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Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluating The Illinois Stream Valley Segment Model As An Effective Management Tool, Stephen S. Warrner, Robert U. Fischer, Ann M. Holtrop, Leon C. Hinz Jr., James M. Novak Jan 2010

Evaluating The Illinois Stream Valley Segment Model As An Effective Management Tool, Stephen S. Warrner, Robert U. Fischer, Ann M. Holtrop, Leon C. Hinz Jr., James M. Novak

James M. Novak

Stream habitat assessments are conducted to evaluate biological potential, determine anthropogenic impacts, and guide restoration projects. Utilizing these procedures, managers must first select a representative stream reach, which is typically selected based on several criteria. To develop a consistent and unbiased procedure for choosing sampling locations, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and the Illinois Natural History Survey have proposed a technique by which watersheds are divided into homogeneous stream segments called valley segments. Valley segments are determined by GIS parameters including surficial geology, predicted flow, slope, and drainage area. To date, no research has been conducted to determine if ...


Element Levels In Snakes In South Carolina: Differences Between A Control Site And Exposed Site On The Savannah River Site, J. Burger, S. Murray, K. F. Gaines, James M. Novak, T. Punshon, C. Dixon, M. Gochfeld Jan 2006

Element Levels In Snakes In South Carolina: Differences Between A Control Site And Exposed Site On The Savannah River Site, J. Burger, S. Murray, K. F. Gaines, James M. Novak, T. Punshon, C. Dixon, M. Gochfeld

James M. Novak

Levels of 18 elements, including lead, mercury, selenium, and uranium, were examined in three species of snakes from an exposed and reference site on the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We tested the hypotheses that there were no differences as a function of species, and there were no difference between the exposed and control site for blood and muscle (tail) samples for banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata), brown water snake (N. taxispilota) and cottonmouth (Akistrodon piscivorous). The banded water snakes collected were significantly smaller than the other two species. For blood, there were significant species ...


Morphological Divergence Of Native And Recently Established Populations Of White Sands Pupfish (Cyprinodon Tularosa), Michael L. Collyer, James M. Novak, Craig A. Stockwell Jan 2005

Morphological Divergence Of Native And Recently Established Populations Of White Sands Pupfish (Cyprinodon Tularosa), Michael L. Collyer, James M. Novak, Craig A. Stockwell

James M. Novak

We used landmark-based geometric morphometric methods to describe patterns of body shape variation and shape covariation with size among populations of the threatened White Sands Pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), a species that occurs in dissimilar aquatic habitats. White Sands Pupfish populations include two genetically distinct, native populations that have been historically isolated in Salt Creek, a saline river, and Malpais Spring, a brackish spring. In addition, two populations were established approximately 30 years before this study by translocation of fish from Salt Creek to Lost River (a saline river) and Mound Spring (a brackish spring). We found significant body shape variation ...


Respiratory And Reproductive Characteristics Of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki) Inhabiting A Coal Ash Settling Basin, B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, James Novak, J. D. Congdon Jan 2004

Respiratory And Reproductive Characteristics Of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia Holbrooki) Inhabiting A Coal Ash Settling Basin, B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, James Novak, J. D. Congdon

James M. Novak

No abstract provided.


High Levels Of Fluctuating Asymmetry In Populations Of Apodemus Flavicollis From The Most Contaminated Areas In Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue, Sergiy P. Gashchak, Michael H. Smith Jan 2004

High Levels Of Fluctuating Asymmetry In Populations Of Apodemus Flavicollis From The Most Contaminated Areas In Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue, Sergiy P. Gashchak, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Random deviations from the perfect symmetry of normally bilaterally symmetrical characters for an individual with a given genotype occur during individual development due to the influence of multiple environmental factors. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of developmental instability, and can be estimated as the variance of the distribution of differences between the left and right sides. We addressed the question of whether levels of FA were elevated in radioactively contaminated populations living around Chornobyl compared to those in reference populations of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). In addition, we studied amounts of directional asymmetry (DA) when ...


