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1994

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Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Using Biodiversity Data To Assess Species--Habitat Relationships In Glacier National Park, Montana, Diane M. Debinski, Peter F. Brussard Nov 1994

Using Biodiversity Data To Assess Species--Habitat Relationships In Glacier National Park, Montana, Diane M. Debinski, Peter F. Brussard

Diane M. Debinski

Biodiversity surveys are becoming increasingly popular. However, standard analysis techniques for these data have not yet been developed. This paper explores the use of multivariate ordination techniques for assessing species—habitat relationships using biodiversity data. The research was conducted in Glacier National Park, Montana, and birds and butterflies were chosen as the taxonomic groups of study. Biodiversity assessment sites were established throughout a range of habitats and monitored from 1987 through 1989. Presence/absence sampling over the total number of sampling sites was used to classify species commonness and rarity. Approximately 86% of the historically recorded butterflies and 70% of ...


A Nuclear Juvenile Hormone-Binding Protein From Larvae Of Manduca Sexta: A Putative Receptor For The Metamorphic Action Of Juvenile Hormone, Subba R. Palli, Kazushige Touhara, Jean-Philippe Charles, Bryony C. Bonning, Jeffrey K. Atkinson, Stephen C. Trowell, Kiyoshi Hiruma, Walter G. Goodman, Themis Kyriakides, Glenn D. Prestwich, Bruce D. Hammock, Lynn M. Ridiford Jun 1994

A Nuclear Juvenile Hormone-Binding Protein From Larvae Of Manduca Sexta: A Putative Receptor For The Metamorphic Action Of Juvenile Hormone, Subba R. Palli, Kazushige Touhara, Jean-Philippe Charles, Bryony C. Bonning, Jeffrey K. Atkinson, Stephen C. Trowell, Kiyoshi Hiruma, Walter G. Goodman, Themis Kyriakides, Glenn D. Prestwich, Bruce D. Hammock, Lynn M. Ridiford

Bryony C. Bonning

A 29-kDa nuclear juvenile hormone (JH)-binding protein from the epidermis of Manduca sexta larvae was purified by using the photoaffinity analog for JH II ([3H]epoxyhomofarnesyldiazoacetate) and partially sequenced. A 1.1-kb cDNA was isolated by using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR based on these sequences. The cDNA encoded a 262-amino acid protein that showed no similarity with other known proteins, except for short stretches of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, and human nuclear protein p68. Recombinant baculovirus containing this cDNA made a 29-kDa protein that was covalently modified by [3H]epoxyhomofarnesyldiazoacetate and specifically bound the natural enantiomer of ...


A Memorable Meeting, February 1994, Fathi Habashi Feb 1994

A Memorable Meeting, February 1994, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Decision taken at the Steering Committee Meeting of the International Mineral Processing Congress in San Francisco February 1994 to name the IMPC Award.


Evaluation Of Plastic And Mylar Flagging As Repellents For Snow Geese (Chen Caerulescens), J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1994

Evaluation Of Plastic And Mylar Flagging As Repellents For Snow Geese (Chen Caerulescens), J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of white flags, black flags and Mylar streamers as visual repellents to snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was evaluated. Five farms in Cumberland and Salem counties, New Jersey served as test sites. At each farm, four 10.12 ha fields were selected randomly, and then assigned to four treatment conditions: (a) white plastic flags (one flag per 0.4 ha); (b) black plastic flags (one flag per 0.4 ha), (c) Mylar streamers (one streamer per 0.4 ha); and (d) stakes only (one stake per 0.4 ha). From 2 December 1992 to 24 March 1993, vegetation samples ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis Jan 1994

Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis

Larry Clark

This study tested a modified MA formulation that was encapsulated at 15% MA by weight in a food-grade material coated with a water-impermeable material. The MA formulation was evaluated in a simulated pond setting to determine the effects on feeding behavior of mallards.


Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop Jan 1994

Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop

Larry Clark

In1992 a study was conducted to determine MA effectiveness in reducing the mortality of exposed mallards. The mortality of ducks continuously exposed to WP-contaminated sediment in a treated MA and control pen was equal at 24 hours but increased in the control pen through the onclusion of the test. Subsequently mallard mortality was reduced 60% in the MA-treated pen. However, mOdification in the MA bead formulation and replicated testing were needed.


Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings Jan 1994

Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings

Larry Clark

The main objective of the 1993 field season was to find a formulation that would provide suitable repellency and optimal characteristics•of stability. A secondary objective was to determine whether ducks could be moved off a treated area and whether feeding activity would reflect the substrate conditions, i.e. lower feeding activity on treated surfaces and increased feeding activity on control surfaces.


Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis Jan 1994

Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis

Larry Clark

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physical characteristics, application rate and longevity of Concover® and Bento'6alls™ (clay barrier system) when applied to bottom sediment in a simulated pond setting. The product that held up under mallard use was field tested to determine its effects on waterfowl feeding behavior and mortality at ERF.


