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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Hazardous Waste Land, Jerry L. Anderson Nov 1993

The Hazardous Waste Land, Jerry L. Anderson

Jerry L. Anderson

This article was one of the first comprehensive critiques of the Superfund remediation and liability system. The article addresses systemic problems with the CERCLA mechanism that result in inequity and slow the pace of cleanups.


A Khaldunian Perspective On The Dynamics Of Asiatic Societies, Syed Farid Alatas Jan 1993

A Khaldunian Perspective On The Dynamics Of Asiatic Societies, Syed Farid Alatas

farid alatas

During the last twenty years or so, scholars in the Third World began to become critical of what came to be known as the captive mind. The captive mind is uncritical and imitative in its approach to ideas and concepts from the West.' Discussions on the problem of mental captivity coincided with efforts to indigenous the social sciences in the post-war period when most of the Third World gained formal independence.


Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A number of (present or former) analytical Marxists, such as Jon Elster, have argued that functional explanation has almost no place in the social sciences. (Although the discussion is framed in terms of a debate among analytical Marxists, the point is quite general, and Marxism is used for illustrative purposes.) Functional explanation accounts for what is to be explained by reference to its function; thus, sighted organism have eyes because eyes enable them to see. Elster and other critics of functional explanation argue that this pattern of explanation is inconsistent with "methodological individualism," the idea, as they understand it, that ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1993

Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov Jan 1993

Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov

Larry Clark

Several laboratory and field studies have shown methyl anthranilate to be an effective, non-toxic and non-lethal bird repellent, with application potential for protecting crops, seeds, turf and fish stocks from bird damage. Furthermore, methyl anthranilate can be added to liquids for the purposes of protecting nigratory birds, e.g. addition to waste water associated with mining and to standing water pools at airports. Mammalian toxicity data are favorable. Methyl anthranilate is used as a fragrance and food flavoring and is GRAS listed by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite the favorable outlook for methyl anthranilate's use as a ...


Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

It is believed that mammalian chemosensory initants are not aver­ sive to birds and vice versa. Nevertheless, few avian repellents have been tested against mammals. For that reason, we evaluated the efficacy of 1.0% w/v methyl anthranilate, orthoaminoacetophenone, 2-amino-4' ,5 '-methoxy­ acetophenone, 2-methoxyacetophenone, and veratryl amine as mouse repel­ lents in 3-hr no-choice drinking tests. Relative to ingestion of plain water, all test substances significantly reduced (P < 0.05) intake. Orthoaminoaceto­phenone was the most effective repellent, with intake reduced to levels sta­tistically indistinguishable from zero.


Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller Jan 1993

Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller

Larry Clark

No-till agriculture involves the use of granular pesticide formulations, chemically treated seeds, and pelleted baits. Some of these may accidentally kill birds. We have tested whether methyl anthranilate (MA), a known bird repellent, would eliminate consumption of a pelleted bait. In two laboratory experiments and an outdoor aviary trial, cowbirds (Molothrus ater Bodd.) were presented with pellets containing pesticide and MA, pellets containing pesticide but no MA, and carrier pellets without pesticide or MA. Consumption of any formulation was low, but the addition of MA significantly decreased bait loss in the laboratory, and prevented the disappearance of bait in the ...


White Plastic Flags Repel Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, N. Jay Bean Jan 1993

White Plastic Flags Repel Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, N. Jay Bean

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of white flags as visual repellents to snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was evaluated. Twelve fields, each 10.12 ha (25 acres) in area, with snow goose damage, were located and proximity was used to create six pairs. Within each pair, one field was selected randomly for treatment (one white plastic flag per acre) and the other served as a control. At 7-day intervals for SV2 weeks, mean vegetation length and mean percentage vegetative cover were estimated for all fields. The results showed that grazing damage was significantly reduced in fields with flags. It is concluded that white plastic ...


Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus spp.) overpopulate many areas of the United States. Browse damage to agricultural crops, forest regeneration and landscaping can be severe. Human and animal health also arc threatened by Lyme disease, which is spread by the deer tick (Ixodes dammini). Although sterilants to reduce and/or slow the growth of deer populations and vaccines against Lyme disease may soon become available, efficient and economical techniques to inoculate large numbers of deer have not been developed. Oral baits represent one promising possibility. In experiment 1, salt blocks and several olfactory lures were evaluated as potential lures for use in ...


Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

At least some anthranilates (e.g., methyl anthranilate), and ace­ tophenones (e.g., orthoaminoacetophenone) are aversive to mice as well as to birds. Here we systematically examined nine acetophenone isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) previously tested as drinking and feeding repellents for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). All nine substances reduced intake by mice in single-bottle tests. When molecular characteristics were examined, amino group reactivity and, to a lesser extent, isomeric position (i.e., resonance), were related to the strength of the avoid­ ance response. Unlike effective avian repellents, the presence of intramo lecular hydrogen bonds did ...