Problems With Developmental Stability In Two Rodent Species From Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, Michael H. Smith, Sergiy P. Gashchak, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue Jan 2002

Problems With Developmental Stability In Two Rodent Species From Chornobyl, Taras K. Oleksyk, Michael H. Smith, Sergiy P. Gashchak, James M. Novak, James R. Purdue

James M. Novak

Changes in developmental patterns are some of the most important effects that may be observed at radioactively contaminated sites like those at Chornobyl. Developmental instability may arise from the interactions between an organism's genotype and its environment and be manifested as deviant morphology. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a measure of deviations from the expected bilateral symmetry of the body. Our objective was to test for differences in FA in two rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis and Clethrionomys glareolus) that live in habitats suirounding the failed Chornobyl reactor. Rodents were collected from four different locations (two contaminated and two reference sites ...


Genetic Heterogeneity Of White-Tailed Deer: Management Lessons From A Long-Term Study, Michael H. Smith, James M. Novak, J. D. Peles, J. R. Purdue Jan 2001

Genetic Heterogeneity Of White-Tailed Deer: Management Lessons From A Long-Term Study, Michael H. Smith, James M. Novak, J. D. Peles, J. R. Purdue

James M. Novak

Genetic data from a long-term (16-year) study of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) were examined to evaluate spatial and temporal genetic heterogeneity in this species. Based on our analyses of the long-term data set, three major findings emerged, all of which have important implications for management of white-tailed deer: (1) There exists significant spatial genetic heterogeneity in white-tailed deer based on analyses of allozyme frequencies and mtDNA haplotypes. This heterogeneity exists on a much smaller spatial scale than would be expected for such a large and potentially mobile species ...


Genetic Variation Among Populations Of River Otters In North America: Considerations For Reintroducing Projects, Thomas L. Serfass, Robert P. Brooks, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Olin E. Rhodes Jr. Jan 1998

Genetic Variation Among Populations Of River Otters In North America: Considerations For Reintroducing Projects, Thomas L. Serfass, Robert P. Brooks, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

James M. Novak

Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to assess variability at 23 presumptive gene loci of 732 river otters obtained from fur-trappers in 18 states and three Canadian provinces. States and provinces providing otters were sorted into eight geographic regions for genetic comparisons. Multilocus heterozygosity and polymorphism ranged from 0.018 to 0.032 and 0.044 to 0.087, respectively. One locus, esterase-2, (EST-2) demonstrated a high level of polymorphism throughout all regions. Malate dehydrogenase-1 (MDH-1) was polymorphic throughout the Mississippi drainage but not elsewhere. Heterozygosity, occurrence of rare alleles, and mean number of alleles per locus were associated positively ...


Evaluation Of Molar Size As A Basis For Distinguishing Wild Boar From Domestic Swine: Employing The Present To Decipher The Past, John J. Mayer, James M. Novak, I. Lehr Brisbin Jr. Jan 1998

Evaluation Of Molar Size As A Basis For Distinguishing Wild Boar From Domestic Swine: Employing The Present To Decipher The Past, John J. Mayer, James M. Novak, I. Lehr Brisbin Jr.

James M. Novak

No abstract provided.


Genetic Structure Of Mosquitofish Populations In The Altamaha And Ogeechee Drainages Of Georgia: Reporting An Undescribed Form In The Ocmulgee River, Jose D. Hernandez-Martich, James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns Jan 1995

Genetic Structure Of Mosquitofish Populations In The Altamaha And Ogeechee Drainages Of Georgia: Reporting An Undescribed Form In The Ocmulgee River, Jose D. Hernandez-Martich, James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns

James M. Novak

An electrophoretic survey of genetic variation in mosquitofish populations of the Altamaha and Ogeechee drainages in Georgia revealed significant divergence (fs,=O.270) among populations within the Altamaha. Cluster analysis showed two lineages: one formed by populations from the Ogeechee drainage and the eastern and central Altamaha branches and another consisting of populations from the Ocmulgee River, the westernmost branch of the Altamaha drainage. These lineages may represent two independent forms. Average modified Rogers’ genetic distance was 0.25% between the two groups. The O_cmulgee lineage had significantly higher multilocus heterozygosity (H=0.206) than the other one (I-/=0 ...


Morphological Asymmetry In Mammals: Genetics And Homeostasis Reconsidered, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Michael H. Smith, Ronald K. Chesser Jan 1993

Morphological Asymmetry In Mammals: Genetics And Homeostasis Reconsidered, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Michael H. Smith, Ronald K. Chesser

James M. Novak

It has been hypothesized that developmental stability is increased at higher levels of genetic variability (heterozygosity) in animals. However, the existence of this relationship is questionable for homeotherms in general and mammals in particular. The difference between the sides of a bilateral character in an individual is a measure of fluctuating asymmetry that can be used as a measure of the developmental stability of mammals. Increased developmental stability should result in a greater degree of similarity between the right and left side of the body even though environmental variability would tend to increase the differences between right and left sides ...


