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2004

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Towards A Systems Approach To Understanding Plant Cell Walls, Chris R. Somerville, Stefan Bauer, Ginger Brininstool, Michelle Facette, Thorsten Hamann, Jennifer Milne, Erin Osborne, Alex Paradez, Staffan Persson, Ted K. Raab, Sonja Vorwerk, Heather Youngs Dec 2004

Towards A Systems Approach To Understanding Plant Cell Walls, Chris R. Somerville, Stefan Bauer, Ginger Brininstool, Michelle Facette, Thorsten Hamann, Jennifer Milne, Erin Osborne, Alex Paradez, Staffan Persson, Ted K. Raab, Sonja Vorwerk, Heather Youngs

Ted K. Raab

One of the defining features of plants is a body plan based on the physical properties of cell walls. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide components, combined with highresolution imaging, have provided the basis for much of the current understanding of cell walls. The application of genetic methods has begun to provide new insights into how walls are made, how they are controlled, and how they function. However, progress in integrating biophysical, developmental, and genetic information into a useful model will require a system-based approach.


Mutations In Pmr5 Result In Powdery Mildew Resistance And Altered Cell Wall Composition, John P. Vogel, Ted K. Raab, Chris R. Somerville, Shauna C. Somerville Dec 2004

Mutations In Pmr5 Result In Powdery Mildew Resistance And Altered Cell Wall Composition, John P. Vogel, Ted K. Raab, Chris R. Somerville, Shauna C. Somerville

Ted K. Raab

Powdery mildews and other obligate biotrophic pathogens are highly adapted to their hosts and often show limited host ranges. One facet of such host specialization is likely to be penetration of the host cell wall, a major barrier to infection. A mutation in the pmr5 gene rendered Arabidopsis resistant to the powdery mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe orontii, but not to the unrelated pathogens Pseudomonas syringae or Peronospora parasitica. PMR5 belongs to a large family of plant-specific genes of unknown function. pmr5-mediated resistance did not require signaling through either the salicylic acid or jasmonic acid/ ethylene defense pathways, suggesting ...


High-Resolution Serum Proteomic Patterns For Ovarian Cancer Detection, Keith A. Baggerly, Sarah R. Edmonson, Jeffrey S. Morris, Kevin R. Coombes Nov 2004

High-Resolution Serum Proteomic Patterns For Ovarian Cancer Detection, Keith A. Baggerly, Sarah R. Edmonson, Jeffrey S. Morris, Kevin R. Coombes

Jeffrey S. Morris

No abstract provided.


Ecological And Agricultural Applications Of Synchrotron Ir Microscopy, Ted K. Raab, John P. Vogel Sep 2004

Ecological And Agricultural Applications Of Synchrotron Ir Microscopy, Ted K. Raab, John P. Vogel

Ted K. Raab

The diffraction-limited spot size of synchrotron-based IR microscopes provides cell-specific, spectrochemical imaging of cleared leaf, stem and root tissues of the model genetic organism Arabidopsis thaliana, and mutant plants created either by T-DNA insertional inactivation or chemical mutagenesis. Spectra in the wavelength region from 6 to 12 microns provide chemical and physical information on the cell wall polysaccharides of mutants lacking particular biosynthetic enzymes (‘‘Cellulose synthase-like’’ genes). In parallel experiments, synchrotron IR microscopy delineates the role of Arabidopsis cell wall enzymes as susceptibility factors to the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, a causative agent of powdery mildew disease. Three genes, pmr4, pmr5 ...


The Use Of Business Tool “Project Management” In Sport Coaching, Yanni D. Afthinos Aug 2004

The Use Of Business Tool “Project Management” In Sport Coaching, Yanni D. Afthinos

Yanni D Afthinos

Sport and coaching has offered valuable experience and procedures to the management field. Over the past years, a number of books have been written about coaching or leadership and other sport related issues, that business people can use in order to improve their work effectiveness. The author of this paper intends to offer something back to sport and coaching, through the presentation of a managerial tool known as “Project management”, which can assist coaches and other sport officials to improve their work effectiveness. A tool that has theoretical base and practical orientation, as well as it is needed but it ...


