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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Substrate Properties Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Developmental Sites Associated With Round Bale Hay Feeding Sites In Eastern Nebraska, Brian J. Wienhold, David B. Taylor Jan 2012

Substrate Properties Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Developmental Sites Associated With Round Bale Hay Feeding Sites In Eastern Nebraska, Brian J. Wienhold, David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Residues at sites where stationary feeders were used to provide hay as supplemental forage for cattle during the winter are developmental substrates for immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in the central United States. Spatial patterns in physical (substrate depth, temperature, water content), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity [EClab], total nitrogen [N] and carbon [C], ammoniacal nitrogen [NH4-N], extractable phosphorus [P]), and biological (microbial respiration rate) substrate properties for two feeding sites were estimated and the correlations between these properties and adult emergence were characterized. Hay feeding sites had a circular footprint with residues extending ≈7m from the feeder. With the ...


Efficacy Of Cyromazine To Control Immature Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Developing In Winter Hay Feeding Sites, David B. Taylor, Kristina Friesen, Jerry Zhu Jan 2012

Efficacy Of Cyromazine To Control Immature Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Developing In Winter Hay Feeding Sites, David B. Taylor, Kristina Friesen, Jerry Zhu

David B Taylor

Hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and no effective measures are currently available to control fly development in them. A single application of granular cyromazine in May provided 97% reduction in the number of adult stable flies emerging from hay feeding sites. Stable fly control did not decline during the 12 wk season. A small decline in ...


Dewatered Sewage Biosolids Provide A Productive Larval Habitat For Stable Flies And House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae), Carl W. Doud, David B. Taylor, Ludek Zurek Jan 2012

Dewatered Sewage Biosolids Provide A Productive Larval Habitat For Stable Flies And House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae), Carl W. Doud, David B. Taylor, Ludek Zurek

David B Taylor

Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake ...


Phenology Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae In Round Bale Hay Feeding Sites In Eastern Nebraska., David B. Taylor, Dennis R. Berkebile Jan 2011

Phenology Of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae In Round Bale Hay Feeding Sites In Eastern Nebraska., David B. Taylor, Dennis R. Berkebile

David B Taylor

The temporal and spatial patterns of adult stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), emergence from six sites where large round baled hay had been provided to pasture cattle as winter feed were studied using emergence traps. The substrate at these sites, consisting of waste hay mixed with bovine manure and urine, provided an excellent developmental habitat for immature stable flies. Stable flies were the most frequently collected fly emerging from these sites with a yearly average of 1,581 emerging per square meter. Stable fly emergence from these sites began in early May (235 annual accumulated Day-Degree 10° C [DD10]), peaked ...


Dispersal Of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Larval Developmental Sites., David B. Taylor, Roger D. Moon, Jack B. Campbell, Dennis R. Berkebile, Philip J. Scholl, Alberto B. Broce, Jerome A. Hogsette Jan 2010

Dispersal Of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Larval Developmental Sites., David B. Taylor, Roger D. Moon, Jack B. Campbell, Dennis R. Berkebile, Philip J. Scholl, Alberto B. Broce, Jerome A. Hogsette

David B Taylor

Seven mark-recapture studies were conducted over 3 yr to assess dispersal of newly emerging adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., from larval development sites in a mixed agricultural environment in northeastern Nebraska. Infested hay debris piles were marked by dusting their surfaces with fluorescent pigments, adults were captured with surrounding grids of Alsynite sticky traps, and specimens were dissected to determine feeding histories and reproductive age. Distances and directions of 3,889 marked specimens indicated males and females dispersed equally and in all directions. Midguts of males and females were equally likely to contain blood-meal remnants. Percentage with blood remnants ...


A New Method For Collecting Clean Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae Of Known Age., Dennis R. Berkebile, Anthony P. Weinhold, David B. Taylor Jan 2009

A New Method For Collecting Clean Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae Of Known Age., Dennis R. Berkebile, Anthony P. Weinhold, David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., are important pests of confined and pasture cattle. They have been reared in the laboratory to study their biology and to test new methods of control. Research on rearing modifications has concentrated on developing larval diets from materials locally abundant. Under current protocols, pupae form in the medium. Aggregations of pupae were located and removed, often with a considerable amount of extraneous material. Various methods have been developed to separate the pupae from waste material. We describe a method by which wandering larvae are enticed to leave the medium prior to pupariation. The larvae were ...


An Update On The Diversity Of Wolbachia In Spalangia Spp. (Hymneoptera: Pteromalidae)., David B. Taylor Jan 2008

An Update On The Diversity Of Wolbachia In Spalangia Spp. (Hymneoptera: Pteromalidae)., David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Results from 13 additional host populations improves resolution on the diversity of Wolbachia bacteria in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). These bacteria are of interest because they can profoundly affect their host’s reproduction. Manipulating Wolbachia infections may provide a method to improve the efficacy of biocontrol agents including Spalangia spp.


Comparative Efficiency Of Six Stable Fly Traps., David B. Taylor, Dennis R. Berkebile Jan 2006

Comparative Efficiency Of Six Stable Fly Traps., David B. Taylor, Dennis R. Berkebile

David B Taylor

Five adhesive traps and the Nzi cloth-target trap were compared to determine their trapping efficiency and biases for stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Two confgurations of the BiteFree prototype trap, constructed of polyethylene terephthalate, were most efficient for trapping stable flies, whereas the EZ trap was least efficient. The two Alsynite traps, Broce and Olson, were intermediate to the BiteFree prototype and EZ traps. All adhesive traps collected a ratio of approximately two males for each female. Approximately 50% of the flies collected on the adhesive traps, both male and female, were blood fed, and 20% were vitellogenic ...


