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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 146

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

First Report Of Hog-Plum (Spondias Pinnata) Leaf Spot Disease, Kunal Mandal Dec 2011

First Report Of Hog-Plum (Spondias Pinnata) Leaf Spot Disease, Kunal Mandal

Kunal Mandal

Hog–plum is a tree species with edible fruits. The plant is naturally distributed in the tropical areas of the Indian subcontinent. Our effort to introduce it in the semi– arid conditions of western India failed as the plants developed severe shot–hole type leaf spot symptoms. Association of a fungus with the disease was detected and its pathogenicity was established. The pathogen was identified to the genus level (Colletotrichum) based on the morphological and molecular markers.


Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno Dec 2011

Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno

Frede G Moreno

No abstract provided.


Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno, Susana Evangelista Leones Dec 2011

Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno, Susana Evangelista Leones

Frede G Moreno

Landownership problem and control of resources remains as a political development issue in the Philippines. Agrarian reform is a necessary condition for agricultural modernization and rural industrialization and the fundamental mooring for global competition. Agrarian Reform has contributed to improvement of the socio-economic conditions of landless farmers and political development of the Philippines in terms of engaging the landless in the process of policy making and distribution of large private landholdings to the landless. Modalities giving peasants a stake in society such as decisive role in agrarian legislations, engaging them in dialogue to resolve agrarian cases, presenting manifesto pinpointing their ...


Labor Unions And Climate Change, Jon Foster Dec 2011

Labor Unions And Climate Change, Jon Foster

Jon Foster

The challenge of climate change and the need for a shift to more ecologically sustainable methods of production and innovation can dramatically redefine the strategy and objectives of the labor movement as a whole. Furthermore, within the specific sectors of: Agriculture, Construction, Utilities, and Automobiles, the reality of a changing environment, and social views, has already begun redefining what the future of these industries will mean in relation to labor unions.


Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno, Susana Evangelista Leones Dec 2011

Agrarian Reform And Philippine Political Development, Frede G. Moreno, Susana Evangelista Leones

Frede G Moreno

Landownership problem and control of resources remains as a political development issue in the Philippines. Agrarian reform is a necessary condition for agricultural modernization and rural industrialization and the fundamental mooring for global competition. Agrarian Reform has contributed to improvement of the socio-economic conditions of landless farmers and political development of the Philippines in terms of engaging the landless in the process of policy making and distribution of large private landholdings to the landless. Modalities giving peasants a stake in society such as decisive role in agrarian legislations, engaging them in dialogue to resolve agrarian cases, presenting manifesto pinpointing their ...


Global Effects Of Climate Change On Wildfire: Causal Relationships Of Fire, The Natural Environment And Human Activities, Lindon N. Pronto Dec 2011

Global Effects Of Climate Change On Wildfire: Causal Relationships Of Fire, The Natural Environment And Human Activities, Lindon N. Pronto

Lindon N Pronto

Climate change and human activity is significantly impacting the frequency and severity of wildfires across the globe. Although climate change and human population are the overarching factors affecting wildfires in the current dialogue, the issues are more complex and often not fully understood. These issues range from global temperature increases and severe drought cycles to the relatively new phenomenon of the wildland urban interface (WUI). This is the area where structures are integrated with or immediately surrounded by areas of moderate to high fire risk and are directly linked to fuel types and topographic features. Because climate change is such ...


Antiviral Activity Of Four Types Of Bioflavonoid Against Dengue Virus Type-2, Wong Pooi Fong Dec 2011

Antiviral Activity Of Four Types Of Bioflavonoid Against Dengue Virus Type-2, Wong Pooi Fong

Wong Pooi Fong

Background: Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 ...


Optimal Protein Extraction Methods From Diverse Sample Types For Protein Profiling By Using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2de), Kiew Lik Voon Dec 2011

Optimal Protein Extraction Methods From Diverse Sample Types For Protein Profiling By Using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2de), Kiew Lik Voon

Kiew Lik Voon

There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenol-chloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results ...


Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash Dec 2011

Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash

Andrew W. Lenssen

Warm-season annual grasses may be suitable as forage crops in integrated weed management systems with reduced herbicide use. A 2-year field study was conducted to determine whether tillage system and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application method influenced crop and weed biomass, water use, water use efficiency (WUE), and forage quality of three warm-season grasses, and seed production by associated weeds. Tillage systems were zero tillage and conventional tillage with a field cultivator. The N fertilization methods were urea broadcast or banded near seed rows at planting. Warm-season grasses seeded were foxtail (Setaria italica L.) and proso (Panicum mileaceum L.) millets, and ...


Synergy Sted Multicolor 3d-Easysted Excel File, George Mcnamara Nov 2011

Synergy Sted Multicolor 3d-Easysted Excel File, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Excel 2007 file with calculations for multicolor 3D-EasySTED segmented waveplates (SWP) for fluorescence nanoscopy.

Additional explanation in my Introduction statement and in the Excel file. The Excel file uses an interpolation function available from XlXtrFun (http://www.xlxtrfun.com/XlXtrFun/XlXtrFun.htm). My thanks to Goetz Zinner, www.B-Halle.de, for communicating to me that a single 3D-EasySTED segmented waveplate can be used with multiple excitation and depletion wavelengths.

Please give Goetz Zinner full credit for recognizing that STED segmented waveplate can be manufactured to handle multiple excitation and depletion wavelengths. Different sets of wavelengths can be generated by choosing ...


The Collage Of Functional Health Education For Effective Healthy Decisions And Health Promotion, Prof. Jerome Okonkwo Okafor Nov 2011

The Collage Of Functional Health Education For Effective Healthy Decisions And Health Promotion, Prof. Jerome Okonkwo Okafor

Prof. Jerome O Okafor

No abstract provided.


Morphological Characteristics Of Developmental Stages Of Acanthamoeba And Naegleria Species Before And After Staining By Various Techniques, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad, Init Ithoi, Lau Yee Ling, Rohela Mahmud Nov 2011

Morphological Characteristics Of Developmental Stages Of Acanthamoeba And Naegleria Species Before And After Staining By Various Techniques, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad, Init Ithoi, Lau Yee Ling, Rohela Mahmud

Arine Fadzlun Ahmad

Seven stains were studied to determine the best color and contrast for staining the developmental stages of free living pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species. The acid-fast bacilli stain (AFB) produced a blue color without contrast; trichrome-eosin and modified Field's showed various color contrasts; Giemsa, iron-hematoxylin, modified AFB and Gram produced only one color which distinguished the nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, food- and water-vacuoles. The motile organs (acanthopodia, pseudopodia, lobopodia and flagella) were also clearly differentiated but produced a similar color as the cytoplasm. These motile organelles were first induced by incubating at 37 C for at least 15 minutes and ...


Differences In Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Policies For Pregnant Women In Europe, Gordon Marnoch, Michiel Luteijn, Helen Dolk Nov 2011

Differences In Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Policies For Pregnant Women In Europe, Gordon Marnoch, Michiel Luteijn, Helen Dolk

Gordon Marnoch

Background: An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in ...


Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara Oct 2011

Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Multi-Probe Microscopy is an ~1500 page Word document summarizing what I know and/or found interesting in light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and digital image analysis, from 1995-2005. Very little has been updated since 2005.


A Review Of International Best Practice In E-Governmentsome Lessons For New Adopters, Deogratias Harorimana Sr Oct 2011

A Review Of International Best Practice In E-Governmentsome Lessons For New Adopters, Deogratias Harorimana Sr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

Efficient bureaucratic processes as essential to attract and retain investment, as well as promote SME growth. The e_Gov is one of many ways emerging economies have used to streamline public service delivery and create a freindly and conducive atmosphere for business -both MNC and SMEs. This presentation provide an overview of some of the World's most recent case examples on the successful design-plan-implementation of eGov to build a strong basis to attract investment and deliver seamless essential services to Citizens.