Effects Of Des-Aspartate-Angiotensin I On The Actions Of Angiotensin Iii In The Renal And Mesenteric Vasculature Of Normo-And Hypertensive Rats, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Murugan Dharmani, Kunheen N.K, Meng-Kwoon Sim Aug 2004

Effects Of Des-Aspartate-Angiotensin I On The Actions Of Angiotensin Iii In The Renal And Mesenteric Vasculature Of Normo-And Hypertensive Rats, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Murugan Dharmani, Kunheen N.K, Meng-Kwoon Sim

Mohd Rais Mustafa

An earlier study showed that des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) attenuated the pressor action of angiotensin III in aortic rings of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) but not the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The present study investigated similar properties of DAA-I in isolated perfused kidneys and mesenteric beds of WKY and SHR. In the renal vasculature, angiotensin III induced a dosedependent pressor response, which was more marked in the SHR than WKY in terms of significant greater magnitude of response and lower threshold. DAA-I attenuated the pressor action of angiotensin III in both the WKY and SHR. The attenuation in SHR ...


The Neurobiology Of Antiepileptic Drugs For The Treatment Of Nonepileptic Conditions, Michael A. Rogawski, Wolfgang Löscher Jul 2004

The Neurobiology Of Antiepileptic Drugs For The Treatment Of Nonepileptic Conditions, Michael A. Rogawski, Wolfgang Löscher

Michael A. Rogawski

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly prescribed for nonepileptic conditions, including migraine headache, chronicneuropathic pain, mood disorders, schizophrenia and various neuromuscular syndromes. In many of these conditions, as in epilepsy, the drugs act by modifying the excitability of nerve (or muscle) through effects on voltage-gated sodium and calciumchannels or by promoting inhibition mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors. In neuropathic pain, chronic nerveinjury is associated with the redistribution and altered subunit compositions of sodium and calcium channels that predisposeneurons in sensory pathways to fire spontaneously or at inappropriately high frequencies, often from ectopic sites. AEDs maycounteract this abnormal activity by ...


सुन्दरबंस की मात्स्यिकी- समस्याएं और प्रत्याशाएं. (Sundaraban Ki Matasyaki- Samasyayen Evam Pratyashyen), Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar Jun 2004

सुन्दरबंस की मात्स्यिकी- समस्याएं और प्रत्याशाएं. (Sundaraban Ki Matasyaki- Samasyayen Evam Pratyashyen), Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar

Ganesh Chandra

This paper gives an insight into the fisheries of Sundarban delta region of west Bengal India.


Effect Of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides For Icam-1 On Renal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury In The Anaesthetised Rat, Kiew Lik Voon Jun 2004

Effect Of Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides For Icam-1 On Renal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury In The Anaesthetised Rat, Kiew Lik Voon

Kiew Lik Voon

An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (As-ODN) to the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA sequence expressing the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was employed to determine ICAM-1's role in renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Wistar-Kyoto rats receiving i.v. either lipofectin-As-ODN (As-ODN group), lipofectin-reverse ODN (Rv-ODN group) or lipofectin (ischaemia control group) 8 h prior to study were anaesthetized and subjected to 30 min of renal artery occlusion. Renal haemodynamic and excretory parameters were monitored before and after renal ischaemia. On termination of the study renal tissue was subjected to histological and Western blot analysis. Renal blood flow decreased in the ...


Frontline Demonstration On Sesame In West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar Apr 2004

Frontline Demonstration On Sesame In West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar

Ganesh Chandra

Sesame is one of the important oilseeds crop in India, which plays a major role in supplementing the income of small and marginal farmers of Sunderbans. One of the major constraints of traditional Sesame farming is low productivity of local varieties. To replace this anomaly, Krishi Vigyan Kendra of CIFRI has conducted frontline demonstration at adopted farmers’ field in four development blocks viz. Kakdwip, Namkhana, Patharpratima and Kulpi of Sunderbans, West Bengal. Cultivation of high yielding varieties of Sesame viz. Rama (Improved Selection-5) and Tilottma (B-67) shows percentage increase of 46.58 and 35.86 respectively over local check. The ...


