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1990

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Surface Moisture And Osmotic Stress As Factors That Affect The Sanitizing Of Beef Tissue Surfaces, James S. Dickson Aug 1990

Surface Moisture And Osmotic Stress As Factors That Affect The Sanitizing Of Beef Tissue Surfaces, James S. Dickson

James S. Dickson

The use of osmotic stress or desiccation in combination with 2% acetic acid reduced the numbers of Salmonella typhimurium or Listeria monocytogenes on beef tissue to a greater degree than the acid alone. Bacteria were osmotically stressed by NaCl, CaCl2, or sucrose solutions. Pre-washing with 20% NaCl followed by sanitizing with acetic acid reduced the numbers of S. typhimurium an additional 1.5-to 2-log cycles compared with acetic acid alone. Similar reductions were seen by allowing the tissue surfaces to dry before the application of the acid. Desiccation in combination with acetic acid was also effective in reducing the numbers ...


Preparing For Africanized Honey Bees: Evaluating Control In Mating Apiaries, Richard L. Hellmich Ii, Gordon D. Waller Aug 1990

Preparing For Africanized Honey Bees: Evaluating Control In Mating Apiaries, Richard L. Hellmich Ii, Gordon D. Waller

Richard L Hellmich

A measure of queen mating control at an apiary is the number of matings with managed drones expressed as a percentage of total matings (managed and feral drones). In Texas, USA, using cordovan queens and drones for tests in July, it was found that at a commercial apiary near other apiaries 93% of all matings were with managed drones. At an isolated (outlying) apiary, the figure was 83%. It is estimated that in April-May, when most queens are produced in this area, mating control would be 96-98% and 93-96% respectively. It is concluded that 90-95% is a realistic level for ...


Use Of A Bacteriocin Produced By Pediococcus Acidilactici To Inhibit Listeria Monocytogenes Associated With Fresh Meat, J. W. Nielsen, James S. Dickson, J. D. Crouse Jul 1990

Use Of A Bacteriocin Produced By Pediococcus Acidilactici To Inhibit Listeria Monocytogenes Associated With Fresh Meat, J. W. Nielsen, James S. Dickson, J. D. Crouse

James S. Dickson

A bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici had an inhibitory and bactericidal effect on Listeria monocytogenes associated with fresh meat. MICs were significantly lower than minimum killing concentrations. When meat was inoculated with L. monocytogenes, the bacteriocin reduced the number of attached bacteria in 2 min by 0.5 to 2.2 log cycles depending upon bacteriocin concentration. Meat treated initially with the bacteriocin resulted in attachment of 1.0 to 2.5 log cycles fewer bacteria than that attained with the control. The bacteriocin, after 28 days of refrigerated storage on meat surfaces, was stable and exhibited an inhibitory effect ...


The Effect Of Selenium On Sulfur Uptake By Barley And Rice, Robert Mikkelsen, Hongfu Wan Jan 1990

The Effect Of Selenium On Sulfur Uptake By Barley And Rice, Robert Mikkelsen, Hongfu Wan

Robert Mikkelsen

Because of their chemical and physical similarities, plant uptake of sulfur and selenium are closely related. Barley and rice were grown in greenhouse solution culture to examine the synergistic interactions between sulfate and selenate in plant uptake. In the presence of low concentrations of solution sulfate, shoot and root yields were decreased with additions of selenate. However, when sulfate was present in elevated concentrations, no selenium-induced yield reductions occurred. A synergistic interaction between sulfate and selenate caused an increase in the shoot sulfur concentrations with increasing concentrations of selenate at low sulfate solution concentrations. At elevated sulfate concentrations, no synergism ...


Biuret In Urea Fertilizer, Robert Mikkelsen Jan 1990

Biuret In Urea Fertilizer, Robert Mikkelsen

Robert Mikkelsen

Urea has become the leading form of N fertilizer worldwide. Historically there has been concern about biuret formed during the manufacturing of urea fertilizer and the potential adverse effect of biuret on plant growth. In this paper, the fate of biuret in soils and its phytotoxicity is reviewed. Biuret is mineralized by many soil micoorganisms, but the process is much slower than for urea. Excessively high biuret concentrations can damage seedlings and, like urea, should not be placed in close proximity to germinating seeds. Crop tolerance to biuret varies according to the plant species, soil conditions, fertilizer placement, and method ...