Reproductive Compatibility Of New World Screwworms, Cochliomyia Hominivorax, From North Africa And Central America., David B. Taylor, Leslie Hammack, Richard L. Roehrdanz Jan 1991

Reproductive Compatibility Of New World Screwworms, Cochliomyia Hominivorax, From North Africa And Central America., David B. Taylor, Leslie Hammack, Richard L. Roehrdanz

David B Taylor

The reproductive compatibility of New World screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from North Africa and a strain being mass produced for the Mexican eradication programme was examined to assess the feasibility of using flies from the Mexican screwworm mass production facility for a sterile insect technique eradication programme in North Africa. Males from the production strain mated randomly with females from North Africa and from the production strain when both were present. Neither strain of males discriminated between cuticular extracts of North African and production strain females containing a contact sex pheromone. Interstrain crosses between North African flies and production flies ...


Genetics Of Screwworm, New Genetic Markers And Preliminary Linkage Map., David B. Taylor Jan 1989

Genetics Of Screwworm, New Genetic Markers And Preliminary Linkage Map., David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Eight new genetic markers for Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the screwworm, are characterized. The markers include three eye mutants, lemon-eye (le), cherry-eye (ch), and red-eye (re); one wing mutant, curly-wing (cw); and four allozyme markers, amylase (Amy-1), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm), and octanol dehydrogenase (Odh). The markers are associated into four linkage groups. Radiation-induced translocations were used to correlate the linkage groups with their respective chromosomes. A preliminary genetic linkage map with these and three previously characterized loci is presented.


Truncation Of Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Development By Irradiation Of Embryos., David B. Taylor, Robert L. Mangan Jan 1988

Truncation Of Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Development By Irradiation Of Embryos., David B. Taylor, Robert L. Mangan

David B Taylor

Gamma irradiation of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), embryos was used to truncate the life cycle at the prepupal stage. Egg hatch and larval survival were not reduced by dosages ≤8 kilorads (kr). Pupariation and adult emergence were inhibited by dosages ≥2.8 and 1.2 kr, respectively. Larvae, irradiated as embryos with dosages ≤8 kr, successfully infested wounded sheep, although larval weight was lower than normal. A dosage of 5.8 kr was sufficient to prevent pupariation, while permitting larval development to the third instar. Truncation of screwworm development permits the use of artificially wounded and infested animals for screwworm ...


Genetic Compatibility Of Aedes (Protomacleaya) Triseriatus With A. (P.) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor Jan 1987

Genetic Compatibility Of Aedes (Protomacleaya) Triseriatus With A. (P.) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Interspecific hybridization was used to examine reproductive compatibility of Aedes (Protomacleaya) triseriatus (Say) with Aedes (P .) brelandi Zavortink and Aedes (P.) hendersoni Cockerell. Most male progeny were sterile intersexes when A. brelandi or A. hendersoni males were crossed with A. triseriatus females. Female hybrids, and males from the reciprocal crosses, were morphologically normal and fertile. Varying percentages of intersex males were observed among progeny when normal F1 hybrids were crossed to either parental species or with other hybrids. Egg and female sterility resulting from a partial incompatibility between A. triseriatus cytoplasm and A. brelandi male-determining chromosome was observed. No evidence ...


Unidirectional Reproductive Incompatibility Between Aedes (Protomacleaya) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor, George B. Craig Jan 1985

Unidirectional Reproductive Incompatibility Between Aedes (Protomacleaya) Brelandi And A. (P.) Hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae)., David B. Taylor, George B. Craig

David B Taylor

Forced mating was used to determine reproductive compatibility between two species in the Triseriatus Group of Aedes (Protomacleaya). In the cross between A. hendersoni Cockerell females and A. brelandi Zavortink males, only 7% of the females laid eggs that developed embryos. Furthermore, <5% of the eggs from single-female clutches in which one or more eggs did embryonate were fertile. In the reciprocal cross, A. brelandi females crossed to A. hendersoni males, 70% of the females laid fertile eggs and >80% of the eggs from those females became embryonated. Approximately 80% of the females were inseminated in both of the reciprocal crosses, No chromosomal abnormalities were observed in the hybrids. Incompatibility between the A. brelandi male genome and the A. hendersoni female cytoplasm appeared to be the cause of the reduced fertility.


Speciation In The Aedes Triseriatus Species Complex, David B. Taylor Jan 1982

Speciation In The Aedes Triseriatus Species Complex, David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Interspecific hybridization was used to determine the genetic relationships between the four species of mosquitoes in the Triseriatus and Zoosophus groups of the aedine subgenus Protomacleaya (Diptera: Culicidae). Four factors were investigated: 1) fertility of intra- and interspecific crosses, 2) morphology of the interspecific hybrids and the genetic bases of morphological characters, 3) modes of postcopulatory reproductive isolation and 4) types of chromosomal changes occurring during and subsequent to the divergence of the species. Hybrid progeny were produced in 11 of the 12 possible crosses between the four species. Only the Aedes zoosophus female X A. brelandi male cross failed ...