Use Of Activated Charcoal And Other Particulate Substances As Feed Additives To Suppress Bird Feeding, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1994

Use Of Activated Charcoal And Other Particulate Substances As Feed Additives To Suppress Bird Feeding, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Osmotic strength is a function of particle number. The experiments described here were designed to test whether the consumption of a large number of small particles might induce strong osmotic effects that, in turn, could induce food avoidance learning. The experiments also evaluated whether the abrasiveness of fine particulates or their ability to act as organic adsorbants could mediate or contribute to the avoidance of adulterated diets. In experiment I. captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were given two-cup tests between plain chow and chow adulterated with activated charcoal or Anjan-activaid. a product containing large amounts of activated charcoal. Both adulterants ...


Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1994

Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

We tested the robustness of a structure-activity model for avian trigeminal chemoirritants. Fourteen benzoates and acetophenones were tested using European starlings Sturn us vulgaris as a bioassay. In general. the pre­ viously proposed model was a reasonable predictor of repellency (i.e., irritant potency). We found that the presence of a phenyl ring was critical to repel­ lency. Basicity of the molecule is the next most critical feature influencing repellency. The presence of an acidic function within the electron-withdrawing functionality seriously detracts from repellency. The presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing or -donating group may potentiate repellent effects, but its ...


Using Hydrophilic Polymers To Control Nutrient Release, Robert Mikkelsen Jan 1994

Using Hydrophilic Polymers To Control Nutrient Release, Robert Mikkelsen

Robert Mikkelsen

Using diverse technological approaches, many types of delivery devices have been used to supply plant nutrients at a controlled rate in the soil. One new approach is the use of hydrophilic polymers as carriers of plant nutrients. These polymers may be generally classified as 1) natural polymers derived from polysaccharides, 2) semi-synthetic polymers (primarily cellulose derivatives), and 3) synthetic polymers. By controlling the reaction conditions when forming the polymers, various degrees of cross-linking, anionic charge, and cationic charge can be added, thereby changing their effectiveness as fertilizer carriers. When fertilizer-containing solutions are mixed with hydrophilic polymers to form a "gel ...


Field Identification Of Birdseye In Sugar Maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.), Douglas Stokke, Don Bragg Jan 1994

Field Identification Of Birdseye In Sugar Maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.), Douglas Stokke, Don Bragg

Douglas D. Stokke

Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. With prices recently reaching $50,000 per Mbf for prime logs, omission of birdseye (when present) from cruise data could cause significant economic loss for the forest landowner. But figured wood can sometimes be detected in standing timber (Pillow 1955). Field identification of birdseye sugar maple ...


Acicerone: An Isoflavone From Astragalus Cicer, Andrew W. Lenssen, Susan S. Martin, Charley E. Townsend, Bruce Hawkins Jan 1994

Acicerone: An Isoflavone From Astragalus Cicer, Andrew W. Lenssen, Susan S. Martin, Charley E. Townsend, Bruce Hawkins

Andrew W. Lenssen

A new isoflavone isolated from fungus-inoculated roots of Astragalus cicer has been identified as 6-hydroxy- 7-methoxy-3’,4’-methylenedioxyisoflavone (acicerone).


Insect Control By Use Of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Juvenile Hormone Esterase, Bryony C. Bonning, Bruce D. Hammock Jan 1994

Insect Control By Use Of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Juvenile Hormone Esterase, Bryony C. Bonning, Bruce D. Hammock

Bryony C. Bonning

Anti-juvenile hormone activity, and the resulting cessation of feeding, has long been considered by the agricultural chemical industry as a means for insect control. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) contributes to the decline in JH titer at certain times during larval development. This chapter reviews the efforts made to develop a fast acting recombinant baculovirus insecticide by creating a virus which will express artificially high levels of JHE in the insect at inappropriate times. The findings are discussed in the light of our current understanding of the regulation of larval development and the role of JHE. Prospects for the newly developed ...


Predicting Modes Of Toxic Action From Chemical Structure: An Overview, Steven P. Bradbury Jan 1994

Predicting Modes Of Toxic Action From Chemical Structure: An Overview, Steven P. Bradbury

Steven P. Bradbury

In the field of environmental toxicology, and especially aquatic toxicology, quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) have developed as scientifically-credible tools for predicting the toxicity of chemicals when little or no empirical data are available. A basic and fundamental understanding of toxicological principles has been considered crucial to the continued acceptance and application of these techniques as biologically relevant. As a consequence, there has been an evolution of QSAR development and application from that of a chemical-class perspective to one that is more consistent with assumptions regarding modes of toxic action. The assessment of a compound’s likely mode of toxic ...


