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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 111

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Reduction Of Iron (Iii) And Humic Substances Plays A Major Role In Anaerobic Respiration In An Arctic Peat Soil, David A. Lipson, Mony Jha, Ted K. Raab, Walter C. Oechel Dec 2010

Reduction Of Iron (Iii) And Humic Substances Plays A Major Role In Anaerobic Respiration In An Arctic Peat Soil, David A. Lipson, Mony Jha, Ted K. Raab, Walter C. Oechel

Ted K. Raab

Arctic peat soils contain vast reserves of organic C and are largely anaerobic. However, anaerobic respiration, particularly the role of Fe(III) and humic substances as electron acceptors, is not well understood in such ecosystems. We investigated these processes in a drained thaw lake basin on the Arctic coastal plain near Barrow, Alaska. We measured concentrations of soluble Fe and other potential electron acceptors, described the microbial community, and performed experiments in the laboratory and field to measure net rates of Fe(III) reduction and the relationship of this process to C cycling. In most areas within the basin, aerobic ...


Detection Of Free Living Amoebae, Acanthamoeba And Naegleria, In Swimming Pools, Malaysia, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad, Init Ithoi, Lau Yee Ling Dec 2010

Detection Of Free Living Amoebae, Acanthamoeba And Naegleria, In Swimming Pools, Malaysia, Arine Fadzlun Ahmad, Init Ithoi, Lau Yee Ling

Arine Fadzlun Ahmad

This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was carried out at 4 sites (the platforms (P), wall (W), 1 meter from the wall (1) and middle (2)) of each swimming pool. These free living amoebae (FLA) were detected under light and inverted microscopes after being cultured on the surface of non-nutrient agar lawned with Escherichia coli. Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. While Naegleria, were detected in fewer culture plates at 3 ...


Prevalence Of Scabies And Head Lice Among Children In A Welfare Home In Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Rohela Mahmud Dec 2010

Prevalence Of Scabies And Head Lice Among Children In A Welfare Home In Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Rohela Mahmud

Rohela Mahmud

This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and ...


Genotype-Phenotype Diversity Of Beta-Thalassemia In Malaysia: Treatment Options And Emerging Therapies, Maryanne Jin Ai Tan Maryanne Dec 2010

Genotype-Phenotype Diversity Of Beta-Thalassemia In Malaysia: Treatment Options And Emerging Therapies, Maryanne Jin Ai Tan Maryanne

Mary Anne Tan Jin Ai

The haemoglobinopathies and thalassemias represent the most common inherited monogenic disorders in the world1. Beta-thalassaemia major is an ongoing public health problem in Malaysia2. Prior to 2004, the country had no national policy for screening and registry for thalassemia. In the absence of a national audit, the true figure of the extent of thalassemia in the Malaysian population was largely presumptive from micro-mapping studies from various research workers in the country. The estimated carrier rate for beta-thalassemia in Malaysia is 3.5-4%. There were 4768 transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients as of May 2010 (Data from National Thalassemia Registry).


Leaching Mechanism Of Semiconducting Minerals, Fathi Habashi Dec 2010

Leaching Mechanism Of Semiconducting Minerals, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

The mechanism of leaching of semiconducting minerals such as PbS, ZnS, UO2, etc., has been the subject of intensive speculation by hydrometallurgists in the early 1950s. The electrochemical mechanism proposed in 1970 by the author in volume 2 of his Principles of Extractive Metallurgy avoids the assumption of forming intermediate complexes that cannot be isolated or identified.


Evaluation Of Harassment Of Migrating Double-Crested Cormorants To Limit Depredation On Selected Sport Fisheries In Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Ashley Moerke, Michael Bur, Chuck Bassett, Tony Aderman, Dan Traynor, Russell D. Singleton, Peter H. Butchko, Jimmy D. Taylor Nov 2010

Evaluation Of Harassment Of Migrating Double-Crested Cormorants To Limit Depredation On Selected Sport Fisheries In Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Ashley Moerke, Michael Bur, Chuck Bassett, Tony Aderman, Dan Traynor, Russell D. Singleton, Peter H. Butchko, Jimmy D. Taylor

Brian S Dorr

No abstract provided.


