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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cliff Swallows, Swallow Bugs, And West Nile Virus:, Larry Clark Jan 2010

Cliff Swallows, Swallow Bugs, And West Nile Virus:, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) could play an important role in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) because of its breeding ecology, reservoir competence status, and potentially high natural exposure rates. Cliff swallows nest within colonies and their nests are occupied year-round by swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius), hematophagus ectoparasites that feed primarily on cliff swallows. These parasites are likely exposed to WNV while feeding on infectious blood of nesting cliff swallow adults and nestlings and thus, if competent vectors, could contribute to seasonal elevations in WNV transmission. In addition, swallow bugs remain within nests year-round and therefore could provide ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis Jan 1994

Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis

Larry Clark

This study tested a modified MA formulation that was encapsulated at 15% MA by weight in a food-grade material coated with a water-impermeable material. The MA formulation was evaluated in a simulated pond setting to determine the effects on feeding behavior of mallards.


Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop Jan 1994

Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop

Larry Clark

In1992 a study was conducted to determine MA effectiveness in reducing the mortality of exposed mallards. The mortality of ducks continuously exposed to WP-contaminated sediment in a treated MA and control pen was equal at 24 hours but increased in the control pen through the onclusion of the test. Subsequently mallard mortality was reduced 60% in the MA-treated pen. However, mOdification in the MA bead formulation and replicated testing were needed.


Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings Jan 1994

Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings

Larry Clark

The main objective of the 1993 field season was to find a formulation that would provide suitable repellency and optimal characteristics•of stability. A secondary objective was to determine whether ducks could be moved off a treated area and whether feeding activity would reflect the substrate conditions, i.e. lower feeding activity on treated surfaces and increased feeding activity on control surfaces.


Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis Jan 1994

Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis

Larry Clark

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physical characteristics, application rate and longevity of Concover® and Bento'6alls™ (clay barrier system) when applied to bottom sediment in a simulated pond setting. The product that held up under mallard use was field tested to determine its effects on waterfowl feeding behavior and mortality at ERF.


Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1994

Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

We tested the robustness of a structure-activity model for avian trigeminal chemoirritants. Fourteen benzoates and acetophenones were tested using European starlings Sturn us vulgaris as a bioassay. In general. the pre­ viously proposed model was a reasonable predictor of repellency (i.e., irritant potency). We found that the presence of a phenyl ring was critical to repel­ lency. Basicity of the molecule is the next most critical feature influencing repellency. The presence of an acidic function within the electron-withdrawing functionality seriously detracts from repellency. The presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing or -donating group may potentiate repellent effects, but its ...


Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov Jan 1993

Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov

Larry Clark

Several laboratory and field studies have shown methyl anthranilate to be an effective, non-toxic and non-lethal bird repellent, with application potential for protecting crops, seeds, turf and fish stocks from bird damage. Furthermore, methyl anthranilate can be added to liquids for the purposes of protecting nigratory birds, e.g. addition to waste water associated with mining and to standing water pools at airports. Mammalian toxicity data are favorable. Methyl anthranilate is used as a fragrance and food flavoring and is GRAS listed by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite the favorable outlook for methyl anthranilate's use as a ...


Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller Jan 1993

Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller

Larry Clark

No-till agriculture involves the use of granular pesticide formulations, chemically treated seeds, and pelleted baits. Some of these may accidentally kill birds. We have tested whether methyl anthranilate (MA), a known bird repellent, would eliminate consumption of a pelleted bait. In two laboratory experiments and an outdoor aviary trial, cowbirds (Molothrus ater Bodd.) were presented with pellets containing pesticide and MA, pellets containing pesticide but no MA, and carrier pellets without pesticide or MA. Consumption of any formulation was low, but the addition of MA significantly decreased bait loss in the laboratory, and prevented the disappearance of bait in the ...


Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean Jan 1993

Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean

Larry Clark

Eight species of passerines were evaluated for their ability to form conditioned responses to odor stimuli. Only 5 species met training criteria and were tested for odor detection thresholds.

2. Detection thresholds were comparable to other passerines tested. Detection values were also similar to mammalian macrosmatic species, such as rats and rabbits. Thus, despite the poorly elaborated olfactory anatomy of passerines, these birds possess an adequate sense of smell.

3. Within the Passeriformes there is no correlation between olfactory acuity and relative size of the olfactory bulb. However, there is a correlation between acuity and olfactory bulb size across orders ...


Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Until recently, the discovery of avian sensory repellents has been empirical (MaRnn, AnAmR 'Inn l;qr\r FlR'l), Hm> !ilv!ilr, recent liltudilillil in our laboratory have shown that many avian repellents have similar perceptual and structural properties (Mason et al. 1989; Mason Clark and Shah 1991; Clark and Shah 1991; Clark, Shah and Mason 1991; Shah, Clark and Mason 1991). For example, methyl anthranilate, which has a grapy odor, is repel­ lent to birds (Kare and Pick, 1960). Ortho-aminoacetophenone has an odor and structure similar to that of methyl anthranilate, differing only in the substitution of a ketone ...


Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Ninety-five products are registered with the u.s. Environmental Pro­ tection Agency as bird damage control chemicals, but 38 (40%) are non­ lethal chemical repellents (Eschen and Schafer, 1986). Of these products, the active ingredients in 27 (71%) are methiocarb (a physiologic repellent that acts through food avoidance learning) or polybutene (a tactile repel­ lent). In general, chemical repellents are effective either because of aversive sensory effects (irritation), or because of post-ingestional ma­ laise (sickness). If the former, then chemicals are usually stimulants of trigeminal pain receptors (i.e., undifferentiated free nerve endings) in the nose, mouth, and eyes (Mason ...