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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams Jan 2013

Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams

Jennifer Cumming

This article reviews literature on cognitive and motivational imagery use in the sport, exercise, dance, and rehabilitation domains and outlines a revised applied model of imagery use. The original model by Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999 guides practitioners and researchers in determining what cognitive and/or motivational imagery to use in a particular situation for achieving a desired outcome. The revised model proposed builds on the original version by retaining its empiricallysupported “where”, “when”, and “why” components. Incorporating recent advancements in imagery research, the model distinguishes between what is imaged (i.e., the content) from why it is imaged (i.e ...


Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully ...


Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Imagery studies have varied widely in the methods used to deliver guided imagery interventions. This variation has led to difficulties comparing studies and uncertainty as to what methods should be followed. A review is needed to evaluate the interventions to date to inform applied recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to (1) assess the quality of intervention design, (2) investigate the extent to which interventions vary, (3) highlight the different methods that should be considered in the design and implementation of future interventions, and (4) investigate adherence to some of the current theories and models of imagery use ...


Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall Jan 2012

Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire- Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.


Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2011

Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This research aimed to develop and provide initial validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ). The SIAQ assesses athletes’ ease of imaging different types of imagery content. Following an extensive pilot study, 375 athletes completed a 20-item SIAQ in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor model assessing skill, strategy, goal, and affect imagery ability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established this 4-factor structure in Study 2 (N = 363 athletes). In Study 3 (N = 438 athletes), additional items were added to create a fifth mastery imagery subscale that was confirmed through CFA. Study 4 (N = 220 athletes) compared the ...


The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos Jan 2010

The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (Mage = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge ...


Self-Reported Psychological States And Physiological Responses To Different Types Of Motivational General Imagery, Jennifer Cumming, Tom Olphin, Michelle Law Jan 2007

Self-Reported Psychological States And Physiological Responses To Different Types Of Motivational General Imagery, Jennifer Cumming, Tom Olphin, Michelle Law

Jennifer Cumming

The aim of the present study was to examine self-reported psychological states and physiological responses (heart rate) experienced during different motivational general imagery scenarios. Forty competitive athletes wore a standard heart rate monitor and imaged five scripts (mastery, coping, anxiety, psyching up, and relaxation). Following each script, they reported their state anxiety and self-confidence. A significant increase in heart rate from baseline to imagery was found for the anxiety, psyching-up, and coping imagery scripts. Furthermore, the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety was greater and perceived as being more debilitative following the anxiety imagery script. The findings support Lang’s ...


Examining The Direction Of Imagery And Self-Talk On Dart-Throwing Performance And Self Efficacy, Jennifer Cumming, Sanna M. Nordin, Robin Horton, Scott Reynolds Jan 2006

Examining The Direction Of Imagery And Self-Talk On Dart-Throwing Performance And Self Efficacy, Jennifer Cumming, Sanna M. Nordin, Robin Horton, Scott Reynolds

Jennifer Cumming

The study investigated the impact of varying combinations of facilitative and debilitative imagery and self-talk (ST) on self-effi cacy and performance of a dart-throwing task. Participants (N = 95) were allocated to 1 of 5 groups: (a) facilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (b) facilitative imagery/debilitative ST, (c) debilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (d) debilitative imagery/debilitative ST, or (e) control. Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed that performance, but not self-effi - cacy, changed over time as a function of the assigned experimental condition. Participants in the debilitative imagery/debilitative ST condition worsened their performance, and participants in the facilitative imagery/facilitative ST condition achieved better ...


More Than Meets The Eye: Investigating Imagery Type, Direction, And Outcome, Sanna Nordin, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2005

More Than Meets The Eye: Investigating Imagery Type, Direction, And Outcome, Sanna Nordin, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

The effects of imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance in a dart throwing task were examined. Two imagery types were investigated: skill-based cognitive specific (CS) and confidence-based motivational general-mastery (MG-M). Seventy-five novice dart throwers were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (a) facilitative imagery, (b) debilitative imagery, or (c) control. After 2 imagery interventions, the debilitative imagery group rated their self-efficacy significantly lower than the facilitative group and performed significantly worse than either the facilitative group or the control group. Efficacy ratings remained constant across trials for the facilitative group, but decreased significantly for both the control group and ...


Athletes' Use Of Imagery In The Off-Season, Jennifer Cumming, Craig Hall Jan 2002

Athletes' Use Of Imagery In The Off-Season, Jennifer Cumming, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level on an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season, and to examine whether their use of imagery was related to their physical and technical preparation. Three hundred and twenty-four regional, provincial, and national level athletes were recruited to participate in this study from 10 different sports. Participants were asked to complete a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) that was designed to reflect an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. MANOVAs indicated that competitive level differences existed in athletes ...


The Cognitive And Motivational Effects Of Imagery Training: A Matter Of Perspective, Jennifer L. Cumming, Diane M. Ste-Marie Jan 2001

The Cognitive And Motivational Effects Of Imagery Training: A Matter Of Perspective, Jennifer L. Cumming, Diane M. Ste-Marie

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.