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Birds

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark Jan 2009

Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Wild bird fecal samples collected and characterized by the USDA as part of a national surveillance effort were sequenced to study the genetic relatedness of avian, swine, and human H1 and N1 subtypes. Our results find that the 2009 H1N1 human outbreak is closely related to swine virus, but falls into different clades in the H1 and N1 trees. Further, there is evidence of multiple viral genetic exchanges between birds and swine. Ongoing research across host species contributes to an understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses.


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).


Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason Jan 1987

Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Passerine species that re-use nest sites often incorporate fresh green vegetation into their nests, a behaviour consistent with the possibility that some birds may use chemical properties of plants to counteract the selective potential of parasites and pathogens. We tested adult starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for their physiological capacity and behavioural ability to detect and discriminate between volatiles emitted from plant material. Multi-unit electrophysiological recordings from olfactory nerves of adults indicated that strong responses were reliably elicited by volatiles from six plant species. After pairings of plant volatiles with gastro-intestinal malaise, birds exhibited conditioned avoidance in behavioural experiments, and made all ...