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Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara Oct 2015

Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 201412 NIH SCAP InnoCentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-cells and Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – plus supplement plus posters - 20151027.

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Please download the current 20151027 (October 27, 2015) Tattletales and T-Bow update from

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/75/

The bepress web site is not letting me replace the old pdf here at "65" with the additional 10 pages update.

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The download is my/Cooper lab solution (submission) to the 2014 NIH Single Cell Analysis Program (SCAP) InnoCentive Challenge, "Follow That Cell". I submitted the Solution on 20141215Mon (with 20 minutes to spare). The Challenge web ...


Resistant Hypertension: Risk Factors, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, And Comorbidities Among Adults—The Brazilian Longitudinal Study Of Adult Health (Elsa-Brasil), Paulo A. Lotufo Jan 2015

Resistant Hypertension: Risk Factors, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, And Comorbidities Among Adults—The Brazilian Longitudinal Study Of Adult Health (Elsa-Brasil), Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

The frequency of resistant hypertension—defined as blood

pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three

antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP—is unknown in low-middle–income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1 ...


Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George Mcnamara Jul 2014

Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20140703 - Additional Pathscan and Tiki_Goddess related resources

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/52

http://home.earthlink.net/~tiki_goddess/

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/1/

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/11/

https://www.linkedin.com/in/georgemcnamara

Our Pathscan Enabler IV, delivered July 2014, uses the QuickScan software to scan a histology slide in "two clicks" (after loading the

slide):

1. Push the QuickScan button on the front of the Pathscan Enabler.

2. Click the Scan button in the QuickScan pop-up application (optional: change scan area in the Prescan image window).

The image gets saved as a TIFF file to ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara Jun 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20140602Mon

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/42

Please see also http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/26

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and/or Nano-Lanterns ...


Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Chapter 7: The Chemical Senses In Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Tissue Distribution And Thyroid Hormone Effects On Mrna Abundance For Membrane Transporters Mct8, Mct10, And Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) In A Teleost Fish, Amanda M. Muzzio, Pamela D. Noyes, Heather M. Stapleton, Sean C. Lema Jan 2014

Tissue Distribution And Thyroid Hormone Effects On Mrna Abundance For Membrane Transporters Mct8, Mct10, And Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) In A Teleost Fish, Amanda M. Muzzio, Pamela D. Noyes, Heather M. Stapleton, Sean C. Lema

Sean Lema

Many of the actions of thyroid hormones (THs) occur via TH binding to intracellular receptors. Although it was long thought that THs diffused passively across plasma membranes, it is now recognized that cellular entry is mediated by a variety of membrane transporter proteins. In this study, we identified cDNAs encoding the TH transporters monocarboxylate transferases 8 (mct8) and 10 (mct10) as well as eight distinct organic anion-transporting polypeptide (oatp) proteins from fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Analysis of the tissue distribution of transporter mRNAs revealed that mct8 and mct10 transcripts were both abundant in liver, but also present at lower levels ...


Flash4 Dark Reference Images, George Mcnamara Apr 2013

Flash4 Dark Reference Images, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Hamamatsu FLASH4.0 dark reference images, acquired with 10 second exposure times, no light to camera. Camera offset (set by Hamamatsu( is ~100 (the average intensity of the first image is always ~1 intensity level higher - an odd feature, but trivial in practice for a 16-bit camera).

George McNamara, Ph.D.

Single Cells Analyst at L.J.N. Cooper Lab

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


Video Codec Performance (Excel Spreadsheet), George Mcnamara Feb 2013

Video Codec Performance (Excel Spreadsheet), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Video codec performance (Excel spreadsheet). Movie was made in 2005-2006 when I worked at City of Hope National Medical Center. VTLF refers to Video Timelapse Light Facility. Videos were outputted from MetaMorph as AVI files. Personally, I always recommend uncompressed video files fro scientific uses. I also encourage posting the original scientific data format (ex. .lsm, .zvi, .lif, .stk).


Pubspectra Tattletales, George Mcnamara Feb 2013

Pubspectra Tattletales, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales for Multiplex Fluorescent Reporters in Single Cells for Metabolomics

George McNamara

As of April 2013: L.J.N. Cooper & D.A. Lee Cellular Immunotherapy Lab, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Email: gtmcnamara@mdanderson.org, geomcnamara@earthlink.net

Tattletales is my concept for spatial multiplexing many fluorescent protein (FP) biosensors in the same live cell. For example, there are excellent FP biosensors to Ca++ ions, pH, glucose, ribose, glutamine, glutamate, ATP, redox, ROS, pyruvate, cAMP, cGMP, IP3, PI(3,4,5)P3, cell cycle indicators (Fucci2), PKA, PKC, photsphatases, caspase(s) [1, 2]. However, these are typically used one biosensor per experiment, due in part to flooding the cell with soluble biosensor. That is, conventionally, either a metabolite (glucose) reporter or a signal transduction (Ca++) reporter can be imaged. By flooding the cell with the reporter, signal to noise ratio is compromized by autofluorescence.