Interaction Between Sensory And Postingestional Repellents In Starlings: Methyl Anthranilate And Sucrose, Larry Clark, J. Russell Mason Jan 1993

Interaction Between Sensory And Postingestional Repellents In Starlings: Methyl Anthranilate And Sucrose, Larry Clark, J. Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Ingestion of concentrated sucrose solutions causes sickness in sucrase-defi­ cie_nt birds. As a result, some suggest that sucrose may represent an environmentally safe avian repellent. In the present experiments, we compared the repellency of sucrose to that of methyl anthranilate (MA), a known avian repellent. We also tested mixtures of sucrose and MA to investigate whether repellency could be enhanced, relative to sucrose or MA presentealo'!e. The results showed that the MA was strongly avoided in both drinking anf edmtnals. Conversely, only high sucrose concentrations were avoided, and only in dnnkmg tnals. No combination of MA and sucrose was ...


Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean Jan 1993

Odor Thresholds In Passerines, Larry Clark, K.V. Avilova, N.J. Bean

Larry Clark

Eight species of passerines were evaluated for their ability to form conditioned responses to odor stimuli. Only 5 species met training criteria and were tested for odor detection thresholds.

2. Detection thresholds were comparable to other passerines tested. Detection values were also similar to mammalian macrosmatic species, such as rats and rabbits. Thus, despite the poorly elaborated olfactory anatomy of passerines, these birds possess an adequate sense of smell.

3. Within the Passeriformes there is no correlation between olfactory acuity and relative size of the olfactory bulb. However, there is a correlation between acuity and olfactory bulb size across orders ...


Addition Of Gel-Forming Hydrophilic Polymers To Nitrogen Fertilizer Solutions, Robert Mikkelsen, A David Behel Jan 1993

Addition Of Gel-Forming Hydrophilic Polymers To Nitrogen Fertilizer Solutions, Robert Mikkelsen, A David Behel

Robert Mikkelsen

Environmental and economic concerns are causing a search for more effective fe rtilizer products and improved methods for managing existing fertilizers. This laboratory and greenhouse study was conducted to determine if the addition of gel-forming hydrophilic polymers to N fertilizer solutions could reduce N leaching loss and increase plant uptake of N. In the first experiment, a solution of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 32% N) was mixed with a variety of polymers at three concentrations, band applied to a sandy soil, and leached weekly for six weeks. Nitrogen leaching losses were reduced from 0 to 45% during the first four ...


Controlled-Release Fertilizers To Increase Efficiency Of Nutrient Use And Minimize Environmental Degradation - A Review, Avi Shaviv, Robert Mikkelsen Jan 1993

Controlled-Release Fertilizers To Increase Efficiency Of Nutrient Use And Minimize Environmental Degradation - A Review, Avi Shaviv, Robert Mikkelsen

Robert Mikkelsen

Total world consumption of fertilizer N, P2 O5, and K2O in 1990 / 1991 was 78. 37. and 26 million tons per annum respectively, with a projected yearly increase of demand of about 2 to 3% . Trends in crop production (maize and wh eat) in the last four decades s how that N application rates increased about 15 times whereas its accumulation in grain increased only 3 to 4 times. At the same time nutrient recovery by crops remained relatively low (e .g. a bout 50% for N). This represents a potentially alarming situation from environmental, economic and resource conservation points ...


Morphological Asymmetry In Mammals: Genetics And Homeostasis Reconsidered, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Michael H. Smith, Ronald K. Chesser Jan 1993

Morphological Asymmetry In Mammals: Genetics And Homeostasis Reconsidered, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Michael H. Smith, Ronald K. Chesser

James M. Novak

It has been hypothesized that developmental stability is increased at higher levels of genetic variability (heterozygosity) in animals. However, the existence of this relationship is questionable for homeotherms in general and mammals in particular. The difference between the sides of a bilateral character in an individual is a measure of fluctuating asymmetry that can be used as a measure of the developmental stability of mammals. Increased developmental stability should result in a greater degree of similarity between the right and left side of the body even though environmental variability would tend to increase the differences between right and left sides ...


Evolution Of Mammalian Social Structure, Ronald K. Chesser, Derrick W. Sugg, O. Eugene Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith Jan 1993

Evolution Of Mammalian Social Structure, Ronald K. Chesser, Derrick W. Sugg, O. Eugene Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Social groups may be viewed as collections of individuals exhibiting nonindependent behavior and organized in a cooperative manner. The evolutionary advantage of social behavior to individuals must be measured in its relativity to other potential behaviors, the scale of competitive interactions, and under a variety of environmental and genetic constraints. A primary tenet of social evolution is that coancestry will promote the genes of related individuals. High values of coancestry, however, do not necessarily translate into evolutionary advantage unless the primary competitive interactions occur among the groups. Coancestry is affected by the breeding tactics within and rates of genetic exchange ...