Closing The Gap Between The Industry And Higher Education Institutions- Case Examples From East African Region, Deogratias Harorimana Mr Nov 2010

Closing The Gap Between The Industry And Higher Education Institutions- Case Examples From East African Region, Deogratias Harorimana Mr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

Much complained about is the quality of graduates Universities put on the labour market. Less talked about however is why knowledge institutions seems to be bad knowledge managers. In this presentation I argue that DIRECT collaborative relationship between Industry,Governments and Higher Education Institutions is a per-requisite.Good relationship is key to building such a successful knowledge transfer strategies between Industries and Educational and Research Institutions. This paper explores what makes a good Knowledge Transfer Partnership Strategy and highlights some key lessons for businesses, Universities and Government bodies. This paper was a Key note presentation to the Annual International Conference ...


A Novel Totivirus And Piscine Reovirus (Prv) In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) With Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (Cms), Torstein Tengs Nov 2010

A Novel Totivirus And Piscine Reovirus (Prv) In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) With Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (Cms), Torstein Tengs

Dr. Torstein Tengs

BACKGROUNDCardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe disease affecting large farmed Atlantic salmon. Mortality often appears without prior clinical signs, typically shortly prior to slaughter. We recently reported the finding and the complete genomic sequence of a novel piscine reovirus (PRV), which is associated with another cardiac disease in Atlantic salmon; heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In the present work we have studied whether PRV or other infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of CMS.RESULTSUsing high throughput sequencing on heart samples from natural outbreaks of CMS and from fish experimentally challenged with material from fish diagnosed with ...


Micropropagation Of Mangifera Indica L. Cv. Kurakkan Through Somatic Embryogenesis, Rajesh Pati Oct 2010

Micropropagation Of Mangifera Indica L. Cv. Kurakkan Through Somatic Embryogenesis, Rajesh Pati

Rajesh Pati

Nucellar embryogenesis was induced in Mangifera indica L. cv. Kurakkan, a polyembryonic salt tolerant, dwarfing rootstock. Nucellus tissue excised from 3.5 cm long fruits developed pro-embryonic callus in 19 days of inoculation on modified MS medium supplemented with 4.52μM 2,4- D, 0.05% malt extract and 13.78μM spermidine. Somatic embryogenesis exhibited high frequency (158.33 embryos). However, all the differentiated embryos proliferated on medium having low level of sucrose (4% w/v) and auxin (2.26μM 2,4-D). Most of the proembryonic calli converted into heart shaped and cotyledonary embryos by reducing temperature to 15oC. Somatic ...


Balancing Limiting Factors & Economic Drivers For Sustainable Midwestern Us Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies, Wally W. Wilhelm, J. Richard Hess, Douglas L. Karlen, Jane M. F. Johnson, David J. Muth Jr., John M. Baker, Hero T. Gollany, Jeff M. Novak, Diane E. Scott, Gary E. Varvel Oct 2010

Balancing Limiting Factors & Economic Drivers For Sustainable Midwestern Us Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies, Wally W. Wilhelm, J. Richard Hess, Douglas L. Karlen, Jane M. F. Johnson, David J. Muth Jr., John M. Baker, Hero T. Gollany, Jeff M. Novak, Diane E. Scott, Gary E. Varvel

David J. Muth

Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading the soil and other natural resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock in the midwestern United States. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. These are discussed in relationship ...


Homology Modeling And In Silico Analysis Of Cox From Channa Punctata, Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan Sep 2010

Homology Modeling And In Silico Analysis Of Cox From Channa Punctata, Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan

Azhaguraj Ramakrishnan

The Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) region of mitochondrial DNA is the most studied region of the fish mitochondrial genome. COX is one of the largest protein coding genes of metazoan mitochondrial genome.COX (E.C.1.9.3.1) is the terminal member of the respiratory chain catalyzing the reduction of dioxygen to water by ferrocytochrome C. A 19.927 kDa COX has been characterized in Channa punc-tata where COX III dimensional structure was generated using Deep View/ Swiss Pdp Viewer 3.7(Sps) by homol-ogy modeling, predicted model was validated in RAM-PAGE Server and COX secondary structure is predicted ...


Supersizing The Mind: Embodiment, Action And Cognitive Extension, Mirko Farina Sep 2010

Supersizing The Mind: Embodiment, Action And Cognitive Extension, Mirko Farina

Mirko Farina

No abstract provided.


