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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

A number of non-oral causes for oral malodor have been discussed. Several well documented etiologies for non-oral malodor include renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and diabetes mellitus. Each of these conditions has been examined using analytical instrumentation. In addition there appear to be several other metabolic conditions involving enzymatic and transport anomalies (such as trimethylaminuria) which lead to the systemic production of volatile malodors that manifest themselves as halitosis and/or altered chemoreception. Our studies include patients who have been referred to us after being examined by numerous clinical specialists with no identification or relief from their problem. This ...


Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Electrophysiological responses to odor have been recorded for concen­ trations as low as 0.01 ppm for Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus and Black-footed Albatrosses Diomedea nigripes, indicating that relative to most birds, procellariiforms have a keen sense of smell (Wenzel and Sieck 1972, cf.clark 1991; Clark and Smeraski 1990; Clark and Mason 1989). Such acuity is not unexpected, given the extensive development of the olfactory anatomy of these species (Bang and Wenzel 1986). Field observations indi­ cate that Procellariiformes use their sense of smell to locate food (Grubb 1972; Hutchison and Wenzel 1980; Lequette, Verheyden and Jouventin 1989). -_ ...


Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Until recently, the discovery of avian sensory repellents has been empirical (MaRnn, AnAmR 'Inn l;qr\r FlR'l), Hm> !ilv!ilr, recent liltudilillil in our laboratory have shown that many avian repellents have similar perceptual and structural properties (Mason et al. 1989; Mason Clark and Shah 1991; Clark and Shah 1991; Clark, Shah and Mason 1991; Shah, Clark and Mason 1991). For example, methyl anthranilate, which has a grapy odor, is repel­ lent to birds (Kare and Pick, 1960). Ortho-aminoacetophenone has an odor and structure similar to that of methyl anthranilate, differing only in the substitution of a ketone ...


Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Repellents substances and devices cause pest species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable materials. For birds, repellents can be visual, auditory, pyrotechnic, tactile, chemosensory, physiologic, or physical. Here, we consider chemical agents only. Few substances arc registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and thus legally available for use. This lack of available bird repellent technology reflects the small demonstrable economic impact of many agricultural bird damage problems. Accurate information about damage and market size is virtually nonexistent, and private companies are reluctant to invest resources in the unknown. To successfully commercialize new repellents, clearly lucrative markets must ...


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).


Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Taxonomic Differences Between Birds And Mammals In Their Responses To Chemical Irritants, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Ninety-five products are registered with the u.s. Environmental Pro­ tection Agency as bird damage control chemicals, but 38 (40%) are non­ lethal chemical repellents (Eschen and Schafer, 1986). Of these products, the active ingredients in 27 (71%) are methiocarb (a physiologic repellent that acts through food avoidance learning) or polybutene (a tactile repel­ lent). In general, chemical repellents are effective either because of aversive sensory effects (irritation), or because of post-ingestional ma­ laise (sickness). If the former, then chemicals are usually stimulants of trigeminal pain receptors (i.e., undifferentiated free nerve endings) in the nose, mouth, and eyes (Mason ...


Biochemical Systematics Of Notothenioid Fishes From Antarctica, Mara A. Mcdonald, Michael H. Smith, Michael W. Smith, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Arthur L. Devries Jan 1992

Biochemical Systematics Of Notothenioid Fishes From Antarctica, Mara A. Mcdonald, Michael H. Smith, Michael W. Smith, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Arthur L. Devries

James M. Novak

Genetic variation at 30 protein-coding loci was examined in seven forms of notothenioid fishes from Antarctica. Multilocus heterozygosity varied from 0.018 to 0.078 across taxa. An analysis of the allozyme data revealed the probable existence of an unrecognized cryptic species within Trematomu5 bemacchii. Pagothenia borchgrevinki is as closely related to some species of Trematomus as are some species of Trematomus to each other. Speciation among the species of Trematomus and Pagothenia appears to have taken place primarily after the separation of Antarctica from Australia.


An Examination And Correction Of Plant Tissue Culture Basal Medium Formulations, Henry R. Owen, A. Raymond Miller Jan 1992

An Examination And Correction Of Plant Tissue Culture Basal Medium Formulations, Henry R. Owen, A. Raymond Miller

Henry R. Owen

The inorganic formulations of fourteen common plant tissue culture basal media were examined from the primary literature. Inaccuracies and errors were found for molecular formulae, chemical hydrations, and molar equivalences for iron/EDTA complexation. A comparison with published basal medium formulations from six commercial suppliers uncovered additional inaccuracies, modifications, and errors, thereby emphasizing the need for investigators to examine and describe medium formulations precisely in future publications.