Evolution Of Mammalian Social Structure, Ronald K. Chesser, Derrick W. Sugg, O. Eugene Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith Jan 1993

Evolution Of Mammalian Social Structure, Ronald K. Chesser, Derrick W. Sugg, O. Eugene Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Social groups may be viewed as collections of individuals exhibiting nonindependent behavior and organized in a cooperative manner. The evolutionary advantage of social behavior to individuals must be measured in its relativity to other potential behaviors, the scale of competitive interactions, and under a variety of environmental and genetic constraints. A primary tenet of social evolution is that coancestry will promote the genes of related individuals. High values of coancestry, however, do not necessarily translate into evolutionary advantage unless the primary competitive interactions occur among the groups. Coancestry is affected by the breeding tactics within and rates of genetic exchange ...


Biochemical Systematics Of Notothenioid Fishes From Antarctica, Mara A. Mcdonald, Michael H. Smith, Michael W. Smith, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Arthur L. Devries Jan 1992

Biochemical Systematics Of Notothenioid Fishes From Antarctica, Mara A. Mcdonald, Michael H. Smith, Michael W. Smith, James M. Novak, Paul E. Johns, Arthur L. Devries

James M. Novak

Genetic variation at 30 protein-coding loci was examined in seven forms of notothenioid fishes from Antarctica. Multilocus heterozygosity varied from 0.018 to 0.078 across taxa. An analysis of the allozyme data revealed the probable existence of an unrecognized cryptic species within Trematomu5 bemacchii. Pagothenia borchgrevinki is as closely related to some species of Trematomus as are some species of Trematomus to each other. Speciation among the species of Trematomus and Pagothenia appears to have taken place primarily after the separation of Antarctica from Australia.


Catch-Effort Estimation Of White-Tailed Deer Population Size, James M. Novak, Kim T. Scribner, William D. Dupont, Michael H. Smith Jan 1991

Catch-Effort Estimation Of White-Tailed Deer Population Size, James M. Novak, Kim T. Scribner, William D. Dupont, Michael H. Smith

James M. Novak

Estimation of population size is important for most research in population biology and in the management of game species. Using a stochastic, catch-effort, competing risks model (Dupont 1983), we estimated the population size of the Savannah River Site white-tailed deer (Odocotleus virginianus) herd for 1965-86. Population size varied markedly in response to changes in both hunting method and pressure. Still hunters preferentially harvested older animals compared to dog hunters. Deer were 2.37 times more susceptible to harvest from dog hunting than from still hunting. Hunter-induced mortality was estimated as 1.73 and 4.10 times as large as nonhunting ...


Frequency Distribution Of Conception Dates In A White-Tailed Deer Herd, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns Jan 1991

Frequency Distribution Of Conception Dates In A White-Tailed Deer Herd, James M. Novak, Olin E. Rhodes, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns

James M. Novak

Conception dates of white-tailed deer, Odocoi/eus virginia1111s (Zinunennann, 1780) were estimated for the breeding periods of 1974 - 76 and 1984 using fall and winter- spring fetal data. Conception dates estimated from data collected in the fall were biased. This bias resulted in an earlier mean conception date than that based on information which included data from later breeding females. Mean breeding dates differed significantly between female age classes due to delayed conception in fawns which also resulted in a skewed frequency distribution of conception dates. The frequency distribution of conception dates was leptokurtotic, suggesting that the distribution is constrnincd ...


Food Quality, Heterozygosity, And Fitness Correlates In Peromyscus Polionotus, James M. Novak, William R. Teska, Michael H.. Smith Jan 1990

Food Quality, Heterozygosity, And Fitness Correlates In Peromyscus Polionotus, James M. Novak, William R. Teska, Michael H.. Smith

James M. Novak

Oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus) that are more heterozygous utilize food and maintain body weight under varying degrees of dietary stress better than their less heterozygous counterparts. Mice were collected in southern Florida and fed diets of three qualities. During each dietary treatment, body weight, amount of food eaten, amount of food absorbed, and feeding efficiency were determined. Body weights for all mice decreased during the experiment. More heterozygous mice maintained their weight better during periods of dietary stress than those that were less heterozygous. Mice with different levels of genetic variability had essentially the same mean feeding efficiency with high ...


