Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

SelectedWorks

1987

Discipline
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Diet-Selection Ecology Of Tropically And Temperately Adapted Honey Bees, Robert G. Danka, Richard L. Hellmich, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins Dec 1987

Diet-Selection Ecology Of Tropically And Temperately Adapted Honey Bees, Robert G. Danka, Richard L. Hellmich, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins

Richard L Hellmich

Colonies of tropically adapted (Africanized) honey bees had greater numbers and higher percentages of pollen foragers than did temperately adapted (European) honey bees. European colonies had greater overall foraging activity. The number of pollen gatherers in Africanized nests was greater throughout the daily foraging cycle, and was especially high early in the morning when pollen was most abundant. Africanized colonies fielded more pollen collectors even when levels of stimuli which are known to regulate pollen foraging were altered experimentally. Collectively, the foraging patterns resulted in larger stores of pollen in Africanized honey bee nests, while European bee nests typically had ...


Prey Depletion By Odonate Larvae: Combining Evidence From Multiple Field Experiments, Clay L. Pierce, Dan M. Johnson, Thomas H. Martin, Charles N. Watson, Robert E. Bohanan, Philip H. Crowley Oct 1987

Prey Depletion By Odonate Larvae: Combining Evidence From Multiple Field Experiments, Clay L. Pierce, Dan M. Johnson, Thomas H. Martin, Charles N. Watson, Robert E. Bohanan, Philip H. Crowley

Clay L. Pierce

In this paper we re-analyze previously published data regarding the response of several prey populations to manipulation of predaceous larval dragonfly (Insecta: Odonata) densities in four separate field enclosure experiments. Using a computer-intensive "rerandomization" approach to testing hypotheses, we show that the individual experiments were not sufficiently powerful to consistently reject false null hypotheses. Combining the data from three comparable experiments, we can enhance the power associated with such tests. Three prey categories (Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, and large Cladocera), constituting less than one-third of the typical odonate diet, were found to be consistently depleted in enclosures with odonate larvae; but the ...


Molecular-Marker-Facilitated Investigations Of Quantitative-Trait Loci In Maize. I. Numbers, Genomic Distribution And Types Of Gene Action, Jonathan F. Wendel, M. D. Edwards, Charles W. Stuber May 1987

Molecular-Marker-Facilitated Investigations Of Quantitative-Trait Loci In Maize. I. Numbers, Genomic Distribution And Types Of Gene Action, Jonathan F. Wendel, M. D. Edwards, Charles W. Stuber

Jonathan F. Wendel

Individual genetic factors which underlie variation in quantitative traits of maize were investigated in each of two F 2 populations by examining the mean trait expressions of genotypic classes at each of 17-20 segregating marker loci. It was demonstrated that the trait expression of marker locus classes could be interpreted in terms of genetic behavior at linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs). For each of 82 traits evaluated, QTLs were detected and located to genomic sites. The numbers of detected factors varied according to trait, with the average trait significantly influenced by almost two-thirds of the marked genomic sites. Most of ...


Use Of Acorns For Food In California: Past, Present, Future, David A. Bainbridge Jan 1987

Use Of Acorns For Food In California: Past, Present, Future, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Acorns are a neglected food for people, livestock, domestic fowl, and wildlife in California. Acorns are easy to collect, store, and process. In addition to the nutritious nut and meal, acorns yield an oil comparable in quality and flavor with olive oil. The existing acorn market could be greatly expanded and provide new income for rural people. A serious effort to identify and propagate the best oak acorn cultivars for these products is long overdue. It is particularly appropriate for this research to be done in California, which once had an acorn based economy.


Reflections On The Idea Of Islamic Social Science, Syed Farid Alatas Jan 1987

Reflections On The Idea Of Islamic Social Science, Syed Farid Alatas

farid alatas

When we refer to Islamic social science what do we mean? In what ways can the social sciences be Islamic? There are two such ways. One involves approaching specifically Muslim problems, that is, problems found in Muslim society, in a social scientific manner. An example would be the issue of the relationship between religion and the state. Concepts developed in Western social science would be modified and applied to achieve this aim. The other way in which social science can be Islamic goes beyond the former and involves the idea that social scientific theories, concepts and methodologies can be derived ...


Thermal Constraints On Foraging Activity Of Adult Starlings, Larry Clark Jan 1987

Thermal Constraints On Foraging Activity Of Adult Starlings, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The operative temperature of the environment was estimated for starlings using hollow, unheated taxidermic mounts. On average, adults foraging in full sun were characterized by shorter foraging bouts than those adults foraging in full shade. Simultaneous observations of air temperature, operative temperature, and the foraging duration of adults indicated that air temperature was a poor predictor of the maximum length of a foraging bout. The operative temperature of the environment was not correlated to the maximum and mean length of foraging bouts for temperatures below 31.5 ~ C, but was negatively related to maximum and mean foraging duration for values ...


Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason Jan 1987

Olfactory Discrimination Of Plant Volatiles By The European Starling, Larry Clark, J Russell Mason

Larry Clark

Passerine species that re-use nest sites often incorporate fresh green vegetation into their nests, a behaviour consistent with the possibility that some birds may use chemical properties of plants to counteract the selective potential of parasites and pathogens. We tested adult starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for their physiological capacity and behavioural ability to detect and discriminate between volatiles emitted from plant material. Multi-unit electrophysiological recordings from olfactory nerves of adults indicated that strong responses were reliably elicited by volatiles from six plant species. After pairings of plant volatiles with gastro-intestinal malaise, birds exhibited conditioned avoidance in behavioural experiments, and made all ...


