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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Palmer Philosophy Of Chiropractic – An Historical Perspective., Dennis M. Richards Jan 1991

The Palmer Philosophy Of Chiropractic – An Historical Perspective., Dennis M. Richards

Dennis M Richards

This paper presents the Palmer philosophy of chiropractic from an historical viewpoint. It examines how influences in the life of DD Palmer, such as spiritualism, theosophy and magnetic healing helped to shape the chiropractic philosophy expressed by him. It also oulines the philosophy of BJ Palmer, explaining how it may have been influenced by legal challenges to the early pioneers of chiropractic. Contemporary expression of the Palmer philosophy, as articulated by Strang, is also noted.


Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Taxon-Specific Differences In Responsiveness To Capsaicin And Several Analogues: Correlates Between Chemical Structure And Behavioral Aversiveness, Russell Mason, Jay Bean, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The present set of experiments was designed to explore avian insensitivity to capsaicin. Based upon a molecular model of avian chemosen­ sory repellency, we hypothesized that structural modifications of the basic capsaicin molecule, which is itself not aversive to birds, might produce aver­ sive analogues. To this end, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and Nor­ way rats (Rattus norvegicus) were given varied concentrations of synthetic capsaicin and four analogues (methyl capsaicin, veratryl amine, veratryl acet­ amide, vanillyl acetamide) in feeding and drinking tests. The results agreed with a model that we are developing to describe the chemical nature of avian repellents ...


Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason Jan 1991

Chemical Repellency In Birds: Relationship Between Chemical Structure And Avoidance Response, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason

Larry Clark

We examined how molecular structure of24 anthranilate and benzoic acid deriva­ tives correlated with drinking behavior in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris.The effectiveness of bird repellents was &?SOciated with basicity, the presence of an electron onating group in resonance with an electron-withdrawing carboxylic group on a phenyl ring, and a heterocyclic ring in the same pi cloud plane as the phenyl ring. Of the benzoic acid derivatives tested in this study, methyl, ethyl, dimethyl, and linalylanthranilate as well as anthranilic acid and 4-ketobenztriazine were repellent to birds. Water consumption was significantly reduced relative to control levels at concentrations as low ...


Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark Jan 1991

Odor Detection Thresholds In Tree Swallows And Cedar Waxwings, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Ortho-Aminoacetophenone Repellency To Birds: Similiarities To Methyl Antrhanilate, Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate is an effective bird repellent at concentrations 2:1.0% (g/g). Ortho-ami­ noacetophenone (OAP) has an odor similar to that of methyl anthranilate and is chemically (structurally) similar. Coincidentally, OAP is present in the scent gland secretions of mustelid species that prey on birds. For these reasons, we chose to test the bird repellency of this material and 3 isomers to European starlings (Stumus vulgaris). Ortho-aminoacetophenone was repellent at concentrations :50.01% in both choice and no-choice feeding tests. The other structural isomers (meta-, para-, alpha-) were less effective. Chemically, the results suggest that hydrogen-bonded ring structure ...


Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Nonlethal Bird Repellents: In Search Of A General Model Relating Repellency And Chemical Structure, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Identification of potential repellents through molecular modeling has implications for the devel­ opment of commerciaUy viable, ecologically sound. nonlethal bird repellents. We tested isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) of acetophenones for their effectiveness as bird repellents to better understand the nature of repellency in birds. ChemicaUy, basicity of a substituted phenyl ring, as de&ned by the electron-donating substituent, probably is an important feature infiuencing repellency; i.e., more basic substituents result in more potent repellents. Isomeric position of the electron-donating substituent, which leads to resonance of lone pairs of electrons.• is also an important feature of repellency; i.e., repellency is enhanped when electron-donating substituents are in ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1991

Chemical Bird Repellents: Applicability For Deterring Use Of Waste Water, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Regulatory agencies have placed increasing emphasis on agriculture and industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of waste water. Traditional hazjng methods to keep birds away from areas have met with marginal success. The only effective commercially available solution is .to enclose impoundments with netting. This strategy is costly and is subject to engineering constraints when large areas are to be protected. Molecular modeling techniques were used to identify chemical repellents to be added to waste water. These repellents effectively prevent birds from drinking or swimming in treated water.The most effective repellents are those containing an ...


Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason Jan 1991

Prediction Of Avian Repellency From Chemical Structure: The Aversiveness Of Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, And Veratryl Alcohol, Pankaj Shah, Larry Clark, Russel Mason

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of bird repellents is associated with the presence of an electron-withdrawing group (carbonyl or carboxyl) and an electron-donating group in resonance on a phenyl ring. The present experiments were designed to examine the relative importance of these structural features. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were presented with vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and veratryl alcohol in two-cup and one-cup feeding trials and in one-bottle drinking tests. In feeding trials, veratryl alcohol was significantly more aversive than the other two chemicals. In drinking tests. veratryl alcohol was repellent only at the highest concentration (0.5% ml/ml), and was lethal at that ...


Reproductive Compatibility Of New World Screwworms, Cochliomyia Hominivorax, From North Africa And Central America., David B. Taylor, Leslie Hammack, Richard L. Roehrdanz Jan 1991

Reproductive Compatibility Of New World Screwworms, Cochliomyia Hominivorax, From North Africa And Central America., David B. Taylor, Leslie Hammack, Richard L. Roehrdanz

David B Taylor

The reproductive compatibility of New World screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from North Africa and a strain being mass produced for the Mexican eradication programme was examined to assess the feasibility of using flies from the Mexican screwworm mass production facility for a sterile insect technique eradication programme in North Africa. Males from the production strain mated randomly with females from North Africa and from the production strain when both were present. Neither strain of males discriminated between cuticular extracts of North African and production strain females containing a contact sex pheromone. Interstrain crosses between North African flies and production flies ...


Catch-Effort Estimation Of White-Tailed Deer Population Size, James M. Novak, Kim T. Scribner, William D. Dupont, Michael H. Smith Jan 1991

Catch-Effort Estimation Of White-Tailed Deer Population Size, James M. Novak, Kim T. Scribner, William D. Dupont, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Estimation of population size is important for most research in population biology and in the management of game species. Using a stochastic, catch-effort, competing risks model (Dupont 1983), we estimated the population size of the Savannah River Site white-tailed deer (Odocotleus virginianus) herd for 1965-86. Population size varied markedly in response to changes in both hunting method and pressure. Still hunters preferentially harvested older animals compared to dog hunters. Deer were 2.37 times more susceptible to harvest from dog hunting than from still hunting. Hunter-induced mortality was estimated as 1.73 and 4.10 times as large as nonhunting ...


Frequency Distribution Of Conception Dates In A White-Tailed Deer Herd, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns Jan 1991

Frequency Distribution Of Conception Dates In A White-Tailed Deer Herd, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns

James M. Novak

Conception dates of white-tailed deer, Odocoi/eus virginia1111s (Zinunennann, 1780) were estimated for the breeding periods of 1974 - 76 and 1984 using fall and winter- spring fetal data. Conception dates estimated from data collected in the fall were biased. This bias resulted in an earlier mean conception date than that based on information which included data from later breeding females. Mean breeding dates differed significantly between female age classes due to delayed conception in fawns which also resulted in a skewed frequency distribution of conception dates. The frequency distribution of conception dates was leptokurtotic, suggesting that the distribution is constrnincd ...