Decreased Expression Of Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 In Ants With Extreme Lifespan, Joel D. Parker, Karen M. Parker, Barbara H. Sohal, Rajindar S. Sohal, Laurent Keller Mar 2004

Decreased Expression Of Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 In Ants With Extreme Lifespan, Joel D. Parker, Karen M. Parker, Barbara H. Sohal, Rajindar S. Sohal, Laurent Keller

Joel D Parker

Reactive oxygen species, the by-products of oxidative energy metabolism, are considered a main proximate cause of aging. Accordingly, overexpression of the enzyme Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) can lengthen lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory. However, the role of SOD1 as a main determinant of lifespan has been challenged on the grounds that overexpression might be effective only in compromised genetic backgrounds. Moreover, interspecific comparisons show lower levels of antioxidant activities in longer-lived species, suggesting that life-span extension may evolve through less reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria rather than higher expression of SOD1. The tremendous variation ...


Harvesting Green Gold: Cultivation Of Betelvine In Sundarban, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar Mar 2004

Harvesting Green Gold: Cultivation Of Betelvine In Sundarban, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar

Ganesh Chandra

Betelvine or Pan (Piper betel L) belongs to the family Piperaceae and is a perennial aromatic creeper grown for its leaves. It is the most important cash crop and its cultivation has already brought a perceptible and conspicuous change in the livelihood security of Sundarban agriculture and its farming population. Betelvine is cultivated in a hut like structure called Boroj which is made of either square or rectangular in shape. Farmers are selling their produce at local markets as well as the distant markets in Midnapore district. The growers are also facing several constraints. The most important constraint is price ...


A Major Evolutionary Transition To More Than Two Sexes?, Joel D. Parker Feb 2004

A Major Evolutionary Transition To More Than Two Sexes?, Joel D. Parker

Joel D Parker

Two recently discovered cases of genetic caste determination in social insects might provide the first example of a major evolutionary transition from two to more than two sexes. I argue here that the system can be interpreted as comprising primarily individuals requiring gametes from three parental types and having four sexes from the perspective of demographic extinction. Additionally, I show how this mating system can be seen as a major evolutionary transition. For these populations, it is apparent that the mechanism for a three- or four-sex system does not lie within the myriad of possible arrangements of chromosomes within individuals ...


Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence For An Extracellular Cu Zn Superoxide Dismutase Gene In Insects, Joel D. Parker Jan 2004

Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence For An Extracellular Cu Zn Superoxide Dismutase Gene In Insects, Joel D. Parker

Joel D Parker

Representatives of three ancient gene families of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) can be found in most metazoans. In mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans , there is at least one gene each of the cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and extracellular lineages of SOD genes. The cytoplasmic SOD was one of the first enzymes to be implicated in ageing due to its protection against damaging oxygen free radicals. In contrast to other metazoans, insects were thought to lack a gene for the extracellular SOD. We have cloned and sequenced an SOD mRNA in the ant Lasius niger that appears to belong to this extracellular ...


Information And Communication Technologies (Icts) For Agriculture, Aneeja Guttikonda, Sandhya Jan 2004

Information And Communication Technologies (Icts) For Agriculture, Aneeja Guttikonda, Sandhya

aneeja guttikonda

No abstract provided.


Can The Human Brain Do Quantum Computing?, Armando F. Rocha, Eduardo Massad, Francisco B. Coutinho Jan 2004

Can The Human Brain Do Quantum Computing?, Armando F. Rocha, Eduardo Massad, Francisco B. Coutinho

Armando F Rocha

The electrical membrane properties have been the key issues in the understanding of the cerebral physiology for more than almost two centuries. But, molecular neurobiology has now discovered that biochemical transactions play an important role in neuronal computations. Quantum computing (QC) is becoming a reality both from the theoretical point of view as well as from practical applications. Quantum mechanics is the most accurate description at atomic level and it lies behind all chemistry that provides the basis for biology ... maybe the magic of entanglement is also crucial for life. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the ...