Strong Feeding Preference Of An Exotic Generalist Herbivore For An Exotic Forb: A Case Of Invasional Antagonism, Kimberly J. La Pierre, W. Stanley Harpole, Katharine N. Suding Sep 2010

Strong Feeding Preference Of An Exotic Generalist Herbivore For An Exotic Forb: A Case Of Invasional Antagonism, Kimberly J. La Pierre, W. Stanley Harpole, Katharine N. Suding

W. Stanley Harpole

Many hypotheses dealing with the success of invasive plant species concern plant–herbivore interactions. The invasional meltdown and enemy inversion hypotheses suggest that non-native herbivores may indirectly facilitate the invasion of a non-native plant species by either favorably changing environmental conditions or reducing competition from native plant species. Our objective was to determine the role of herbivory by the non-native snail Otala lactea in structuring California grassland communities. We conducted two experiments to examine the feeding preferences of O. lactea for eight representative grassland species. Overall, O. lactea preferred Brassica nigra, a non-native forb, over all other species tested. Field ...


Spring-Fed Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities As Early Biological Indicators Of Groundwater Tipping Points., Rosemary A. Burk, Jan Kallberg, James H. Kennedy Aug 2010

Spring-Fed Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities As Early Biological Indicators Of Groundwater Tipping Points., Rosemary A. Burk, Jan Kallberg, James H. Kennedy

Rosemary A. Burk

In 2007, a 20-county area encompassing the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex was designated by the State as a Priority Groundwater Management Area (PGMA) in need of implementing strategies for groundwater conservation. The newly created PGMA’s population is expected to increase from 5.5 million in 2000 to 9.5 million by 2030 with projected water needs rising from 1,677 million m3 in 2000 to 3,034 million m3 by 2030 according to a study by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The Trinity Aquifer supplied 73% of the area’s groundwater in 2000, with the aquifer outcrop zone being ...


Neutralization Of Radical Toxicity By Temperature-Dependent Modulation Of Extracellular Sod Activity In Coral Bleaching Pathogen Vibrio Shiloi And Its Role As A Virulence Factor, Murali Mr, Raja Sb, Devaraj Sn Aug 2010

Neutralization Of Radical Toxicity By Temperature-Dependent Modulation Of Extracellular Sod Activity In Coral Bleaching Pathogen Vibrio Shiloi And Its Role As A Virulence Factor, Murali Mr, Raja Sb, Devaraj Sn

Murali Malliga Raman

Vibrio shiloi is the first and well-documented bacterium which causes coral bleaching, particularly, during summer, when seawater temperature is between 26 and 31 degrees C. Coral bleaching is the disruption of the symbiotic association between coral hosts and their photosynthetic microalgae zooxanthellae. This is either due to lowered resistance in corals to infection or increased virulence of the bacterium at the higher sea surface temperature. The concentration of the oxygen and resulting oxygen radicals produced by the zooxanthellae during photosynthesis are highly toxic to bacteria, which also assist corals in resisting the infection. Hence, in this study we examined the ...


Carson Cunningham, American Hoops: U.S. Men’S Olympic Basketball From Berlin To Beijing, Chad R. Carlson Aug 2010

Carson Cunningham, American Hoops: U.S. Men’S Olympic Basketball From Berlin To Beijing, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

No abstract provided.


Heart And Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Of Farmed Salmon Is Associated With Infection With A Novel Reovirus, Torstein Tengs Jul 2010

Heart And Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Of Farmed Salmon Is Associated With Infection With A Novel Reovirus, Torstein Tengs

Dr. Torstein Tengs

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture has been associated with epidemics of infectious diseases that threaten not only local production, but also wild fish coming into close proximity to marine pens and fish escaping from them. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a frequently fatal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. First recognized in one farm in Norway in 1999, HSMI was subsequently implicated in outbreaks in other farms in Norway and the United Kingdom. Although pathology and disease transmission studies indicated an infectious basis, efforts to identify an agent were unsuccessful. Here we provide evidence that HSMI is associated ...


Species Boundaries And Evolutionary Lineages In The Blue Green Damselfishes Chromis Viridis And Chromis Atripectoralis (Pomacentridae), Philadelphia University Jul 2010

Species Boundaries And Evolutionary Lineages In The Blue Green Damselfishes Chromis Viridis And Chromis Atripectoralis (Pomacentridae), Philadelphia University

Philadelphia University, Jordan

No abstract provided.


