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Larry Clark

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Disease Risks Posed By Wild Birds Associated With Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Disease Risks Posed By Wild Birds Associated With Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark Jan 2013

West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark

Larry Clark

West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment ...


Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2013

Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of Aerial Broadcast Baiting In Reducing, Larry Clark Jan 2012

Efficacy Of Aerial Broadcast Baiting In Reducing, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) is an invasive predator that was introduced on Guam as a stowaway in cargo after World War II. Since then, the population has exploded, attaining 50 to 100 snakes per ha in some areas. The snake has caused the extirpation of ten of the 12 native forest bird species on Guam. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, has a program to deter the spread of snakes from Guam to other islands. Hand capture from fences, trapping, toxic bait stations, and canine inspection of outbound cargo methods are used in the control program in ...


Efficacy, Effort, And Cost Comparisons Of Trapping, Larry Clark Jan 2012

Efficacy, Effort, And Cost Comparisons Of Trapping, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) are an invasive species to the island of Guam. Because they have extirpated the native forest avifauna on Guam and are a threat to other Pacifi c islands, the development of effi cient and cost-effective methods to control them is desired. We compared the effi cacy, cost, and effort required to remove brown treesnakes on 6-ha plots in forest scrub on Guam, using 2 methods: trapping and poison baiting. Toxic baits consisted of dead neonatal mice adulterated with 80-mg acetaminophen. To assess effi cacy, we used mark-recapture methods to estimate snake abundance on plots 12 days ...


Cliff Swallows, Swallow Bugs, And West Nile Virus:, Larry Clark Jan 2010

Cliff Swallows, Swallow Bugs, And West Nile Virus:, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) could play an important role in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) because of its breeding ecology, reservoir competence status, and potentially high natural exposure rates. Cliff swallows nest within colonies and their nests are occupied year-round by swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius), hematophagus ectoparasites that feed primarily on cliff swallows. These parasites are likely exposed to WNV while feeding on infectious blood of nesting cliff swallow adults and nestlings and thus, if competent vectors, could contribute to seasonal elevations in WNV transmission. In addition, swallow bugs remain within nests year-round and therefore could provide ...


Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark Jan 2009

Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Wild bird fecal samples collected and characterized by the USDA as part of a national surveillance effort were sequenced to study the genetic relatedness of avian, swine, and human H1 and N1 subtypes. Our results find that the 2009 H1N1 human outbreak is closely related to swine virus, but falls into different clades in the H1 and N1 trees. Further, there is evidence of multiple viral genetic exchanges between birds and swine. Ongoing research across host species contributes to an understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses.


Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik Jan 2004

Identification Of Snake Repellents, Larry Clark, John Shivik

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Water Fog For Repelling Birds, Larry Clark, Thomas Nachtman, John Hull Jan 2000

Water Fog For Repelling Birds, Larry Clark, Thomas Nachtman, John Hull

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Methods Of Identifying The Avian Repellent Effects Of A Compound And Methods Of Repelling Birds From Materials Susceptible To Consumption By Birds, Larry Clark Jan 1997

Methods Of Identifying The Avian Repellent Effects Of A Compound And Methods Of Repelling Birds From Materials Susceptible To Consumption By Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine Jan 1996

Bird Aversive Properties Of Methyl Anthranilate, Yucca, Xanthoxylum, And Their Mixtures, Larry Clark, Bruce Bryant, Igor Mezine

Larry Clark

We tested the bird aversive properties of methyl anthranilate, yucca extracts, and Xanthoxylum spp. extracts in one- and two-bottle drinking assays that used European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). In one- and two-bottle tests, methyl anthranilate proved to be the more potent stimulus in producing an avoidance response. Starlings avoided consuming Xanthoxylum and yucca only in the two-bottle tests. Previous studies showed that yucca was a good adjuvant in stabilizing lipophilic compounds in water. Starlings did not avoid binary mixtures of methyl anthranilate and yucca differently from what would be expected if they were only responding to the solution's methyl anthranilate ...


Grazing Repellency Of Methyl Anthranilate To Snow Geese Is Enhanced By A Visual Cue, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Grazing Repellency Of Methyl Anthranilate To Snow Geese Is Enhanced By A Visual Cue, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate (Rejex-It AG-36) is formulated as a commercial goose repellent. Frequent reapplications of this product are often necessary, and the cost/application is high ($300.00/ha). The present experiment tested the possibility that the repellency of methyl anthranilate might be enhanced by the addition of visual cues. Twelve 0.4 ha plots were assigned randomly to three treatment groups. Plots in the first group (n = 4) were sprayed with 10% Vapor Guard (an agrochemical adhesive). Plots in the second group (n = 4) were treated with a mixture of methyl anthranilate (3.4 kg/ha) and Vapor Guard. Plots ...


Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Avoidance Of Cabbage Fields By Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

now Goose activity levels were significantly less in cabbage fields than in control fields. Although the data do not unambiguously address the issue of sulfur repellency, we believe that the activity difference is consistent with avoidance of the former and not preference for the latter. Sulfurous volatiles were readily apparent to us during our visits to cabbage fields throughout the study period. Similar odors were not detected in control fields. If sulfurous volatiles were important, then avoidance could reflect some characteristic of the cover crop (e.g., unpalatability acquired through the absorption and translocation of degra­ dation products) or it ...


Degradation Studies Of The Non-Lethal Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, Eugeny Aronov, Larry Clark Jan 1996

Degradation Studies Of The Non-Lethal Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, Eugeny Aronov, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Methyl anthranilate (MA), a food grade flavor and fragrance additive, has been reported to be an effective non-lethal bird repellent in a variety of situations. Despite the experimental success of MA, field studies have yielded widely differing levels of efficacy. Diminished efficacy in some field trials prob­ ably results from the failure of specific formulations to retain or protect the active ingredient under natural conditions. Therefore, a clearer understanding of the physical and chemical factors affecting the stability of MA is needed. We undertook a series of laboratory studies on hydrolysis, photolysis and microbial degradation of MA, the results of ...


Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark Jan 1995

Non-Toxic Methods Of Repelling, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Plastic And Mylar Flagging As Repellents For Snow Geese (Chen Caerulescens), J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1994

Evaluation Of Plastic And Mylar Flagging As Repellents For Snow Geese (Chen Caerulescens), J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of white flags, black flags and Mylar streamers as visual repellents to snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was evaluated. Five farms in Cumberland and Salem counties, New Jersey served as test sites. At each farm, four 10.12 ha fields were selected randomly, and then assigned to four treatment conditions: (a) white plastic flags (one flag per 0.4 ha); (b) black plastic flags (one flag per 0.4 ha), (c) Mylar streamers (one streamer per 0.4 ha); and (d) stakes only (one stake per 0.4 ha). From 2 December 1992 to 24 March 1993, vegetation samples ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis Jan 1994

Laboratory Evaluation Of A Methyl Anthranilate Bead Formulation For Reducing Mallard Mortality And Feeding Behavior, John Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop, James Davis

Larry Clark

This study tested a modified MA formulation that was encapsulated at 15% MA by weight in a food-grade material coated with a water-impermeable material. The MA formulation was evaluated in a simulated pond setting to determine the effects on feeding behavior of mallards.


Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop Jan 1994

Field Evaluation: Mortality Of Mallards Feeding In Areas Treated With Methyl Anthranilate, John `Cummings, Larry Clark, Patricia Pochop

Larry Clark

In1992 a study was conducted to determine MA effectiveness in reducing the mortality of exposed mallards. The mortality of ducks continuously exposed to WP-contaminated sediment in a treated MA and control pen was equal at 24 hours but increased in the control pen through the onclusion of the test. Subsequently mallard mortality was reduced 60% in the MA-treated pen. However, mOdification in the MA bead formulation and replicated testing were needed.


Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings Jan 1994

Field Behavioral Response And Bead Formulations For Methyl Antiiranilate Encapsulated Bird Repellents, Larry Clark, John Cummings

Larry Clark

The main objective of the 1993 field season was to find a formulation that would provide suitable repellency and optimal characteristics•of stability. A secondary objective was to determine whether ducks could be moved off a treated area and whether feeding activity would reflect the substrate conditions, i.e. lower feeding activity on treated surfaces and increased feeding activity on control surfaces.


Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis Jan 1994

Evaluation Of Concover® And Bentoballstm On Contaminated Sediments To Reduce Mortality, Patricia Pochop, John Cummings, Larry Clark, James Davis

Larry Clark

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physical characteristics, application rate and longevity of Concover® and Bento'6alls™ (clay barrier system) when applied to bottom sediment in a simulated pond setting. The product that held up under mallard use was field tested to determine its effects on waterfowl feeding behavior and mortality at ERF.


Use Of Activated Charcoal And Other Particulate Substances As Feed Additives To Suppress Bird Feeding, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1994

Use Of Activated Charcoal And Other Particulate Substances As Feed Additives To Suppress Bird Feeding, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Osmotic strength is a function of particle number. The experiments described here were designed to test whether the consumption of a large number of small particles might induce strong osmotic effects that, in turn, could induce food avoidance learning. The experiments also evaluated whether the abrasiveness of fine particulates or their ability to act as organic adsorbants could mediate or contribute to the avoidance of adulterated diets. In experiment I. captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were given two-cup tests between plain chow and chow adulterated with activated charcoal or Anjan-activaid. a product containing large amounts of activated charcoal. Both adulterants ...


Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1994

Tests And Refinements Of A General Structure-Activity Model For Avian Repellents, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

We tested the robustness of a structure-activity model for avian trigeminal chemoirritants. Fourteen benzoates and acetophenones were tested using European starlings Sturn us vulgaris as a bioassay. In general. the pre­ viously proposed model was a reasonable predictor of repellency (i.e., irritant potency). We found that the presence of a phenyl ring was critical to repel­ lency. Basicity of the molecule is the next most critical feature influencing repellency. The presence of an acidic function within the electron-withdrawing functionality seriously detracts from repellency. The presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing or -donating group may potentiate repellent effects, but its ...


Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1993

Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use In Cyanide Ponds, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov Jan 1993

Acute Toxicity Of The Bird Repellent, Methyl Anthranilate, To Fry Of Salmo Salar, Oncorhynus Mykiss, Ictalurus Punctatus And Lepomis Macrochirus, Larry Clark, John Cummings, Steven Bird, Eugeny Aronov

Larry Clark

Several laboratory and field studies have shown methyl anthranilate to be an effective, non-toxic and non-lethal bird repellent, with application potential for protecting crops, seeds, turf and fish stocks from bird damage. Furthermore, methyl anthranilate can be added to liquids for the purposes of protecting nigratory birds, e.g. addition to waste water associated with mining and to standing water pools at airports. Mammalian toxicity data are favorable. Methyl anthranilate is used as a fragrance and food flavoring and is GRAS listed by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite the favorable outlook for methyl anthranilate's use as a ...


Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Avoidance Of Bird Repellents By Mice, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

It is believed that mammalian chemosensory initants are not aver­ sive to birds and vice versa. Nevertheless, few avian repellents have been tested against mammals. For that reason, we evaluated the efficacy of 1.0% w/v methyl anthranilate, orthoaminoacetophenone, 2-amino-4' ,5 '-methoxy­ acetophenone, 2-methoxyacetophenone, and veratryl amine as mouse repel­ lents in 3-hr no-choice drinking tests. Relative to ingestion of plain water, all test substances significantly reduced (P < 0.05) intake. Orthoaminoaceto­phenone was the most effective repellent, with intake reduced to levels sta­tistically indistinguishable from zero.


Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller Jan 1993

Evaluation Of A Pelleted Bait Containing Methyl Anthranilate As A Bird Repellent, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, Timothy Miller

Larry Clark

No-till agriculture involves the use of granular pesticide formulations, chemically treated seeds, and pelleted baits. Some of these may accidentally kill birds. We have tested whether methyl anthranilate (MA), a known bird repellent, would eliminate consumption of a pelleted bait. In two laboratory experiments and an outdoor aviary trial, cowbirds (Molothrus ater Bodd.) were presented with pellets containing pesticide and MA, pellets containing pesticide but no MA, and carrier pellets without pesticide or MA. Consumption of any formulation was low, but the addition of MA significantly decreased bait loss in the laboratory, and prevented the disappearance of bait in the ...


White Plastic Flags Repel Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, N. Jay Bean Jan 1993

White Plastic Flags Repel Snow Geese, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark, N. Jay Bean

Larry Clark

The effectiveness of white flags as visual repellents to snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was evaluated. Twelve fields, each 10.12 ha (25 acres) in area, with snow goose damage, were located and proximity was used to create six pairs. Within each pair, one field was selected randomly for treatment (one white plastic flag per acre) and the other served as a control. At 7-day intervals for SV2 weeks, mean vegetation length and mean percentage vegetative cover were estimated for all fields. The results showed that grazing damage was significantly reduced in fields with flags. It is concluded that white plastic ...


Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Development Of Chemosensory Attractants For White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), J. Russell Mason, N. Jay Bean, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus spp.) overpopulate many areas of the United States. Browse damage to agricultural crops, forest regeneration and landscaping can be severe. Human and animal health also arc threatened by Lyme disease, which is spread by the deer tick (Ixodes dammini). Although sterilants to reduce and/or slow the growth of deer populations and vaccines against Lyme disease may soon become available, efficient and economical techniques to inoculate large numbers of deer have not been developed. Oral baits represent one promising possibility. In experiment 1, salt blocks and several olfactory lures were evaluated as potential lures for use in ...


Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1993

Nonlethal Rodent Repellents: Differences In Chemical Structure And Efficacy From Nonlethal Bird Repellent, Dale Nolte, J. Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

At least some anthranilates (e.g., methyl anthranilate), and ace­ tophenones (e.g., orthoaminoacetophenone) are aversive to mice as well as to birds. Here we systematically examined nine acetophenone isomers (ortho, meta, para) and moieties (amino, hydroxy, methoxy) previously tested as drinking and feeding repellents for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). All nine substances reduced intake by mice in single-bottle tests. When molecular characteristics were examined, amino group reactivity and, to a lesser extent, isomeric position (i.e., resonance), were related to the strength of the avoid­ ance response. Unlike effective avian repellents, the presence of intramo lecular hydrogen bonds did ...