Low Cost Seismic Test Platform, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2004

Low Cost Seismic Test Platform, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

The challenge of seismic safety is better testing of building systems rather than just components. This mobile test platform may offer an inexpensive method of testing building performance.


Mandatory Recall Authority: A Sensible And Minimalist Approach To Improving Food Safety, Michael T. Roberts Esq. Jan 2004

Mandatory Recall Authority: A Sensible And Minimalist Approach To Improving Food Safety, Michael T. Roberts Esq.

Michael T. Roberts Esq.

No abstract provided.


Impact Study On Introduction Of Green Gram (Vigna Radiata) Cultivation In Sundarbans, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar Jan 2004

Impact Study On Introduction Of Green Gram (Vigna Radiata) Cultivation In Sundarbans, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar

Ganesh Chandra

Impact study on introduction of Moong (Vigna radiata) cultivation in rice fallow cropping system of Sundarbans has been done to know the socio -economic impact of Summer Moong cultivation over the populace of Sundarbans after 10 years of start of FLD on Moong in this area. The study covered randomly selected 60 farmer beneficiaries under FLD of three blocks using Before-After analysis through PRA, formal household survey and focused group discussion. The triangulation of data has been done through using all three methods. The result of this study shows that the number of farmers having net income above Rs. 1000-2000 ...


Evaluation Of Frontline Demonstration On Mustard In Sunderbans, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Frontline Demonstration On Mustard In Sunderbans, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra, R L. Sagar

Ganesh Chandra

Mustard is one of the most important oi lseeds crop in West Bengal, which plays a major role in supplementing the income of small and marginal farmers of Sunderbans. One of the major constraints of traditional mustard farming is low productivity of local varieties. To replace this anomaly, Krishi Vigyan Kendra of CIFRI has conducted frontline demonstration at adopted farmers’ field in four development blocks viz. Kakdwip, Namkhana, Patharpratima and Kulpi of Sunderbans, West Bengal. Cultivation of high yielding varieties of mustard viz. Bhagirathi (RW-351), Sanjukta asech (4C-6-3/II), Jhumka (NC-1), Seeta (B-85) and Binoy (B-9) shows percentage increase of ...


Development Of Real–Time Pcr Assays For The Detection Of Chattonella Species In Culture And Environmental Samples, Torstein Tengs Jan 2004

Development Of Real–Time Pcr Assays For The Detection Of Chattonella Species In Culture And Environmental Samples, Torstein Tengs

Dr. Torstein Tengs

Raphidophytes have been associated with fish kill events in Japanese, European and U.S. coastal waters, and many produce toxins that can pose a threat to human health. The recognition of raphidophytes as HAB species in mid-Atlantic estuarine waters led us to initiate molecular phylogenetic analyses of these taxa and to develop real-time PCR assays for rapid detection of important species. The molecular studies and PCR detection methods will enhance ongoing taxonomic, toxicologic and ecological of these organisms and will be a useful tool in HAB monitoring programs.


Clonal Propagation Of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. By Softwood Nodal Cuttings: Effects Of Genotypes, Application Of Iba And Position Of Cuttings On Shoots, Azamal Husen Dr. Jan 2004

Clonal Propagation Of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. By Softwood Nodal Cuttings: Effects Of Genotypes, Application Of Iba And Position Of Cuttings On Shoots, Azamal Husen Dr.

Dr. Azamal Husen

No abstract provided.