Induced Lsoflavonoids In Diverse Populations Of Astragalus Cicer, Andrew W. Lenssen, Susan S. Martin, Charley E. Townsend Jan 1994

Induced Lsoflavonoids In Diverse Populations Of Astragalus Cicer, Andrew W. Lenssen, Susan S. Martin, Charley E. Townsend

Andrew W. Lenssen

lsoflavonoids were induced in mature leaves of the legume Asbagalus cicer L. by spores of the fungus Bipoaris zeicola. The five major elicited compounds included two isoflavans (mucronulatol and astraciceran), two isoflavones (cajanin and acicerone), and a pterocarpan (maackiain). Only occasional traces of these compounds were detected in controls. Among 41 populations originating in Europe or Russia, mean total elicited isoflavonoid content differed 12-fold. Mucronulatol was the predominant compound elicited, comprising 20-70% of total isoflavonoids. Significant interpopulational differences existed for each isoflavonoid, but no geographic patterns of total or relative proportions of the five compounds were discernible.


Cell Surface Charge And Initial Attachment Characteristics Of Rough Strains Of Listeria Monocytogenes, James S. Dickson Jan 1994

Cell Surface Charge And Initial Attachment Characteristics Of Rough Strains Of Listeria Monocytogenes, James S. Dickson

James S. Dickson

The relative negative surface charge and hydrophobicity of four bacterial strains were evaluated by gravity flow and spin column methods. There was no significant difference between the two methods, indicating that spin column chromatography is an acceptable alternative method of determining cell surface charge or hydrophobicity. Six strains of Listeria monocytogenes which exhibited rough colony appearance were evaluated for surface charge and hydrophobicity and their ability to contaminate beef muscle tissue. With one exception, all of the rough strains exhibited greater net negative surface charge and reduced ability to contaminate beef during the initial stages of attachment. Since greater net ...


Antimicrobial Effects Of Trisodium Phosphate Against Bacteria Attached To Beef Tissue, James S. Dickson, C. G. Nettles Cutter, G. R. Siragusa Jan 1994

Antimicrobial Effects Of Trisodium Phosphate Against Bacteria Attached To Beef Tissue, James S. Dickson, C. G. Nettles Cutter, G. R. Siragusa

James S. Dickson

Sliced beef tissue was artificially contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli OI57:H7. The contaminated tissue was immersed in 8, 10 and 12% solutions of trisodium phosphate at 25, 40 and 55°C with contact times of up to 3 min. The concentration of the trisodium phosphate solution was not a significant factor in reducing the populations of the bacteria on either lean or adipose tissue. Reductions in bacterial populations of I to 1.5 loglocycles were obtained on lean tissue contaminated with the gram-negative pathogens, although less reduction in population was seen with L. monocytogenes. Greater ...


Influence Of Summer Storms On The Solution Geochemistry In A Coastal Plain Hydrosequence, Jeffrey M. Novak, C. Lee Burras Jan 1994

Influence Of Summer Storms On The Solution Geochemistry In A Coastal Plain Hydrosequence, Jeffrey M. Novak, C. Lee Burras

C. Lee Burras

An understanding of factors which influence wetland soil solution chemistry is important for soil solutions are known to influence some chemical properties of surface waters. The influence of summer storms on the solution geochemistry in a South Carolina riverine wetland soil was evaluated by comparing pore water collected 2,4 hr after five summer storm events with pore water acquired during five nonstorm periods. Pore water was collected by tension lysimeters buried at 15 to 152 cm in two locations along a hydrologic gradient. Samples of rain, throughfall and stream water were also collected. Overall, summer storms had no significant ...


Temporal Response Of Rabbits To B-Adrenergic Agonist Feeding: Tissue Weight, Calpain And Calpastatin Activities, And Nucleic Acid And Protein Concentration, T. D. Pringle, Steven M. Lonergan, C. R. Calkins, S. J. Jones, P. S. Miller, M. Koohmaraie Jan 1994

Temporal Response Of Rabbits To B-Adrenergic Agonist Feeding: Tissue Weight, Calpain And Calpastatin Activities, And Nucleic Acid And Protein Concentration, T. D. Pringle, Steven M. Lonergan, C. R. Calkins, S. J. Jones, P. S. Miller, M. Koohmaraie

Steven M. Lonergan

Forty-eight crossbred rabbits were used in three replications of a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement to investigate the short-term responses of tissue accretion, calpains and calpastatin activity, and nucleic acid and protein concentrations to 6- adrenergic agonist (BAA) feeding. Rabbits were fed a 17% CP diet with or without 7 ppm of L644,969 and slaughtered after 1, 4, 8, or 16 d of treatment. Empty body dressing percentage and biceps femoris weight (as a percentage of empty body weight [EBWI) were significantly higher in the treated rabbits than in the controls after 16 d of treatment. Heart and liver ...