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A Qualitative Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Mental Skills Training Program For Youth Athletes, Lee-Ann Sharp, Jennifer Cumming, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J.G. Holland, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda Jan 2013

A Qualitative Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Mental Skills Training Program For Youth Athletes, Lee-Ann Sharp, Jennifer Cumming, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J.G. Holland, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mental skills training (MST) program for male youth elite rugby athletes. Three focus groups were held with 21 under-16 male rugby athletes and four male coaches involved in the MST program to examine the quality of service delivery, athlete responses to the MST program, the mental qualities used by athletes, and its perceived influence on athlete performance. Following inductive-deductive content analysis, 40 subcategories and 16 categories emerged. Participants believed the MST program to be an interactive, well-planned program that increased athlete understanding of MST methods and awareness of ...


Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams Jan 2013

Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams

Jennifer Cumming

This article reviews literature on cognitive and motivational imagery use in the sport, exercise, dance, and rehabilitation domains and outlines a revised applied model of imagery use. The original model by Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999 guides practitioners and researchers in determining what cognitive and/or motivational imagery to use in a particular situation for achieving a desired outcome. The revised model proposed builds on the original version by retaining its empiricallysupported “where”, “when”, and “why” components. Incorporating recent advancements in imagery research, the model distinguishes between what is imaged (i.e., the content) from why it is imaged (i.e ...


Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully ...


Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Imagery studies have varied widely in the methods used to deliver guided imagery interventions. This variation has led to difficulties comparing studies and uncertainty as to what methods should be followed. A review is needed to evaluate the interventions to date to inform applied recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to (1) assess the quality of intervention design, (2) investigate the extent to which interventions vary, (3) highlight the different methods that should be considered in the design and implementation of future interventions, and (4) investigate adherence to some of the current theories and models of imagery use ...


Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland Jan 2012

Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland

Jennifer Cumming

Drawing from the experiences of the authors in developing, conducting, and evaluating sport psychology interventions, several considerations are highlighted and recommendations offered for effective psychometric assessment. Using the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999) as a working example, opportunities for bias to undermine a measure’s validity and reliability are discussed with reference to a respondent’s four cognitive processes: (a) comprehension, (b) retrieval, (c) decision-making, and (d) response generation. Further threats to an instrument’s psychometric properties are highlighted in the form of demand characteristics athletes perceive in the environment. With these concerns in mind, several ...


Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall Jan 2012

Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire- Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.


Can Self-Esteem Protect Against The Deleterious Consequences Of Self-Objectification For Mood And Body Satisfaction In Physically Active Female University Students?, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Gemma Pearce Apr 2011

Can Self-Esteem Protect Against The Deleterious Consequences Of Self-Objectification For Mood And Body Satisfaction In Physically Active Female University Students?, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Gemma Pearce

Jennifer Cumming

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In ...


Imagining Yourself Dancing To Perfection? Correlates Of Perfectionism Among Ballet And Contemporary Dancers, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Jennifer Cumming, Danielle Aways, Lucinda Sharp Jan 2011

Imagining Yourself Dancing To Perfection? Correlates Of Perfectionism Among Ballet And Contemporary Dancers, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Jennifer Cumming, Danielle Aways, Lucinda Sharp

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated perfectionism prevalence and its relationship to imagery and performance anxiety. Two hundred and fifty (N = 250) elite students (66.4% female; Mage = 19.19, SD = 2.66) studying mainly classical ballet or contemporary dance in England, Canada, and Australia completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, imagery, and performance anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cohorts: dancers with perfectionistic tendencies (40.59% of the sample), dancers with moderate perfectionistic tendencies (44.35%), and dancers with no perfectionistic tendencies (15.06%). Notably, these labels are data driven and relative; only eight dancers reported high absolute scores. Dancers with perfectionistic tendencies ...


Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2011

Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This research aimed to develop and provide initial validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ). The SIAQ assesses athletes’ ease of imaging different types of imagery content. Following an extensive pilot study, 375 athletes completed a 20-item SIAQ in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor model assessing skill, strategy, goal, and affect imagery ability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established this 4-factor structure in Study 2 (N = 363 athletes). In Study 3 (N = 438 athletes), additional items were added to create a fifth mastery imagery subscale that was confirmed through CFA. Study 4 (N = 220 athletes) compared the ...


Psychological Qualities Of Elite Adolescent Rugby Players: Parents, Coaches, And Sport Administration Staff Perceptions And Supporting Roles, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J. G. Holland, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2011

Psychological Qualities Of Elite Adolescent Rugby Players: Parents, Coaches, And Sport Administration Staff Perceptions And Supporting Roles, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J. G. Holland, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

The aim of the current study was to extend previous research by Holland and colleagues (2010) into the required psychological qualities of young talented rugby players by considering the perceptions and supportive role of influential others. Perceptions of players’ parents (n = 17), coaches (n = 7), and sport administration staff (SAS; n = 2) were explored through focus group discussions. Findings show that these influential others considered the same 11 higher order themes for psychological qualities previously identified as desirable by players. Their views on how they assisted in developing these player psychological qualities were classified into three higher-order themes, namely progressive ...


The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor J. Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda Jan 2010

The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor J. Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.


Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark J.G. Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda Jan 2010

Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark J.G. Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

Research on the psychological characteristics of elite performers has primarily focused on Olympic and World champions; however, the mental attributes of young developing and talented athletes have received less attention. Addressing this, the current study had two aims: (a) to examine the perceptions held by youth athletes regarding the mental qualities they need to facilitate their development and (b) to investigate the mental techniques used by these athletes. Forty-three male youth rugby players participated in a series of focus groups. Inductive content analysis revealed 11 categories of psychological qualities, including enjoyment, responsibility, adaptability, squad spirit, self-aware learner, determination, confidence, optimal ...


The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos Jan 2010

The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (Mage = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge ...


Not Scaring Yourself Silly: Effectively Managing Your Stage Fright, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2009

Not Scaring Yourself Silly: Effectively Managing Your Stage Fright, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

It is the moment you have been looking forward to for weeks with equal amounts of dread and excitement. Your preparation has gone well, but you wonder if you have done everything you can to be ready and are concerned you will make a mistake. As you wait backstage, you hear the audience taking their seats and the eager buzz of anticipation. Your fellow dancers are going through their last minute preparations and the nervous tension is building around you. Standing in your costume, you worry that your body is responding in the usual ways: your heart is beating faster ...


Self-Reported Psychological States And Physiological Responses To Different Types Of Motivational General Imagery, Jennifer Cumming, Tom Olphin, Michelle Law Jan 2007

Self-Reported Psychological States And Physiological Responses To Different Types Of Motivational General Imagery, Jennifer Cumming, Tom Olphin, Michelle Law

Jennifer Cumming

The aim of the present study was to examine self-reported psychological states and physiological responses (heart rate) experienced during different motivational general imagery scenarios. Forty competitive athletes wore a standard heart rate monitor and imaged five scripts (mastery, coping, anxiety, psyching up, and relaxation). Following each script, they reported their state anxiety and self-confidence. A significant increase in heart rate from baseline to imagery was found for the anxiety, psyching-up, and coping imagery scripts. Furthermore, the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety was greater and perceived as being more debilitative following the anxiety imagery script. The findings support Lang’s ...


Examining The Direction Of Imagery And Self-Talk On Dart-Throwing Performance And Self Efficacy, Jennifer Cumming, Sanna M. Nordin, Robin Horton, Scott Reynolds Jan 2006

Examining The Direction Of Imagery And Self-Talk On Dart-Throwing Performance And Self Efficacy, Jennifer Cumming, Sanna M. Nordin, Robin Horton, Scott Reynolds

Jennifer Cumming

The study investigated the impact of varying combinations of facilitative and debilitative imagery and self-talk (ST) on self-effi cacy and performance of a dart-throwing task. Participants (N = 95) were allocated to 1 of 5 groups: (a) facilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (b) facilitative imagery/debilitative ST, (c) debilitative imagery/facilitative ST, (d) debilitative imagery/debilitative ST, or (e) control. Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed that performance, but not self-effi - cacy, changed over time as a function of the assigned experimental condition. Participants in the debilitative imagery/debilitative ST condition worsened their performance, and participants in the facilitative imagery/facilitative ST condition achieved better ...


More Than Meets The Eye: Investigating Imagery Type, Direction, And Outcome, Sanna Nordin, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2005

More Than Meets The Eye: Investigating Imagery Type, Direction, And Outcome, Sanna Nordin, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

The effects of imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance in a dart throwing task were examined. Two imagery types were investigated: skill-based cognitive specific (CS) and confidence-based motivational general-mastery (MG-M). Seventy-five novice dart throwers were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (a) facilitative imagery, (b) debilitative imagery, or (c) control. After 2 imagery interventions, the debilitative imagery group rated their self-efficacy significantly lower than the facilitative group and performed significantly worse than either the facilitative group or the control group. Efficacy ratings remained constant across trials for the facilitative group, but decreased significantly for both the control group and ...


Professional Dancers Describe Their Imagery: Where, When, What, Why, And How, Sanna M. Nordin, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2005

Professional Dancers Describe Their Imagery: Where, When, What, Why, And How, Sanna M. Nordin, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 male and female professional dancers from several dance forms. Interviews were primarily based in the 4 Ws framework (Munroe, Giacobbi, Jr., Hall, & Weinberg, 2000), which meant exploring Where, When, Why, and What dancers image. A dimension describing How the dancers employed imagery also emerged. What refers to imagery content, and emerged from two categories: Imagery Types and Imagery Characteristics. Why represents the reason an image is employed and emerged from five categories: Cognitive Reasons, Motivational Reasons, Artistic Reasons, Healing Reasons, and No reason – Triggered Imagery. There were also large individual differences reported regarding ...


Athletes' Use Of Imagery In The Off-Season, Jennifer Cumming, Craig Hall Jan 2002

Athletes' Use Of Imagery In The Off-Season, Jennifer Cumming, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level on an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season, and to examine whether their use of imagery was related to their physical and technical preparation. Three hundred and twenty-four regional, provincial, and national level athletes were recruited to participate in this study from 10 different sports. Participants were asked to complete a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) that was designed to reflect an athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. MANOVAs indicated that competitive level differences existed in athletes ...


The Cognitive And Motivational Effects Of Imagery Training: A Matter Of Perspective, Jennifer L. Cumming, Diane M. Ste-Marie Jan 2001

The Cognitive And Motivational Effects Of Imagery Training: A Matter Of Perspective, Jennifer L. Cumming, Diane M. Ste-Marie

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.