A Critical Review Of The Effectiveness Of Fiscal And Monetary Policies In The Pacific Island Countries (Pics) Between 1990-2010, Deogratias Harorimana Mr Oct 2011

A Critical Review Of The Effectiveness Of Fiscal And Monetary Policies In The Pacific Island Countries (Pics) Between 1990-2010, Deogratias Harorimana Mr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the effectiveness of Fiscal and Monetary Policies in the South Pacific Island Countries. The paper tracks down the economic growth for the last 20 years between 1990-2010, and drawing from key fiscal and monetary policies in place during the time under consideration, as well as specific interventions in the region, we find that: 1) While the South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) particularly the six major economies (Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, PNG, Samoa, Tonga) pursued fiscal and monetary policies for promoting growth and diversification of their economies, their fiscal policies relied heavily ...


Development Of A Rapid Dna Extraction Method And One-Step Nested Pcr For The Detection Of Naegleria Fowleri From The Environment, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad Oct 2011

Development Of A Rapid Dna Extraction Method And One-Step Nested Pcr For The Detection Of Naegleria Fowleri From The Environment, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad

Arine Fadzlun Ahmad

Naegleria fowleri is a small free-living amoebo-flagellate found in natural and manmade thermal aquatic habitats worldwide. The organism is pathogenic to man causing fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Infection typically results from bathing in contaminated water and is usually fatal. It is, therefore, important to identify sites containing N. fowleri in the interests of preventive public health microbiology. Culture of environmental material is the conventional method for the isolation of N. fowleri but requires several days incubation and subsequent biochemical or molecular tests to confirm identification. Here, a nested one-step PCR test, in conjunction with a direct DNA extraction from ...


In Vitro Antiviral Activity Of Fisetin, Rutin And Naringenin Against Dengue Virus Type-2, Wong Pooi Fong Oct 2011

In Vitro Antiviral Activity Of Fisetin, Rutin And Naringenin Against Dengue Virus Type-2, Wong Pooi Fong

Wong Pooi Fong

In vitro antiviral activities of three flavonoids; fisetin, naringenin and rutin against DENV-2 (NGC strain) were evaluated. Inhibitory effects of each compound at the different stages of DENV-2 infection were examined using foci forming unit reduction assay (FFURA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain amplification (qRT-PCR). Fisetin, rutin and naringenin showed cytotoxic effects against Vero cells with 50% cytotoxicity (CC(50)) values of 247, > 1000, and 87 mu g/mL, respectively. Fisetin when added to Vero cells after virus adsorption inhibited DENV replication with a half maximal inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value of 55 mu g/mL and selectivity index (SI ...


Jncml-Like, An Ef-Hand Motif-Containing Gene Seasonally Upregulated In The Transition Zone Of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.), Priyanka Surana, Zhonglian Huang, Daisuke Kihara, Richard Meilan, Keith Woeste Oct 2011

Jncml-Like, An Ef-Hand Motif-Containing Gene Seasonally Upregulated In The Transition Zone Of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.), Priyanka Surana, Zhonglian Huang, Daisuke Kihara, Richard Meilan, Keith Woeste

Priyanka Surana

The economic value of a black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) tree is strongly determined by the quality and quantity of darkly colored heartwood in its stem. To understand the regulation of heartwood formation, we analyzed the region of heartwood formation in walnut stems (i.e., the transition zone, TZ) for the expression of 80 ESTs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR was performed to detect expression changes of candidate genes in the TZ and sapwood of trees harvested in summer and fall. Results revealed that the transcript of a clone containing two presumed EF-hand motifs was expressed at higher levels in ...


Development Of Barnyard Millet Puffed Product Using Hot Air Puffing And Optimization Of Process Parameters, Raghunath Vyankatrao Jaybhaye, Dinesh Nandkumar Kshirsagar, Premprakash Srivastav Sep 2011

Development Of Barnyard Millet Puffed Product Using Hot Air Puffing And Optimization Of Process Parameters, Raghunath Vyankatrao Jaybhaye, Dinesh Nandkumar Kshirsagar, Premprakash Srivastav

Raghunath Vyankatrao Jaybhaye

Abstract A ready-to-eat (RTE) puffed product was developed from barnyard millet using high temperature short time (HTST) puffing process. Cold extruded dough sheet pieces prepared from barnyard millet flour, potato mash and tapioca powder in the proportion 60:37:3 were steam cooked and then puffed in hot air puffing setup. The effect of process parameters viz. steaming pressure (SP), steaming time (St), hot air temperature (AT) and puffing time (Pt) on the product quality was investigated by conducting experiments using the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Linear and quadratic models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to study ...


Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Sep 2011

Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow system, may affect dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation (sheep grazing, herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) and cropping sequence (continuous spring wheat [CSW], spring wheat–fallow [SW-F], and winter wheat–fallow [WW-F]) on soil nutrients and chemical properties in the 0- to 60-cm depth and wheat yield. The experiment was conducted in a Blackmore silt loam from 2004 to 2008 in southwestern Montana. Soil P ...


Nmr Detection And Characterization Of Sialylated Glycoproteins And Cell Surface Polysaccharides, Adam Barb, Darón I. Freedberg, Marcos D. Battistel, James H. Prestegard Sep 2011

Nmr Detection And Characterization Of Sialylated Glycoproteins And Cell Surface Polysaccharides, Adam Barb, Darón I. Freedberg, Marcos D. Battistel, James H. Prestegard

Adam Barb

Few solution NMR pulse sequences exist that are explicitly designed to characterize carbohydrates (glycans). This is despite the essential role carbohydrate motifs play in cell–cell communication, microbial pathogenesis, autoimmune disease progression and cancer metastasis, and despite that fact that glycans, often shed to extra-cellular fluids, can be diagnostic of disease. Here we present a suite of two dimensional coherence experiments to measure three different correlations (H3–C2, H3–C1, and C1–C2) on sialic acids, a group of nine-carbon carbohydrates found on eukaryotic cell surfaces that often play a key role in disease processes. The chemical shifts of the ...


Lectin-Functionalized Carboxymethylated Kappa-Carrageenan Microparticles For Oral Insulin, Kok Hoong Leong Aug 2011

Lectin-Functionalized Carboxymethylated Kappa-Carrageenan Microparticles For Oral Insulin, Kok Hoong Leong

Kok Hoong Leong

We hypothesized that pH-responsive carboxymethylated kappa-carrageenan microparticles could protect entrapped oral insulin from acidic and proteolytic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize insulin entrapped in lectin-functionalized carboxymethylated kappa-carrageenan microparticles and to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The encapsulation of insulin was performed using an ionic gelation technique and was optimized to give an encapsulation efficiency of 94.2 ± 2.6% and a drug-loading capacity of 13.5 ± 0.4%. The microparticles were further surface-lectin-functionalized for improved intestinal mucoadhesiveness. The oral administration of insulin entrapped in the ...


Assessment Of Organic And Inorganic Phosphorus In Soils Derived From Cretaceous Sediments And Basement Complex Soils Of Guinea Savannah Of Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, Sunday I. Amhakhian, H H. Isitekhale, Charles I. Oyewole Aug 2011

Assessment Of Organic And Inorganic Phosphorus In Soils Derived From Cretaceous Sediments And Basement Complex Soils Of Guinea Savannah Of Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, Sunday I. Amhakhian, H H. Isitekhale, Charles I. Oyewole

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

A pot experiment was carried out using 20 surface soils (0-15cm depth) in 2008 to assess soil organic phosphorus and some fraction of inorganic phosphorus in other to know their availability in the soils of the studied area and also work have not been done in this areas in respect to organic and in-organic phosphorus. The experiment was conducted using 20 soils 10 from each geological formation (Cretaceous sediments and Basement complex soils), respectively. The mean organic phosphorus of 63.51 mgkg 1 soil was obtained for Cretaceous sediment soils and 158.54 mgkg 1 soil for the basement complex ...


Development Of Functional Indices Of Facility Occurrence Towards The Distribution Of Social Services In Lagos Island Nigeria., Augustus O. Atubi Aug 2011

Development Of Functional Indices Of Facility Occurrence Towards The Distribution Of Social Services In Lagos Island Nigeria., Augustus O. Atubi

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Proper coordination of transport and public facilities provision is vital to any balanced regional development strategy. The central aim of this study, therefore, is to find out what the relationship is between access to the transport network and the provision of functional indices of facility occurrence towards the distribution of social services in Lagos Island, Nigeria. In particular it seeks to find out areas that have below or above average level of facility occurrences relative to the level of accessibility. However, a pair wise correlation matrix of the eleven (11) variables employed in the index construction was carried out. The ...


