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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fungal Solid-State Fermentation And Various Methods Of Enhancement In Cellulase Production, Li Wan Yoon, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr Jan 2014

Fungal Solid-State Fermentation And Various Methods Of Enhancement In Cellulase Production, Li Wan Yoon, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

Cellulase serves vast applications in the industries of biofuel, pulp and paper, detergent and textile. With the presence of its three components i.e. endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase, the enzyme can effectively depolymerize the cellulose chains in lignocellulosic substrate to produce smaller sugar units that consists of cellobiase and glucose. Fungi are the most suitable cellase producers attributing to its ability to produce a complete cellulase system. Solid state fermentation (SSF) by fungi is a preferable production route for cellulase as it imposes lower cost and enables the production of cellulase with higher titre. This article gives an overview on ...


Development Of A Novel Inoculum Preparation Method For Solid-State Fermentation - Cellophane Film Culture (Cfc) Technique, Teck Nam Ang, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Adeline Seak May Chua Jan 2013

Development Of A Novel Inoculum Preparation Method For Solid-State Fermentation - Cellophane Film Culture (Cfc) Technique, Teck Nam Ang, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Adeline Seak May Chua

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

This study reports a user-friendly technique in the preparation of fungal inoculum intended for solid-state fermentation (SSF) – Cellophane Film Culture (CFC) technique. This technique uses cellophane film-overlaid agar plates to facilitate the separation of fungal biomass. The findings showed that inoculum of P. sajor-caju produced is viable, and it was confirmed by the presence of laccase enzyme activity in SSF of rice husk. The correlation between fungal dry and wet weights (r2 = 0.9329) provides an accurate estimation of fungal dry weight from its wet weight during inoculum preparation. Besides, this technique does not require a strict sterile handling condition ...


Comparative Study Of Various Pretreatment Reagents On Rice Husk And Structural Changes Assessment Of The Optimised Pretreated Rice Husk, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr Jan 2013

Comparative Study Of Various Pretreatment Reagents On Rice Husk And Structural Changes Assessment Of The Optimised Pretreated Rice Husk, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

The performance of alkalis (NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and acids (H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, CH3COOH, and HNO3) in the pretreatment of rice husk was screened, and a suitable reagent was assessed for subsequent optimisation using response surface methodology. From the assessment, HCl that hydrolysed rice husk well was optimised with three parameters (HCl loading, pretreatment duration, and temperature) using Box-Behnken Design. The optimised condition (0.5% (w/v) HCl loading, 125oC, 1.5 hours) is relatively mild, and resulted in ~22.3 mg TRS/ml hydrolysate. The reduced model developed has good predictability, where the predicted and experimental results differ ...


Regression Analysis On Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Of Sugarcane Bagasse And Assessment Of Structural Changes, Li Wan Yoon, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr Jan 2012

Regression Analysis On Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Of Sugarcane Bagasse And Assessment Of Structural Changes, Li Wan Yoon, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

This study aims to perform a regression analysis which leads to the optimization on the operating conditions of ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]oAc) pretreatment on sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The structural changes on SCB during pretreatment were also examined. The effects of temperature, time and solid loading on reducing sugar (RS) yield obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SCB were investigated by applying Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results from CCD were modeled into a second order polynomial equation and the model shows a good correlation between predicted and experimental values. The optimized condition for ...


Elucidation Of The Effect Of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment On Rice Husk Via Structural Analyses, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr, Min Gyu Lee Prof Jan 2012

Elucidation Of The Effect Of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment On Rice Husk Via Structural Analyses, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr, Min Gyu Lee Prof

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

Background: In the present study, three ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIM]DEP), were used to partially dissolve rice husk, after which the cellulose were regenerated by the addition of water. The aim of the investigation is to examine the implications of the ionic liquid pretreatments on rice husk composition and structure. Results: From the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, the regenerated cellulose were more amorphous, less crystalline, and possessed higher structural disruption compared with untreated rice husk ...


A Quantitative Method For Fungal Ligninolytic Enzyme, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr Jan 2011

A Quantitative Method For Fungal Ligninolytic Enzyme, Teck Nam Ang Dr., Gek Cheng Ngoh Dr, Adeline Seak May Chua Dr

Teck Nam Ang Dr.

Screening is conducted to select a fungus with desired characteristics intended for various applications, e.g. bioremediation and enzyme production. A qualitative method was used in this study for screening of fungal ligninolytic enzymes activities. The fungal ligninolytic activity was correlated with its growth from the screenings to identify a suitable fungus for solid substrate fermentation. Four strains of fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Phlebia radiata and Pleurotus sajor-caju, were screened for their ligninolytic enzymes activities using guaiacol and Remazol Brilliant Blue-R (RBB-R) as screening reagents. The screenings were conducted at both the optimal growth temperature of each fungus ...


Process Characteristics And Microbiology Of Fura Produced In Ghana, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debra, Fortune Akabanda, Richard Glover Jan 2010

Process Characteristics And Microbiology Of Fura Produced In Ghana, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debra, Fortune Akabanda, Richard Glover

James Owusu-Kwarteng

Majority of traditional cereal-based foods consumed in Africa are processed by spontaneous fermentation and are important as weaning foods for infants and as dietary staples for adults. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and microbiological qualities of the corresponding product. In this study, the traditional processing of millet into fura, a popular millet-based dumpling consumed throughout West Africa, particularly Nigeria, Burkina-Faso and Ghana was investigated in a range of production units in northern Ghana. Microbiology of the processing was also investigated. Processing steps included soaking or steeping the grains, washing ...


Effect Of Traditional Starter Inoculation Rate On Sorghum Beer Quality, Theodore N'Dede Djeni Jan 2008

Effect Of Traditional Starter Inoculation Rate On Sorghum Beer Quality, Theodore N'Dede Djeni

Theodore N'Dede Djeni

In the way to determine, the effect of inoculation rate of traditional starter on sorghum beer quality, fermentations were initiated with different inoculation rates [0% (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% (w vG1)] at 35°C. Then fermentation parameters such as utilization of sugars and production of CO , alcohol, organic acids and 2 yeast biomass were assayed during the process. At the beginning of the fermentation, sugar consumption rate increased with inoculation rate. But from 8 h of fermentation, all inoculated systems shown similar consumption rate and led to beers with the same sugar content. The lag phase ...