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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


The Cumulative Effects Of Management On The Population Dynamics Of The Double-Crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax Auritus In The Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, Terry J. Doyle Jan 2014

The Cumulative Effects Of Management On The Population Dynamics Of The Double-Crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax Auritus In The Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, Terry J. Doyle

Brian S Dorr

Wildlife species have been subject to control efforts throughout human history due to real or alleged human–wildlife conflicts. The Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the interior of North America is no exception, with recent population growth leading to increased conflicts and consequently the development of many control programmes. These control programmes are usually conducted at local scales, often with little or no effort to assess their cumulative effects at the population level. We attempted the first comprehensive assessment of the cumulative effects of control at various spatio-temporal scales, focusing on 199 colonies of Double-crested Cormorant monitored during a 29-year ...


West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark Jan 2013

West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark

Larry Clark

West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment ...


Modification Of Net Configurations Of The Coda Netlauncher© To Enhance Bird Capture, Amanda M. Prisock, Brian S. Dorr, James C. Cumbee Jan 2012

Modification Of Net Configurations Of The Coda Netlauncher© To Enhance Bird Capture, Amanda M. Prisock, Brian S. Dorr, James C. Cumbee

Brian S Dorr

Abstract: We modified and evaluated capture nets fi red from the Coda Netlauncher® as a tool for capturing various avian species. We modified the netlauncher by using customized nets to maximize the area of the capture zone. We captured 137 birds, comprising 12 species, in 23 attempts between July 2008 and October 2009 using this method. Capture success rates varied from 25 to 69% were comparable to success rates reported for other capture methods for these species. However, individual capture success for different net configurations varied greatly from 3 to 65%. Minimal injuries and 2 bird fatalities were reported. The ...


Determinants Of Local And Migratory Movements Of Great Lakes Double-Crested Cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor Ii, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, Elizabeth Cranker Jun 2011

Determinants Of Local And Migratory Movements Of Great Lakes Double-Crested Cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor Ii, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, Elizabeth Cranker

Brian S Dorr

We investigated how individual strategies combine with demographic and ecological factors to determine local and migratory movements in the double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). One hundred and forty-five cormorants were captured from 14 nesting colonies across the Great Lakes area and fitted with satellite transmitters. We first tested the hypotheses that sexual segregation, density-dependent effects, and the intensity of management operations influenced home range size during the breeding season. The influence of these factors appeared to be limited in part due to random variability in foraging and dispersal decisions at individual and colony levels. We also designed a statistical framework to ...


Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark Jan 2009

Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Wild bird fecal samples collected and characterized by the USDA as part of a national surveillance effort were sequenced to study the genetic relatedness of avian, swine, and human H1 and N1 subtypes. Our results find that the 2009 H1N1 human outbreak is closely related to swine virus, but falls into different clades in the H1 and N1 trees. Further, there is evidence of multiple viral genetic exchanges between birds and swine. Ongoing research across host species contributes to an understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses.


Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine Jan 1996

Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine

Larry Clark

We tested the bird aversive properties of methyl anthranilate, yucca extracts, and Xanthoxylum spp. extracts in one- and two-bottle drinking assays that used European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). In one- and two-bottle tests, methyl anthranilate proved to be the more potent stimulus in producing an avoidance response. Starlings avoided consuming Xanthoxylum and yucca only in the two-bottle tests. Previous studies showed that yucca was a good adjuvant in stabilizing lipophilic compounds in water. Starlings did not avoid binary mixtures of methyl anthranilate and yucca differently from what would be expected if they were only responding to the solution's methyl anthranilate ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1993

Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Electrophysiological responses to odor have been recorded for concen­ trations as low as 0.01 ppm for Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus and Black-footed Albatrosses Diomedea nigripes, indicating that relative to most birds, procellariiforms have a keen sense of smell (Wenzel and Sieck 1972, cf.clark 1991; Clark and Smeraski 1990; Clark and Mason 1989). Such acuity is not unexpected, given the extensive development of the olfactory anatomy of these species (Bang and Wenzel 1986). Field observations indi­ cate that Procellariiformes use their sense of smell to locate food (Grubb 1972; Hutchison and Wenzel 1980; Lequette, Verheyden and Jouventin 1989). -_ ...


Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Repellents substances and devices cause pest species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable materials. For birds, repellents can be visual, auditory, pyrotechnic, tactile, chemosensory, physiologic, or physical. Here, we consider chemical agents only. Few substances arc registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and thus legally available for use. This lack of available bird repellent technology reflects the small demonstrable economic impact of many agricultural bird damage problems. Accurate information about damage and market size is virtually nonexistent, and private companies are reluctant to invest resources in the unknown. To successfully commercialize new repellents, clearly lucrative markets must ...