Growth Performance Of Datura Innoxia Mill. Under The Stress Of Coal-Smoke Pollution, Azamal Husen, Muhammad Iqbal Jan 2004

Growth Performance Of Datura Innoxia Mill. Under The Stress Of Coal-Smoke Pollution, Azamal Husen, Muhammad Iqbal

Dr. Azamal Husen

One-year-old plants of Datura innoxia growing in natural condition in the Hamdard University campus, New Delhi (normal site) and around the Badarpur thermal power plant, New Delhi (polluted site), were studied and compared for their vegetative growth and pollen viability. The power plant emits 1450 tonnes fly ash and 100 tonnes sulphur dioxide per day. Significant variation was found in plant growth, biomass and pollen viability of the two population. The shoot growth was reduced at the polluted site but the root length, the number of branches and the plant biomass were increased, compared to the control. Pollen viability declined ...


Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik Jan 2004

Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


A Hidden Markov Model Capable Of Predicting And Discriminating Β-Barrel Outer Membrane Proteins, Pantelis G. Bagos, Theodore D. Liakopoulos, Ioannis C. Spyropoulos, Stavros J. Hamodrakas Jan 2004

A Hidden Markov Model Capable Of Predicting And Discriminating Β-Barrel Outer Membrane Proteins, Pantelis G. Bagos, Theodore D. Liakopoulos, Ioannis C. Spyropoulos, Stavros J. Hamodrakas

Pantelis Bagos

BACKGROUND: Integral membrane proteins constitute about 20-30% of all proteins in the fully sequenced genomes. They come in two structural classes, the alpha-helical and the beta-barrel membrane proteins, demonstrating different physicochemical characteristics, structure and localization. While transmembrane segment prediction for the alpha-helical integral membrane proteins appears to be an easy task nowadays, the same is much more difficult for the beta-barrel membrane proteins. We developed a method, based on a Hidden Markov Model, capable of predicting the transmembrane beta-strands of the outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, and discriminating those from water-soluble proteins in large datasets. The model is trained ...


Developing A Research And Restoration Plan For Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon, Craig L. Fleener Jan 2004

Developing A Research And Restoration Plan For Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon, Craig L. Fleener

Craig L Fleener

No abstract provided.


Non-Inactivating Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels In Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy Of Infancy, T. H. Rhodes, Christoph Lossin, C. Vanoye, Alfred L. George Jan 2004

Non-Inactivating Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels In Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy Of Infancy, T. H. Rhodes, Christoph Lossin, C. Vanoye, Alfred L. George

Christoph Lossin, Ph.D.

Mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain voltage-gated sodium channel alpha(1) subunit (Na(V)1.1), are associated with at least two forms of epilepsy, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). We examined the functional properties of five SMEI mutations by using whole-cell patch-clamp analysis of heterologously expressed recombinant human SCN1A. Two mutations (F902C and G1674R) rendered SCN1A channels nonfunctional, and a third allele (G1749E) exhibited minimal functional alterations. However, two mutations within or near the S4 segment of the fourth repeat domain (R1648C and F1661S) conferred significant impairments in fast ...


High Levels Of Fluctuating Asymmetry In Populations Of Apodemus Flavicollis From The Most Contaminated Areas In Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue, Sergiy P. Gashchak, Michael H. Smith Jan 2004

High Levels Of Fluctuating Asymmetry In Populations Of Apodemus Flavicollis From The Most Contaminated Areas In Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue, Sergiy P. Gashchak, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Random deviations from the perfect symmetry of normally bilaterally symmetrical characters for an individual with a given genotype occur during individual development due to the influence of multiple environmental factors. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of developmental instability, and can be estimated as the variance of the distribution of differences between the left and right sides. We addressed the question of whether levels of FA were elevated in radioactively contaminated populations living around Chornobyl compared to those in reference populations of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). In addition, we studied amounts of directional asymmetry (DA) when ...


Respiratory And Reproductive Characteristics Of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki) Inhabiting A Coal Ash Settling Basin, B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, James Novak, J. D. Congdon Jan 2004

Respiratory And Reproductive Characteristics Of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki) Inhabiting A Coal Ash Settling Basin, B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, James Novak, J. D. Congdon

James M. Novak

No abstract provided.