Application Of Urea Phosphate And Urea Sulfate To Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Grown In Calcareous Soil, Robert Mikkelsen, Wesley Jarrell Jan 1987

Application Of Urea Phosphate And Urea Sulfate To Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Grown In Calcareous Soil, Robert Mikkelsen, Wesley Jarrell

Robert Mikkelsen

The potential benefit of acid applied through drip urrigation on soil nutrient availability, plant nutrition, and yield was studied. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Better Boy) were grown in a P-deficient calcareous loam soil in 114-L plastic-lined cans. Phosphorus was added weekly through drip irrigation as urea phosphate (UP) (17-19-0) at four concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80 kg P/ha). Two other treatments entailed 40 kg P/ha soil-banded triple superphosphate (TSP) (0-20-0) with or without the addition of drip­ applied urea sulfate (US) (15-0-0-16). Urea sulfate was added at the rate equivalent to the titratable acidity of the 40 ...


Genetic Compatibility Of Aedes (Protomacleaya) Triseriatus With A. (P.) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor Jan 1987

Genetic Compatibility Of Aedes (Protomacleaya) Triseriatus With A. (P.) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Interspecific hybridization was used to examine reproductive compatibility of Aedes (Protomacleaya) triseriatus (Say) with Aedes (P .) brelandi Zavortink and Aedes (P.) hendersoni Cockerell. Most male progeny were sterile intersexes when A. brelandi or A. hendersoni males were crossed with A. triseriatus females. Female hybrids, and males from the reciprocal crosses, were morphologically normal and fertile. Varying percentages of intersex males were observed among progeny when normal F1 hybrids were crossed to either parental species or with other hybrids. Egg and female sterility resulting from a partial incompatibility between A. triseriatus cytoplasm and A. brelandi male-determining chromosome was observed. No evidence ...


Differential Drone Production By Africanized And European Honey Bee Colonies, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii, Robert G. Danka Jan 1987

Differential Drone Production By Africanized And European Honey Bee Colonies, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii, Robert G. Danka

Richard L Hellmich

The numbers of mature drones leaving colonies of Africanized and European honey bees were counted after they had been trapped at colony entrances. Two apiaries, each with 10 European and 10 Africanized colonies, were trapped for drones exiting individual colonies on 3 separate days at two week intervals. Africanized colonies maintained far more drones and far more Africanized drones parasitized European colonies than vice versa. These two factors resulted in 91% of the drones leaving colonies in the apiaries being Africanized.


Physiological Response Of Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) To Acute Fenvalerate Lntoxication, Steven P. Bradbury, James M. Mckim, Joel R. Coats Jan 1987

Physiological Response Of Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) To Acute Fenvalerate Lntoxication, Steven P. Bradbury, James M. Mckim, Joel R. Coats

Steven P. Bradbury

The physiological responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to fenvalerate intoxication during aqueous exposure were examined to provide information about the pyrethroid mode of action in fish. Trout (n = 4) were exposed to 412 ± 50 μg/liter fenvalerate and died in 10.9 ± 1.5 hr. Brain, liver, and carcass fenvalerate concentrations associated with mortality were 0.16 ± 0.05, 3.62 ± 0.57, and 0.25 ± 0.05 mg/kg, respectively. Visible signs of intoxication included elevated cough rate, tremors, and seizures. Histopathological examination of gill tissue showed damage consistent with irritation. An evaluation of respiratory-cardiovascular and blood chemistry ...


Fish Acute Toxicity Syndromes And Their Use In The Qsar Approach To Hazard Assessment, Steven P. Bradbury, James M. Mckim, Gerald J. Niemi Jan 1987

Fish Acute Toxicity Syndromes And Their Use In The Qsar Approach To Hazard Assessment, Steven P. Bradbury, James M. Mckim, Gerald J. Niemi

Steven P. Bradbury

Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a "mode-of-action" database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and ...


Forage Quality Of Perennial Glandular-Haired And Eglandular Medicago Populations, Andrew W. Lenssen Jan 1987

Forage Quality Of Perennial Glandular-Haired And Eglandular Medicago Populations, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

No abstract provided.


Responses Of Africanized Honey Bees Hymenoptera Apidae To Pollination Management Stress, Robert G. Danka, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii Jan 1987

Responses Of Africanized Honey Bees Hymenoptera Apidae To Pollination Management Stress, Robert G. Danka, Thomas E. Rinderer, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii

Richard L Hellmich

Fifteen Africanized (AHB) and 15 European (EHB) honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies were moved to six different crop sites during a 2-mo test in Venezuela. Several problems with AHB suggested that these bees may be difficult to use commerically for pollination. Debilitating reductions of adult populations occurred more frequently among AHB colonies (n = 12) than among EHB colonies (n = 5). In 6 of 11 tests of defensive response, targets were stung more by AHB colonies than by EHB colonies; no differences were found in the five other stinging comparisons. Also during defense tests, AHB colonies typically had more bees ...


Improved Simple Techniques For Identifying Africanized And European Honey Bees, Thomas E. Rinderer, H. Allen Sylvester, Steven M. Buco, Vicki A. Lancaster, Elton W. Herbert, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii Jan 1987

Improved Simple Techniques For Identifying Africanized And European Honey Bees, Thomas E. Rinderer, H. Allen Sylvester, Steven M. Buco, Vicki A. Lancaster, Elton W. Herbert, Anita M. Collins, Richard L. Hellmich Ii

Richard L Hellmich

Eight simple techniques based on discriminant statistical procedures are presented to identify Africanized and European bees in the Americas. These techniques arc based on measurements of forewing lengths, the wet and dry weights of degastered bees, and femur lengths. Improved methodologies and statistical procedures result in many more correct identifications at high probabilities of class membership.