Hydroxyl-Terminated Poly(Urethane Acrylate) As A Soft Liner In Dental Applications: Synthesis And Characterization, Selda Keskin Jul 2010

Hydroxyl-Terminated Poly(Urethane Acrylate) As A Soft Liner In Dental Applications: Synthesis And Characterization, Selda Keskin


ABSTRACT: Hydroxyl-terminated poly(urethane acrylate) s were synthesized for use in biomedical applications. Acrylate end capping via an interesterification reaction was successfully achieved with methacryloyl chloride addition to the hydroxyl ends of the polyurethane at low temperatures. 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate, 1,6-hexane diisocyanate, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate were used as diisocyanates for urethane synthesis, and they were end-capped with methyl methacrylate and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The nature of the monomers that we used had an effect on the thermal and morphological properties that were interpreted in terms of the level of hydrogen bonding and the degree of phase separation. The synthesized ...


Optimal Control Of A Switched System In Microbial Fed-Batch Fermentation Process, Chongyang Liu, Zhaohua Gong, Enmin Feng Jul 2010

Optimal Control Of A Switched System In Microbial Fed-Batch Fermentation Process, Chongyang Liu, Zhaohua Gong, Enmin Feng

Chongyang Liu

The main control goal in fed-batch fermentation process is to get a high concentration of production. In this paper, by taking the feed rate of glycerol as the control function, a nonlinear switched system is proposed to formulate the fed-batch fermentation process of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). To maximize the concentration of 1,3-PD at the terminal time, an optimal switching control model subject to constraints of continuous state inequality and control function is presented. A computational approach is developed to seek the optimal solution in two aspects. On the one hand, the control parametrization enhancing transform together ...


Need Of Open Access Repositories For Nars In India, Aneeja Guttikonda Jun 2010

Need Of Open Access Repositories For Nars In India, Aneeja Guttikonda

aneeja guttikonda

No abstract provided.


Non-Prejudiced Detection And Characterization Of Genetic Modifications, Torstein Tengs Jun 2010

Non-Prejudiced Detection And Characterization Of Genetic Modifications, Torstein Tengs

Dr. Torstein Tengs

The application of gene technology is becoming widespread much thanks to the rapid increase in technology, resource, and knowledge availability. Consequently, the diversity and number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that may find their way into the food chain or the environment, intended or unintended, is rapidly growing. From a safety point of view the ability to detect and characterize in detail any GMO, independent of publicly available information, is fundamental. Pre-release risk assessments of GMOs are required in most jurisdictions and are usually based on application of technologies with limited ability to detect unexpected rearrangements and insertions. We present ...


Turning Packaging Into Profit, Rihaz Z. Chughatta May 2010

Turning Packaging Into Profit, Rihaz Z. Chughatta

Rihaz Z Chughatta

Packaging can be an expensive function to maintain, but it doesn’t have to be. In fact, Packaging can be a source of income for a company. More accurately, what if you took a look at your company’s Profit and Loss and saw Packaging as a negative expense? That’s right, you can turn packaging into profit for your company. How do you accomplish this feat? Glad you asked … read on to find three simple ways to start this process (and satisfy your curiosity) …


Opportunities And Obstacles To The Elimination Of Malaria From Peninsular Malaysia: Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices On Malaria Among Aboriginal And Rural Communities, Rohela Mahmud May 2010

Opportunities And Obstacles To The Elimination Of Malaria From Peninsular Malaysia: Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices On Malaria Among Aboriginal And Rural Communities, Rohela Mahmud

Rohela Mahmud

Background: Despite continuous efforts by the government and private sectors, malaria is still a public health problem in rural Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated household knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding malaria in two malaria endemic communities, forest-aboriginal and rural communities, in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 and 123 households from forest-aboriginal and rural areas, respectively. Results: Knowledge about malaria and its transmission is significantly higher among the rural participants than the aborigines (86.2% vs 76%, p < 0.01). However, use of medicinal plants and beliefs in witchcraft and sorcery in treating febrile diseases were significantly higher among the aboriginal population (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two communities in terms of the knowledge about malaria symptoms, attitudes towards its severity and practices in preventive measures against malaria by using mosquito bed nets. However, the knowledge and practice of different preventive measures to combat malaria, such as insecticide and the elimination of breeding areas, was significantly higher among the rural population than the aborigines (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Both communities were aware of malaria as a disease, but knowledge, attitudes and practices were inadequate. Providing efficient health education to people residing in malaria endemic areas would improve their understanding about malaria prevention in order to bring about the elimination of malaria from the country.