The Motherland, The Godfather, And The Birth Of A Basketball Dynasty: American Efforts To Promote Basketball In Lithuania, Chad R. Carlson Aug 2011

The Motherland, The Godfather, And The Birth Of A Basketball Dynasty: American Efforts To Promote Basketball In Lithuania, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

The United States transported basketball to other nations around the world in many different ways and with varying degrees of success during the early decades of the twentieth century. In Lithuania, the efforts of Lithuanian Americans star Frank Lubin and other Americans in Lithuania proved wildly successful and wove basketball into the fabric of Lithuanian national identity. Throughout the late 1930s, these members of the Lithuanian community in the United States spent a great deal of time in their motherland and changed local perceptions of basketball to the point at which it became Lithuania's national pastime.


The Use Of Imputed Values In The Meta-Analysis Of Genome-Wide Association Studies., Shuo Jiao, Li Hsu, Carolyn Hutter, Ulrike Peters Jul 2011

The Use Of Imputed Values In The Meta-Analysis Of Genome-Wide Association Studies., Shuo Jiao, Li Hsu, Carolyn Hutter, Ulrike Peters

Shuo Jiao

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it is a common practice to impute the genotypes of untyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by exploiting the linkage disequilibrium structure among SNPs. The use of imputed genotypes improves genome coverage and makes it possible to perform meta-analysis combining results from studies genotyped on different platforms. A popular way of using imputed data is the "expectation-substitution" method, which treats the imputed dosage as if it were the true genotype. In current practice, the estimates given by the expectation-substitution method are usually combined using inverse variance weighting (IVM) scheme in meta-analysis. However, the IVM is not ...


Urban Climate And Challenges Of Tropical Cities, B E. Omogbai Jul 2011

Urban Climate And Challenges Of Tropical Cities, B E. Omogbai

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This study examines the nature of urban climate, features and the challenges on the developing tropical cities in the 21st century. It argues that the use of principles of urban climate would help in providing comfortable living conditions and problem immune working environments for the inhabitants of tropical cities. The findings reveal that owing to poor environmental planning, inadequate geotechnical landscape surveys prior to the development of urban infrastructures, and non-adherence to the principles of urban climate, challenges of landscape degradation, excessive flooding of the built infrastructures, heat-island effects, and collapse of buildings have emerged. Suggested measures to avert these ...


A Preliminary Study Of The Vegetation Of Vernal Pools Of Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A, Brett Ciccotelli, Tanner B. Harris, Bruce Connery, Nishanta Rajakaruna Jul 2011

A Preliminary Study Of The Vegetation Of Vernal Pools Of Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A, Brett Ciccotelli, Tanner B. Harris, Bruce Connery, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Nishanta Rajakaruna

We conducted a preliminary floristic study of six vernal pools in Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine. Plant species were recorded on three sampling dates from April to October, 2008. Sixty-five vascular plant species from 26 families were recorded. Of these, 27 are considered occasional or uncommon in Acadia National Park. Thirteen species are new reports for vernal pools in the northeastern United States. This represents the first published study of the vernal pool flora of Acadia National Park.


Development Of Carrot Pomace And Wheat Flour Based Cookies, Navneet Kumar Dr. Jul 2011

Development Of Carrot Pomace And Wheat Flour Based Cookies, Navneet Kumar Dr.

Navneet Kumar

Carrot is the excellent source of beta carotene and other vitamins. The carrot is utilized as raw, cooked vegetable, sweet meats or as juice and beverages. Carrot pomace is the by-product of carrot juice extraction process. The carrot pomace was dried in hot air oven at 65°C and then grinded to pass through 2 mm sieve. Dried carrot pomace was added in different proportions (0 –9%) to fine wheat flour, shortening, sugar and water. The formulation was baked at 175 °C for 12 min. in the gas oven with air circulation. The moisture content of cookies was measured using ...