Food Quality, Heterozygosity, And Fitness Correlates In Peromyscus Polionotus, James M. Novak, William R. Teska, Michael H.. Smith Jan 1990

Food Quality, Heterozygosity, And Fitness Correlates In Peromyscus Polionotus, James M. Novak, William R. Teska, Michael H.. Smith

James M. Novak

Oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus) that are more heterozygous utilize food and maintain body weight under varying degrees of dietary stress better than their less heterozygous counterparts. Mice were collected in southern Florida and fed diets of three qualities. During each dietary treatment, body weight, amount of food eaten, amount of food absorbed, and feeding efficiency were determined. Body weights for all mice decreased during the experiment. More heterozygous mice maintained their weight better during periods of dietary stress than those that were less heterozygous. Mice with different levels of genetic variability had essentially the same mean feeding efficiency with high ...


Morphological Asymmetry And Interspecific Hybridization: A Case Study Using Hylid Frogs, Trip Lamb, James M. Novak, Diane L. Mahoney Jan 1990

Morphological Asymmetry And Interspecific Hybridization: A Case Study Using Hylid Frogs, Trip Lamb, James M. Novak, Diane L. Mahoney

James M. Novak

The limited studies addressing developmental stability of interspecific hybrids suggest a positive association between the level of fluctuating asymmetry and 1) the degree of divergence between parental species, and 2) the recency of the contact zone. To evaluate these associations, we examined asymmetry in a recentlyestablished hybrid population of treefrogs (Hyla cinerea and H. gratiosa) that show marked structural gene divergence. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), directional asymmetry, and antisymmetry were assessed for eight paired osteometric traits in allozymically-defined parental and hybrid categories. FA levels varied considerably among traits. Nonetheless, for any given trait, the hybrid categories did not demonstrate elevated levels ...


Stratification Not Required For Tree-Of-Heaven Seed Germination, William R. Graves Jan 1990

Stratification Not Required For Tree-Of-Heaven Seed Germination, William R. Graves

William R Graves

Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) seed germination and shoot dry weight were determined after stratifying samaras at 5 and 25 °C for up to 28 days. Seeds of samaras stratified at 5 °C for 0, 4, and 12 days showed 70, 77, and 96% germination, respectively, 7 days after sowing. Fourteen days after sowing, 90% of nonstratified seeds had germinated, but shoot weight of nonstratified seedlings was 16% less than that of seedlings from fruit stratified at 5 °C for 12 days. Germination 7 days after sowing was greater after stratification at 5 °C than at 25 °C, but the ...


Influence Of Cytochrome P450 Mixed-Function Oxidase Induction On The Acute Toxicity To Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) Of Primary Aromatic Amines, Steven P. Bradbury, Joop L. M. Hermens, Steven J. Broderius Jan 1990

Influence Of Cytochrome P450 Mixed-Function Oxidase Induction On The Acute Toxicity To Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) Of Primary Aromatic Amines, Steven P. Bradbury, Joop L. M. Hermens, Steven J. Broderius

Steven P. Bradbury

The influence of enzyme induction on the acute toxicity of aniline and 4-chloroaniline to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was investigated. For these two xenobiotics, bioactivation reactions are known to occur in mammals. Induction of cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase was obtained by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of trout with a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254). Five days after ip injection with three different doses of Aroclor 1254 (50. 100. and 200 mg/kg). benzo[a)pyrene hydroxylase activity in trout liver microsomes increased five- to sixfold. Cytochrome P450 concentrations in the microsomes were slightly. but significantly. enhanced in two of the ...


Biochemical And Immunochemical Comparison Of Africanized And European Honeybee Venoms, D. R. Nelson, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich, R. T. Jones, R. M. Helm, D. L. Squillace, J. W. Yunginger Jan 1990

Biochemical And Immunochemical Comparison Of Africanized And European Honeybee Venoms, D. R. Nelson, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich, R. T. Jones, R. M. Helm, D. L. Squillace, J. W. Yunginger

Richard L Hellmich

Africanized honeybees (HBs) pose a hazard to both normal and sting-sensitive subjects in certain areas of Central and South America, and it is predicted that they will soon be present in the southern United States as well. Using an electrical stimulation device, we collected Africanized HB venom (AHV) in Venezuela and European HB venom (EHV) in Louisiana. These venoms, along with commercial European HB venom (CHV), were compared by thin-layer isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The Coomassie brilliant blue and silver-stained banding patterns of AHV and EHV were essentially identical to CHV. Western blots were prepared ...