Morphological Asymmetry And Interspecific Hybridization: A Case Study Using Hylid Frogs, Trip Lamb, James M. Novak, Diane L. Mahoney Jan 1990

Morphological Asymmetry And Interspecific Hybridization: A Case Study Using Hylid Frogs, Trip Lamb, James M. Novak, Diane L. Mahoney

James M. Novak

The limited studies addressing developmental stability of interspecific hybrids suggest a positive association between the level of fluctuating asymmetry and 1) the degree of divergence between parental species, and 2) the recency of the contact zone. To evaluate these associations, we examined asymmetry in a recentlyestablished hybrid population of treefrogs (Hyla cinerea and H. gratiosa) that show marked structural gene divergence. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), directional asymmetry, and antisymmetry were assessed for eight paired osteometric traits in allozymically-defined parental and hybrid categories. FA levels varied considerably among traits. Nonetheless, for any given trait, the hybrid categories did not demonstrate elevated levels ...


Genetic Variability Within And Among Wintering Populations Of Brant, James M. Novak, L. M. Smith, L. D. Vangilder Jan 1989

Genetic Variability Within And Among Wintering Populations Of Brant, James M. Novak, L. M. Smith, L. D. Vangilder

James M. Novak

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Fawn Breeding In A South Carolina Deer Herd, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns Jan 1986

Assessment Of Fawn Breeding In A South Carolina Deer Herd, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., James M. Novak, Michael H. Smith, Paul E. Johns

James M. Novak

Annual variation in breeding success among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns on the Savannah River Plant (1967 to 1985) was determined from direct counts of pregnancy in spring-collected fawn females and evidence of lactation and measurements of udder thickness in fall-harvested 1. 5-yearolds. Percent lactation in 1.5-year-old females collected during September and October gave the best estimate of fawn breeding in the previous year. The overall mean fawn breeding estimate from September and October was 41 % , and the yearly variation in fawn breeding was significant. An estimate of the average yearly contribution to recruitment was 43 fetuses per ...


Multiple Captures Of Peromyscus Le Uco Pus: Social Behavior In A Small Rodent, James M. Novak Jan 1983

Multiple Captures Of Peromyscus Le Uco Pus: Social Behavior In A Small Rodent, James M. Novak

James M. Novak

The capture of more than one individual in a live trap can often provide information on the social behavior of small mammals, but the conclusions drawn from these data will depend on the type of live trap used. Davis (1955) and Getz (1972) used multiple capture traps and analyzed their data with respect to attraction and repulsion of individuals both within and between different age and sex classes. Petersen (1975), Feldhamer (1977), Blaustein and Rothstein (1978), Jenkins and Llewellyn (1981) and Spencer et al. (1982) gained information on the formation of associations during foraging and dispersal from multip~ captures made ...


Germination Of Cow Parsnip Seeds From Grizzly Bear Feces, James M. Novak, Roger D. Applegate, Lynn L. Rogers, David A. Casteel Jan 1979

Germination Of Cow Parsnip Seeds From Grizzly Bear Feces, James M. Novak, Roger D. Applegate, Lynn L. Rogers, David A. Casteel

James M. Novak

No abstract provided.


Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Small Mammals In The Illini Forest Plantation, Urbana, Illinois, James M. Novak Jan 1978

Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Small Mammals In The Illini Forest Plantation, Urbana, Illinois, James M. Novak

James M. Novak

The abundance and distribution of small mammals were analyzed for correlation with the vegetational characteris· tics of their habitat. Positive correlations were found for the number of mammals trapped per area trapped versus the total ground cover (r= .67, P< .05) and for the number of mammal species versus total ground cover (r= .73, P<.05). The habitat preferences of the three species trapped (short-tailed shrews B/,arina brevicauda. white-footed mice Peromyscus leucopuus, and meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus) showed a distinct distributional pattern for the species in relation to their habitats. The management of forest-tree plantations to achieve high densities during the seedling stage and the use of silvicultural practices that promote high shrub densities are suggested as inexpensive and natural control measures for injurious microtine rodents. Seedlings must be permitted to reach a sufficient height to remove the risk of the shrubs overtopping them.