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).


Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The present set of experiments was designed to explore avian insensitivity to capsaicin. Based upon a molecular model of avian chemosen­ sory repellency, we hypothesized that structural modifications of the basic capsaicin molecule, which is itself not aversive to birds, might produce aver­ sive analogues. To this end, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and Nor­ way rats (Rattus norvegicus) were given varied concentrations of synthetic capsaicin and four analogues (methyl capsaicin, veratryl amine, veratryl acet­ amide, vanillyl acetamide) in feeding and drinking tests. The results agreed with a model that we are developing to describe the chemical nature of avian repellents ...


Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason Jan 1991

Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason

Larry Clark

We examined how molecular structure of24 anthranilate and benzoic acid deriva­ tives correlated with drinking behavior in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris.The effectiveness of bird repellents was &?SOciated with basicity, the presence of an electron onating group in resonance with an electron-withdrawing carboxylic group on a phenyl ring, and a heterocyclic ring in the same pi cloud plane as the phenyl ring. Of the benzoic acid derivatives tested in this study, methyl, ethyl, dimethyl, and linalylanthranilate as well as anthranilic acid and 4-ketobenztriazine were repellent to birds. Water consumption was significantly reduced relative to control levels at concentrations as low ...


Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate is an effective bird repellent at concentrations 2:1.0% (g/g). Ortho-ami­ noacetophenone (OAP) has an odor similar to that of methyl anthranilate and is chemically (structurally) similar. Coincidentally, OAP is present in the scent gland secretions of mustelid species that prey on birds. For these reasons, we chose to test the bird repellency of this material and 3 isomers to European starlings (Stumus vulgaris). Ortho-aminoacetophenone was repellent at concentrations :50.01% in both choice and no-choice feeding tests. The other structural isomers (meta-, para-, alpha-) were less effective. Chemically, the results suggest that hydrogen-bonded ring structure ...


Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Identification of potential repellents through molecular modeling has implications for the devel­ opment of commerciaUy viable, ecologically sound. nonlethal bird repellents. We tested isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) of acetophenones for their effectiveness as bird repellents to better understand the nature of repellency in birds. ChemicaUy, basicity of a substituted phenyl ring, as de&ned by the electron-donating substituent, probably is an important feature infiuencing repellency; i.e., more basic substituents result in more potent repellents. Isomeric position of the electron-donating substituent, which leads to resonance of lone pairs of electrons.• is also an important feature of repellency; i.e., repellency is enhanped when electron-donating substituents are in ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Regulatory agencies have placed increasing emphasis on agriculture and industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of waste water. Traditional hazjng methods to keep birds away from areas have met with marginal success. The only effective commercially available solution is .to enclose impoundments with netting. This strategy is costly and is subject to engineering constraints when large areas are to be protected. Molecular modeling techniques were used to identify chemical repellents to be added to waste water. These repellents effectively prevent birds from drinking or swimming in treated water.The most effective repellents are those containing an ...


Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason Jan 1991

Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of bird repellents is associated with the presence of an electron-withdrawing group (carbonyl or carboxyl) and an electron-donating group in resonance on a phenyl ring. The present experiments were designed to examine the relative importance of these structural features. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were presented with vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and veratryl alcohol in two-cup and one-cup feeding trials and in one-bottle drinking tests. In feeding trials, veratryl alcohol was significantly more aversive than the other two chemicals. In drinking tests. veratryl alcohol was repellent only at the highest concentration (0.5% ml/ml), and was lethal at that ...


Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason Jan 1987

Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Passerine species that re-use nest sites often incorporate fresh green vegetation into their nests, a behaviour consistent with the possibility that some birds may use chemical properties of plants to counteract the selective potential of parasites and pathogens. We tested adult starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for their physiological capacity and behavioural ability to detect and discriminate between volatiles emitted from plant material. Multi-unit electrophysiological recordings from olfactory nerves of adults indicated that strong responses were reliably elicited by volatiles from six plant species. After pairings of plant volatiles with gastro-intestinal malaise, birds exhibited conditioned avoidance in behavioural experiments, and made all ...


The Development Of Effective Endothermy And Homeothermy By Nestling Piñon Jays, Larry Clark Jan 1981

The Development Of Effective Endothermy And Homeothermy By Nestling Piñon Jays, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.