Introduction: Structural Properties For Determining Mechanisms Of Toxic Action, Steven P. Bradbury, Robert L. Lipnick Jan 1990

Introduction: Structural Properties For Determining Mechanisms Of Toxic Action, Steven P. Bradbury, Robert L. Lipnick

Steven P. Bradbury

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under a variety of Federal legislation, is charged with the responsibility of assessing the hazards of chemicals to human health and the environment. In some cases EPA incorporates predictive techniques in its decisionmaking processes. In the context of some statutes, predictive toxicological methods can be cost-effective components in an overall approach for prioritizing chemicals for in-depth toxicological investigation. Predictive approaches are also used where empirical toxicological data are either unavailable or not required under a specific statute. For example, under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA's Office of ...


Forage Quality Of Genetically Diverse Alfalfa Germplasms At Four Phenological Growth Stages, Andrew W. Lenssen, E. L. Sorensen, G. L. Posler Jan 1990

Forage Quality Of Genetically Diverse Alfalfa Germplasms At Four Phenological Growth Stages, Andrew W. Lenssen, E. L. Sorensen, G. L. Posler

Andrew W. Lenssen

Forage quality of various alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars has been determined under different environmental conditions, and numerous trials with alfalfa have documented an inverse relationship between forage quality and maturity. Little information is available, however, regarding the comparative forage quality of the germplasm sources from which most USA cultivars were developed. We compared forage quality of these germplasm sources at four phenological stages under disease- and insect-free conditions in a greenhouse. Germplasm sources (cultivars) tested were: Indian (Sirsa # 9), African (African), Peruvian (Hairy Peruvian), Flemish (DuPuits), Turkistan (Lahontan), Chilean (Kansas Common), M. varia (Grimm), and Ladak (Ladak). Four harvests ...


Organ Hypertrophy And Responses Of Colon Microbial Populations Of Growing Swine To High Dietary Protein, James S. Dickson, Wilson G. Pond, Vincent H. Varel, Friday O. I. Anugwa, Gary S. Ross Jan 1990

Organ Hypertrophy And Responses Of Colon Microbial Populations Of Growing Swine To High Dietary Protein, James S. Dickson, Wilson G. Pond, Vincent H. Varel, Friday O. I. Anugwa, Gary S. Ross

James S. Dickson

Thirty-two castrated male crossbred growing pigs (average initial wt 26.9 kg) were used to determine the effect of a high level of dietary protein (37%) compared with a normal level of protein (15%) on enterobacteria and Campylobactersp. inhabitation in the large intestine and on visceral organ hypertrophy and the interrelationships between these two factors. Pigs were kept in pairs (eight pens of two pigs/diet) and fed their respective diets ad libitum. Eight pigs (two pens of two pigs fed each diet) were killed at wk 4, 8. 12 and 16 without fasting. Fecal samples were obtained every 2 ...


Comparison Of Homogenization By Blending Or Stomaching On The Recovery Of Listeria Monocytogenes From Beef Tissues, James S. Dickson Jan 1990

Comparison Of Homogenization By Blending Or Stomaching On The Recovery Of Listeria Monocytogenes From Beef Tissues, James S. Dickson

James S. Dickson

Homogenization by blending or stomaching was compared for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated intact beef tissue. There were no differences in numbers of recovered bacteria (P > 0.10) attributable to either homogenization time or method. Fewer viable bacteria (PcO.05) were recovered in phosphate buffer than either buffered peptone water or 2% trisodium citrate buffer. Tween 80 increased the numbers of bacteria recovered from fat tissue (PcO.05). Stomaching is an acceptable method for homogenizing samples for Listeria analysis.


Transfer Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Between Beef Tissue Surfaces, James S. Dickson Jan 1990

Transfer Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Between Beef Tissue Surfaces, James S. Dickson

James S. Dickson

Beef tissue surfaces were inoculated with either Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella typhimurium and placed in contact with uninoculated tissue surfaces. The transfer of bacteria from one surface to another was determined under conditions designed to simulate contamination during meat processing. Bacterial transfer decreased when the initial inoculum was allowed to adsorb to the base tissue prior to contact with the second tissue. The type of base tissue was a factor (P<0.05), with a greater transfer from fat with contact times of less than 1 min and a greater transfer from lean with longer contact times.