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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2013

Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik Jan 2004

Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Water Fog For Repelling Birds, Larry Clark, Thomas Nachtman, John Hull Jan 2000

Water Fog For Repelling Birds, Larry Clark, Thomas Nachtman, John Hull

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Methods Of Identifying The Avian Repellent Effects Of A Compound And Methods Of Repelling Birds From Materials Susceptible To Consumption By Birds, Larry Clark Jan 1997

Methods Of Identifying The Avian Repellent Effects Of A Compound And Methods Of Repelling Birds From Materials Susceptible To Consumption By Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine Jan 1996

Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine

Larry Clark

We tested the bird aversive properties of methyl anthranilate, yucca extracts, and Xanthoxylum spp. extracts in one- and two-bottle drinking assays that used European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). In one- and two-bottle tests, methyl anthranilate proved to be the more potent stimulus in producing an avoidance response. Starlings avoided consuming Xanthoxylum and yucca only in the two-bottle tests. Previous studies showed that yucca was a good adjuvant in stabilizing lipophilic compounds in water. Starlings did not avoid binary mixtures of methyl anthranilate and yucca differently from what would be expected if they were only responding to the solution's methyl anthranilate ...


Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

now Goose activity levels were significantly less in cabbage fields than in control fields. Although the data do not unambiguously address the issue of sulfur repellency, we believe that the activity difference is consistent with avoidance of the former and not preference for the latter. Sulfurous volatiles were readily apparent to us during our visits to cabbage fields throughout the study period. Similar odors were not detected in control fields. If sulfurous volatiles were important, then avoidance could reflect some characteristic of the cover crop (e.g., unpalatability acquired through the absorption and translocation of degra­ dation products) or it ...


Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark Jan 1995

Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1994

Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

We tested the robustness of a structure-activity model for avian trigeminal chemoirritants. Fourteen benzoates and acetophenones were tested using European starlings Sturn us vulgaris as a bioassay. In general. the pre­ viously proposed model was a reasonable predictor of repellency (i.e., irritant potency). We found that the presence of a phenyl ring was critical to repel­ lency. Basicity of the molecule is the next most critical feature influencing repellency. The presence of an acidic function within the electron-withdrawing functionality seriously detracts from repellency. The presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing or -donating group may potentiate repellent effects, but its ...


Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

It is believed that mammalian chemosensory initants are not aver­ sive to birds and vice versa. Nevertheless, few avian repellents have been tested against mammals. For that reason, we evaluated the efficacy of 1.0% w/v methyl anthranilate, orthoaminoacetophenone, 2-amino-4' ,5 '-methoxy­ acetophenone, 2-methoxyacetophenone, and veratryl amine as mouse repel­ lents in 3-hr no-choice drinking tests. Relative to ingestion of plain water, all test substances significantly reduced (P < 0.05) intake. Orthoaminoaceto­phenone was the most effective repellent, with intake reduced to levels sta­tistically indistinguishable from zero.


Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus spp.) overpopulate many areas of the United States. Browse damage to agricultural crops, forest regeneration and landscaping can be severe. Human and animal health also arc threatened by Lyme disease, which is spread by the deer tick (Ixodes dammini). Although sterilants to reduce and/or slow the growth of deer populations and vaccines against Lyme disease may soon become available, efficient and economical techniques to inoculate large numbers of deer have not been developed. Oral baits represent one promising possibility. In experiment 1, salt blocks and several olfactory lures were evaluated as potential lures for use in ...


Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

At least some anthranilates (e.g., methyl anthranilate), and ace­ tophenones (e.g., orthoaminoacetophenone) are aversive to mice as well as to birds. Here we systematically examined nine acetophenone isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) previously tested as drinking and feeding repellents for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). All nine substances reduced intake by mice in single-bottle tests. When molecular characteristics were examined, amino group reactivity and, to a lesser extent, isomeric position (i.e., resonance), were related to the strength of the avoid­ ance response. Unlike effective avian repellents, the presence of intramo lecular hydrogen bonds did ...