Non-Senescence In Neoclassical Growth Theory, Harry D. Saunders May 2010

Non-Senescence In Neoclassical Growth Theory, Harry D. Saunders

Harry D. Saunders

This presentation describes research showing that non-senescent genotypes can dominate senescent ones under certain evolutionary conditions.


Improved Plasma Stability And Sustained Release Profile Of Gemcitabine Via Polypeptide Conjugation, Kiew Lik Voon, Cheong Soon Keng, Khalifah Sidik May 2010

Improved Plasma Stability And Sustained Release Profile Of Gemcitabine Via Polypeptide Conjugation, Kiew Lik Voon, Cheong Soon Keng, Khalifah Sidik

Kiew Lik Voon

To enhance the stability of the anticancer drug gemcitabine (2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine), it was conjugated to poly-L-glutamic acid (PG-H) via a carbodiimide reaction. The synthesised poly-L-glutamic acid-gemcitabine (PG-G) was purified and characterised by using SDS-PAGE to estimate its molecular weight, HPLC to determine its purity and degree of drug loading, and NMR to elucidate the structure. In vitro aqueous hydrolytic studies showed that the gemcitabine release from the polymeric drug conjugate was pH dependent, and that the conjugation to PG-H improved its stability in human plasma. The release of the bound gemcitabine from PG-G in plasma was mediated by ...


Basketball’S Forgotten Experiment: Don Barksdale And The Legacy Of The United States Olympic Basketball Team, Chad R. Carlson May 2010

Basketball’S Forgotten Experiment: Don Barksdale And The Legacy Of The United States Olympic Basketball Team, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

The 1948 United States Olympic basketball team has largely been fotgotten in the annals of American history despite taking a major step toward racial integration in American sports. Don Barksdale, the first African American to represent the US on the hardwood in the Olympics, joined nine players from the American South and legendary University of Kentucky coach, Adolph Rupp - a man notoriously identified as a racist. While Barksdale experienced very little racial mistreatment during the London Olympics, the lead-up to the Games reveals America's ambiguous views on race relations. During training in the segregated states of Oklahoma and Kentucky ...


Efficacy Of Different Detergents For Leaf Extract Based Sex Diagnostics Of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)., Rajesh Pati Apr 2010

Efficacy Of Different Detergents For Leaf Extract Based Sex Diagnostics Of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)., Rajesh Pati

Rajesh Pati

No abstract provided.


Vascular Plants Of Adjacent Serpentine And Granite Outcrops On The Deer Isles, Maine, U.S.A, Nathaniel Pope, Tanner B. Harris, Nishanta Rajakaruna Apr 2010

Vascular Plants Of Adjacent Serpentine And Granite Outcrops On The Deer Isles, Maine, U.S.A, Nathaniel Pope, Tanner B. Harris, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Nishanta Rajakaruna

We performed a comparative study of the vascular flora of a serpentine outcrop, Pine Hill, and that of a granite outcrop, Settlement Quarry, from Little Deer Isle and Deer Isle, respectively, Hancock County, Maine. We established four transects along a gradient from exposed to forested areas within each outcrop. Plants were recorded for presence and percent cover from circular plots along each transect. Soil and tissue samples were collected to examine soil-tissue elemental relations. One hundred thirty-two taxa were recorded from serpentine and 89 from granite. Fifty-seven taxa were shared by both sites. Species richness (α diversity) and diversity indices ...


Issues And Tools For Social Science Research In Inland Fisheries, P K. Katiha, K K. Vass, A P. Sharma, U Bhaumik, Ganesh Chandra Apr 2010

Issues And Tools For Social Science Research In Inland Fisheries, P K. Katiha, K K. Vass, A P. Sharma, U Bhaumik, Ganesh Chandra

Ganesh Chandra

No abstract provided.