured Epidemiological Models, David Hiebeler

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Mathematical and computational models will be used to study populations hierarchically segregated into groups referred to as "households". These households may represent patches within an agricultural field, fields within a landscape, dorms within a school, schools within a city, cities within a region, or even subnetworks within larger computer networks. Population models and epidemiological models will be explored within this framework, complementing other work with lattice-structured populations. In the models, interactions within a household occur much more often than interactions between different households. Primary goals of the models are to better understand how and why spatially targeted and/or clustered ...


Forward Not Back: Young People's Search For Community And Farming In Maine, Danielle Walczak Apr 2015

Forward Not Back: Young People's Search For Community And Farming In Maine, Danielle Walczak

Honors College

In Maine there is a growing body of statistics pointing to the growth of agriculture in the state. Yet with one of the oldest populations in the country, Maine is always asking: how do we bring young people to the state? Farming may be a start. The number of farmers age 34 and under increased 40 percent between 2007 and 2012. Maine is bucking the trend. While most of the country’s farms are decreasing in number and getting bigger in size, Maine farms are increasing in number while staying small. Behind each of these statistics there is a person ...


Selling Beef In Maine #1048, Donna R. Coffin Jan 2015

Selling Beef In Maine #1048, Donna R. Coffin

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

Are you a beef producer interested in learning more about the different markets available to you to sell your beef? This bulletin discusses the risks, benefits, and requirements for selling beef in Maine. 2 pages. © 2015 by University of Maine Cooperative Extension.


Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre Jan 2015

Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

Written for small-scale poultry producers. University specialists, Extension educators, and agriculture service providers from New England and New York developed this list of Best Management Practices to assist small-scale poultry growers to provide the best of care for their birds, minimize losses due to disease and predation, as well as minimizing the impact on the environment while assuring a high quality, wholesome product for their family and customers.


An Economic Analysis Of Wild Bee Pollination In Lowbush Blueberry Production, Francis A. Drummond Nov 2014

An Economic Analysis Of Wild Bee Pollination In Lowbush Blueberry Production, Francis A. Drummond

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The purpose of this project is to determine the relative economic values of wild bee pollinators and commercial honeybees in lowbush blueberry production for individual Maine farms. The lowbush blueberry requires insect pollination in order to set fruit. Most farmers rent colonies of the non-native honeybee for pollination services, but wild, native bees are also effective pollinators. This project aims to provide growers with the means to assess the pollination needs of individual fields and to understand the levels of pollination possible if honeybees are not available. In order to achieve these goals, the relative abundance and species diversity of ...


Bridging Gaps And Building Solidarity, Shannon Brenner May 2014

Bridging Gaps And Building Solidarity, Shannon Brenner

Honors College

Real innovation for a more sustainable and inclusive food system requires collaboration based on resilient relationships between a diverse range of community partners and across socio-economic boundaries. SNAP incentive programs at farmer’s markets are bridging gaps in food access and sovereignty for thousands of individuals across the country, but what are the far reaching implications of these programs in terms of a sustainable food system, especially in an uncertain economic landscape? Using the findings of a quantitative, interdisciplinary and community inclusive research project of the Community Supported Farmers’ Markets (CSFM), a SNAP incentive program organized by Food and Medicine ...


Maine Farmers' Perspectives: Barriers And Optimism To Providing Food To Feed Maine People, A Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups, Kelly Ann Ilseman May 2014

Maine Farmers' Perspectives: Barriers And Optimism To Providing Food To Feed Maine People, A Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups, Kelly Ann Ilseman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine has a history and tradition of agriculture in the state. Some growth in the number of farms in recent years has been due to youth entering agriculture, and in the development of small, diverse farms. There is also public interest in purchasing fresh, local foods. This study was done in conjunction with a University of Maine Cooperative Extension study that assessed Maine farmer’s views of the future of farming in Maine. The farmers (n=189) participated in one of twelve focus groups held across the state and represented a broad sector of Maine agriculture, including vegetable and fruit ...


Beef Cattle Herd Health Management Guide For Maine #1031, Donna Coffin Jan 2014

Beef Cattle Herd Health Management Guide For Maine #1031, Donna Coffin

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

A herd health management plan is vital to profitable beef production. Do not wait until a disease outbreak occurs before implementing a sound herd health program. For cattle to reach their performance potential, they must be healthy. Vaccinations are an approved practice for organic producers. 5 pages. © 2014 by University of Maine Cooperative Extension.