Interaction Between Sensory And Postingestional Repellents In Starlings: Methyl Anthranilate And Sucrose, Larry Clark, J. Russell Mason Jan 1993

Interaction Between Sensory And Postingestional Repellents In Starlings: Methyl Anthranilate And Sucrose, Larry Clark, J. Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Ingestion of concentrated sucrose solutions causes sickness in sucrase-defi­ cie_nt birds. As a result, some suggest that sucrose may represent an environmentally safe avian repellent. In the present experiments, we compared the repellency of sucrose to that of methyl anthranilate (MA), a known avian repellent. We also tested mixtures of sucrose and MA to investigate whether repellency could be enhanced, relative to sucrose or MA presentealo'!e. The results showed that the MA was strongly avoided in both drinking anf edmtnals. Conversely, only high sucrose concentrations were avoided, and only in dnnkmg tnals. No combination of MA and sucrose was ...


Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean Jan 1993

Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean

Larry Clark

Eight species of passerines were evaluated for their ability to form conditioned responses to odor stimuli. Only 5 species met training criteria and were tested for odor detection thresholds.

2. Detection thresholds were comparable to other passerines tested. Detection values were also similar to mammalian macrosmatic species, such as rats and rabbits. Thus, despite the poorly elaborated olfactory anatomy of passerines, these birds possess an adequate sense of smell.

3. Within the Passeriformes there is no correlation between olfactory acuity and relative size of the olfactory bulb. However, there is a correlation between acuity and olfactory bulb size across orders ...


Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

A number of non-oral causes for oral malodor have been discussed. Several well documented etiologies for non-oral malodor include renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and diabetes mellitus. Each of these conditions has been examined using analytical instrumentation. In addition there appear to be several other metabolic conditions involving enzymatic and transport anomalies (such as trimethylaminuria) which lead to the systemic production of volatile malodors that manifest themselves as halitosis and/or altered chemoreception. Our studies include patients who have been referred to us after being examined by numerous clinical specialists with no identification or relief from their problem. This ...


Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Electrophysiological responses to odor have been recorded for concen­ trations as low as 0.01 ppm for Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus and Black-footed Albatrosses Diomedea nigripes, indicating that relative to most birds, procellariiforms have a keen sense of smell (Wenzel and Sieck 1972, cf.clark 1991; Clark and Smeraski 1990; Clark and Mason 1989). Such acuity is not unexpected, given the extensive development of the olfactory anatomy of these species (Bang and Wenzel 1986). Field observations indi­ cate that Procellariiformes use their sense of smell to locate food (Grubb 1972; Hutchison and Wenzel 1980; Lequette, Verheyden and Jouventin 1989). -_ ...


Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Until recently, the discovery of avian sensory repellents has been empirical (MaRnn, AnAmR 'Inn l;qr\r FlR'l), Hm> !ilv!ilr, recent liltudilillil in our laboratory have shown that many avian repellents have similar perceptual and structural properties (Mason et al. 1989; Mason Clark and Shah 1991; Clark and Shah 1991; Clark, Shah and Mason 1991; Shah, Clark and Mason 1991). For example, methyl anthranilate, which has a grapy odor, is repel­ lent to birds (Kare and Pick, 1960). Ortho-aminoacetophenone has an odor and structure similar to that of methyl anthranilate, differing only in the substitution of a ketone ...


Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Repellents substances and devices cause pest species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable materials. For birds, repellents can be visual, auditory, pyrotechnic, tactile, chemosensory, physiologic, or physical. Here, we consider chemical agents only. Few substances arc registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and thus legally available for use. This lack of available bird repellent technology reflects the small demonstrable economic impact of many agricultural bird damage problems. Accurate information about damage and market size is virtually nonexistent, and private companies are reluctant to invest resources in the unknown. To successfully commercialize new repellents, clearly lucrative markets must ...


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).


Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Ninety-five products are registered with the u.s. Environmental Pro­ tection Agency as bird damage control chemicals, but 38 (40%) are non­ lethal chemical repellents (Eschen and Schafer, 1986). Of these products, the active ingredients in 27 (71%) are methiocarb (a physiologic repellent that acts through food avoidance learning) or polybutene (a tactile repel­ lent). In general, chemical repellents are effective either because of aversive sensory effects (irritation), or because of post-ingestional ma­ laise (sickness). If the former, then chemicals are usually stimulants of trigeminal pain receptors (i.e., undifferentiated free nerve endings) in the nose, mouth, and eyes (Mason ...


Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The present set of experiments was designed to explore avian insensitivity to capsaicin. Based upon a molecular model of avian chemosen­ sory repellency, we hypothesized that structural modifications of the basic capsaicin molecule, which is itself not aversive to birds, might produce aver­ sive analogues. To this end, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and Nor­ way rats (Rattus norvegicus) were given varied concentrations of synthetic capsaicin and four analogues (methyl capsaicin, veratryl amine, veratryl acet­ amide, vanillyl acetamide) in feeding and drinking tests. The results agreed with a model that we are developing to describe the chemical nature of avian repellents ...


Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason Jan 1991

Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason

Larry Clark

We examined how molecular structure of24 anthranilate and benzoic acid deriva­ tives correlated with drinking behavior in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris.The effectiveness of bird repellents was &?SOciated with basicity, the presence of an electron onating group in resonance with an electron-withdrawing carboxylic group on a phenyl ring, and a heterocyclic ring in the same pi cloud plane as the phenyl ring. Of the benzoic acid derivatives tested in this study, methyl, ethyl, dimethyl, and linalylanthranilate as well as anthranilic acid and 4-ketobenztriazine were repellent to birds. Water consumption was significantly reduced relative to control levels at concentrations as low ...


Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate is an effective bird repellent at concentrations 2:1.0% (g/g). Ortho-ami­ noacetophenone (OAP) has an odor similar to that of methyl anthranilate and is chemically (structurally) similar. Coincidentally, OAP is present in the scent gland secretions of mustelid species that prey on birds. For these reasons, we chose to test the bird repellency of this material and 3 isomers to European starlings (Stumus vulgaris). Ortho-aminoacetophenone was repellent at concentrations :50.01% in both choice and no-choice feeding tests. The other structural isomers (meta-, para-, alpha-) were less effective. Chemically, the results suggest that hydrogen-bonded ring structure ...


Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Identification of potential repellents through molecular modeling has implications for the devel­ opment of commerciaUy viable, ecologically sound. nonlethal bird repellents. We tested isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) of acetophenones for their effectiveness as bird repellents to better understand the nature of repellency in birds. ChemicaUy, basicity of a substituted phenyl ring, as de&ned by the electron-donating substituent, probably is an important feature infiuencing repellency; i.e., more basic substituents result in more potent repellents. Isomeric position of the electron-donating substituent, which leads to resonance of lone pairs of electrons.• is also an important feature of repellency; i.e., repellency is enhanped when electron-donating substituents are in ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Regulatory agencies have placed increasing emphasis on agriculture and industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of waste water. Traditional hazjng methods to keep birds away from areas have met with marginal success. The only effective commercially available solution is .to enclose impoundments with netting. This strategy is costly and is subject to engineering constraints when large areas are to be protected. Molecular modeling techniques were used to identify chemical repellents to be added to waste water. These repellents effectively prevent birds from drinking or swimming in treated water.The most effective repellents are those containing an ...


Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason Jan 1991

Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of bird repellents is associated with the presence of an electron-withdrawing group (carbonyl or carboxyl) and an electron-donating group in resonance on a phenyl ring. The present experiments were designed to examine the relative importance of these structural features. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were presented with vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and veratryl alcohol in two-cup and one-cup feeding trials and in one-bottle drinking tests. In feeding trials, veratryl alcohol was significantly more aversive than the other two chemicals. In drinking tests. veratryl alcohol was repellent only at the highest concentration (0.5% ml/ml), and was lethal at that ...


Effect Of Biologically Active Plants Used As Netst Material And The Derived Benefit To Starling Nestlings, Larry Clark, J. R. Mason Jan 1988

Effect Of Biologically Active Plants Used As Netst Material And The Derived Benefit To Starling Nestlings, Larry Clark, J. R. Mason

Larry Clark

The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant species preferred as nest material, effectively reduced the number of hematophagous mites found within nests relative to control nests without green vegetation. Chicks from nests containing wild carrot had higher levels of blood hemoglobin than chicks from control nests. However ...