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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2013

Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik Jan 2004

Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate-Based Bird Repellent: Toxicity To Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus And Effect On Great Blue Heron Ardea Herodias Feeding Behavior, Brian S. Dorr, Larry Clark, Igor Mezine Dec 1998

Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate-Based Bird Repellent: Toxicity To Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus And Effect On Great Blue Heron Ardea Herodias Feeding Behavior, Brian S. Dorr, Larry Clark, Igor Mezine

Brian S Dorr

No abstract provided.


Grazing Repellency Of Methyl Anthranilate To Snow Geese Is Enhanced By A Visual Cue, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Grazing Repellency Of Methyl Anthranilate To Snow Geese Is Enhanced By A Visual Cue, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate (Rejex-It AG-36) is formulated as a commercial goose repellent. Frequent reapplications of this product are often necessary, and the cost/application is high ($300.00/ha). The present experiment tested the possibility that the repellency of methyl anthranilate might be enhanced by the addition of visual cues. Twelve 0.4 ha plots were assigned randomly to three treatment groups. Plots in the first group (n = 4) were sprayed with 10% Vapor Guard (an agrochemical adhesive). Plots in the second group (n = 4) were treated with a mixture of methyl anthranilate (3.4 kg/ha) and Vapor Guard. Plots ...


Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

now Goose activity levels were significantly less in cabbage fields than in control fields. Although the data do not unambiguously address the issue of sulfur repellency, we believe that the activity difference is consistent with avoidance of the former and not preference for the latter. Sulfurous volatiles were readily apparent to us during our visits to cabbage fields throughout the study period. Similar odors were not detected in control fields. If sulfurous volatiles were important, then avoidance could reflect some characteristic of the cover crop (e.g., unpalatability acquired through the absorption and translocation of degra­ dation products) or it ...


Degradation Studies Of The Non-Lethal Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, Eugeny Aronov, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Degradation Studies Of The Non-Lethal Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, Eugeny Aronov, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate (MA), a food grade flavor and fragrance additive, has been reported to be an effective non-lethal bird repellent in a variety of situations. Despite the experimental success of MA, field studies have yielded widely differing levels of efficacy. Diminished efficacy in some field trials prob­ ably results from the failure of specific formulations to retain or protect the active ingredient under natural conditions. Therefore, a clearer understanding of the physical and chemical factors affecting the stability of MA is needed. We undertook a series of laboratory studies on hydrolysis, photolysis and microbial degradation of MA, the results of ...


Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark Jan 1995

Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1994

Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

We tested the robustness of a structure-activity model for avian trigeminal chemoirritants. Fourteen benzoates and acetophenones were tested using European starlings Sturn us vulgaris as a bioassay. In general. the pre­ viously proposed model was a reasonable predictor of repellency (i.e., irritant potency). We found that the presence of a phenyl ring was critical to repel­ lency. Basicity of the molecule is the next most critical feature influencing repellency. The presence of an acidic function within the electron-withdrawing functionality seriously detracts from repellency. The presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing or -donating group may potentiate repellent effects, but its ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1993

Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov Jan 1993

Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov

Larry Clark

Several laboratory and field studies have shown methyl anthranilate to be an effective, non-toxic and non-lethal bird repellent, with application potential for protecting crops, seeds, turf and fish stocks from bird damage. Furthermore, methyl anthranilate can be added to liquids for the purposes of protecting nigratory birds, e.g. addition to waste water associated with mining and to standing water pools at airports. Mammalian toxicity data are favorable. Methyl anthranilate is used as a fragrance and food flavoring and is GRAS listed by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite the favorable outlook for methyl anthranilate's use as a ...


Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller Jan 1993

Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller

Larry Clark

No-till agriculture involves the use of granular pesticide formulations, chemically treated seeds, and pelleted baits. Some of these may accidentally kill birds. We have tested whether methyl anthranilate (MA), a known bird repellent, would eliminate consumption of a pelleted bait. In two laboratory experiments and an outdoor aviary trial, cowbirds (Molothrus ater Bodd.) were presented with pellets containing pesticide and MA, pellets containing pesticide but no MA, and carrier pellets without pesticide or MA. Consumption of any formulation was low, but the addition of MA significantly decreased bait loss in the laboratory, and prevented the disappearance of bait in the ...


Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Until recently, the discovery of avian sensory repellents has been empirical (MaRnn, AnAmR 'Inn l;qr\r FlR'l), Hm> !ilv!ilr, recent liltudilillil in our laboratory have shown that many avian repellents have similar perceptual and structural properties (Mason et al. 1989; Mason Clark and Shah 1991; Clark and Shah 1991; Clark, Shah and Mason 1991; Shah, Clark and Mason 1991). For example, methyl anthranilate, which has a grapy odor, is repel­ lent to birds (Kare and Pick, 1960). Ortho-aminoacetophenone has an odor and structure similar to that of methyl anthranilate, differing only in the substitution of a ketone ...


Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Repellents substances and devices cause pest species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable materials. For birds, repellents can be visual, auditory, pyrotechnic, tactile, chemosensory, physiologic, or physical. Here, we consider chemical agents only. Few substances arc registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and thus legally available for use. This lack of available bird repellent technology reflects the small demonstrable economic impact of many agricultural bird damage problems. Accurate information about damage and market size is virtually nonexistent, and private companies are reluctant to invest resources in the unknown. To successfully commercialize new repellents, clearly lucrative markets must ...


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).


Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The present set of experiments was designed to explore avian insensitivity to capsaicin. Based upon a molecular model of avian chemosen­ sory repellency, we hypothesized that structural modifications of the basic capsaicin molecule, which is itself not aversive to birds, might produce aver­ sive analogues. To this end, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and Nor­ way rats (Rattus norvegicus) were given varied concentrations of synthetic capsaicin and four analogues (methyl capsaicin, veratryl amine, veratryl acet­ amide, vanillyl acetamide) in feeding and drinking tests. The results agreed with a model that we are developing to describe the chemical nature of avian repellents ...


Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason Jan 1991

Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason

Larry Clark

We examined how molecular structure of24 anthranilate and benzoic acid deriva­ tives correlated with drinking behavior in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris.The effectiveness of bird repellents was &?SOciated with basicity, the presence of an electron onating group in resonance with an electron-withdrawing carboxylic group on a phenyl ring, and a heterocyclic ring in the same pi cloud plane as the phenyl ring. Of the benzoic acid derivatives tested in this study, methyl, ethyl, dimethyl, and linalylanthranilate as well as anthranilic acid and 4-ketobenztriazine were repellent to birds. Water consumption was significantly reduced relative to control levels at concentrations as low ...


Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate is an effective bird repellent at concentrations 2:1.0% (g/g). Ortho-ami­ noacetophenone (OAP) has an odor similar to that of methyl anthranilate and is chemically (structurally) similar. Coincidentally, OAP is present in the scent gland secretions of mustelid species that prey on birds. For these reasons, we chose to test the bird repellency of this material and 3 isomers to European starlings (Stumus vulgaris). Ortho-aminoacetophenone was repellent at concentrations :50.01% in both choice and no-choice feeding tests. The other structural isomers (meta-, para-, alpha-) were less effective. Chemically, the results suggest that hydrogen-bonded ring structure ...


Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Identification of potential repellents through molecular modeling has implications for the devel­ opment of commerciaUy viable, ecologically sound. nonlethal bird repellents. We tested isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) of acetophenones for their effectiveness as bird repellents to better understand the nature of repellency in birds. ChemicaUy, basicity of a substituted phenyl ring, as de&ned by the electron-donating substituent, probably is an important feature infiuencing repellency; i.e., more basic substituents result in more potent repellents. Isomeric position of the electron-donating substituent, which leads to resonance of lone pairs of electrons.• is also an important feature of repellency; i.e., repellency is enhanped when electron-donating substituents are in ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Regulatory agencies have placed increasing emphasis on agriculture and industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of waste water. Traditional hazjng methods to keep birds away from areas have met with marginal success. The only effective commercially available solution is .to enclose impoundments with netting. This strategy is costly and is subject to engineering constraints when large areas are to be protected. Molecular modeling techniques were used to identify chemical repellents to be added to waste water. These repellents effectively prevent birds from drinking or swimming in treated water.The most effective repellents are those containing an ...


Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason Jan 1991

Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of bird repellents is associated with the presence of an electron-withdrawing group (carbonyl or carboxyl) and an electron-donating group in resonance on a phenyl ring. The present experiments were designed to examine the relative importance of these structural features. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were presented with vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and veratryl alcohol in two-cup and one-cup feeding trials and in one-bottle drinking tests. In feeding trials, veratryl alcohol was significantly more aversive than the other two chemicals. In drinking tests. veratryl alcohol was repellent only at the highest concentration (0.5% ml/ml), and was lethal at that ...