Tattletales takes advantage of spatial multiplexing to both increase the number of different reporters, and improve signal to noise ratio by localizing each biosensor to a small volume. I started with the observation by Robinett et al [3] who localized 512 GFP-nls-LacI to a 256 LacO array as a 200 nm diameter diffraction limited spot (nuclear background due to overexpression). Many thousands of DNA binding proteins, of known sequence specifities, exist (LacI, TetR, GalR, etc for cell line studies; ZF-FPs, TALE-FPs to STRs, telomere repeat binding factors-FPs, etc for primary cells) and can be fused (as cDNAs) to different fluorescent proteins and FP biosensors.

Many biosensors are available as affinity series [1, 4], now enabling extended dynamic range. I realized that spatial multiplexing of many DNA binding protein-reporters by localizing to different spots in the cell nucleus and distinguished by combinatorial addressing, where N address colors provide 2^N addresses (example, 3 colors is 2^3 = 8 combinations). Multiplexing ...


Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark Jan 2013

Factors Influencing The Effectiveness Of Repellents In Managing Birds, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Divergence In Thyroid Hormone Concentrations Between Juveniles Of Marine And Stream Ecotypes Of The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus), Jun Kitano, Sean C. Lema Jan 2013

Divergence In Thyroid Hormone Concentrations Between Juveniles Of Marine And Stream Ecotypes Of The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus), Jun Kitano, Sean C. Lema

Sean Lema

Background: Hormones regulate the expression of multiple phenotypic traits. Therefore,

divergence in hormone concentrations may lead to evolutionary changes in the coordinated

physiological and behavioural traits that comprise an organism’s integrated phenotype. Adults

of marine ecotypes of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have higher concentrations

of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) than adults of stream-resident ecotypes (Kitano

et al., 2010). Thyroid hormones are well-established mediators of osmoregulation and migratory

behaviours in fish, and the difference in T4 concentrations indicates that changes in thyroid

hormone signalling may underlie the evolutionary and ecological divergence of migratory and

non-migratory ecotypes.

Questions: Is the ...


Hormones And Phenotypic Plasticity: Implications For The Evolution Of Integrated Adaptive Phenotypes, Sean C. Lema, Jun Kitano Jan 2013

Hormones And Phenotypic Plasticity: Implications For The Evolution Of Integrated Adaptive Phenotypes, Sean C. Lema, Jun Kitano

Sean Lema

It is generally accepted that taxa exhibit genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity, but many questions remain unanswered about how divergent plastic responses evolve under dissimilar ecological conditions. Hormones are signaling molecules that act as proximate mediators of phenotype expression by regulating a variety of cellular, physiological, and behavioral responses. Hormones not only change cellular and physiological states but also influence gene expression directly or indirectly, thereby linking environmental conditions to phenotypic development. Studying how hormonal pathways respond to environmental variation and how those responses differ between individuals, populations, and species can expand our understanding of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity ...


Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara Oct 2012

Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Halloween 2012 makes trick or treating more visual and interactive than in past years.

the download is a ZIP file containing three files.

Print out the (unnumbered) image on as large and nice printer paper as possible - I used glossy 44" wide here in Miami (University of Miami, MillerSchool of Medicine, Calder Library, Biomedical Communications dept - I also made another print on "fabric", also 44" wide to take with me to an HHMI Janelia Farm conference on 'turning images into knowledge' that ends on Oct 31 - might stay up for a second conference, "GFP..." that start Nov 4).

The other ...


Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara Sep 2012

Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20120831Fri-20120904Tue Cosmic Ray Particles by CCD imaging.zip contains image files in support of a Microscopy Today article - please see

http://www.microscopy-today.com/


Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara Aug 2012

Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Cosmic ray particles image series acquired using a Hamamatsu ORCA-II ERG scientific grade CCD camera, cooled to -60 C. Each image is a consecutive 600 second (10 minute) exposure time with no light to the camera.

While processing the data, I discoverd that the background changed around planes 25 and 227 (see Excel file and jpeg screenshots), so I also processed only planes 025-227 (203 planes total, 2030 minutes, 33.83 hours). the CCD industry "rule of thumb" for a "typical" CCD sensor (i.e. 1/3" CCD) is that one cosmic ray particle strikes a sensor approximately every 30 ...


Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara Mar 2012

Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

George McNamara (now at University of Miami) report for Hua Yu and Richard Jove, City of Hope National Medical Center, on optical density dynamic range of several flatbed scanners.


Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

T7-1 is the designation for the LMRG Nanoscopy session at ABRF in Orlando, FL, on March 20, 2012. The PDF file here is a draft of my presentation.

May not be very helpful since (1) would probably help to know what is in my head and each slide will [hopefully] prompt me to say, and (2) 10 minute talk so I am going to push the "next slide" button after saying very little.

__________________

Publisher statement:

The T7-1 Introduction to Nanoscopy Nano Talk is copyrighted (c) George McNamara, 2012. Except for (1) screenshots from research articles (which are copyrighted by ...


Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

The Internet is enabling greater access to spectral imaging publications, spectral graphs, and data than that was available a generation ago. The spectral imaging systems discussed in this issue of Cytometry work because reagent and hardware spectra are reproducible, reusable, and provide input to spectral unmixing and spectral components recognition algorithms. These spectra need to be readily available in order to determine what to purchase, how to use it, and what the output means. We refer to several commercially sponsored and academic spectral web sites and discuss our spectral graphing and data sites. Sites include fluorescent dye graph servers from ...


Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Feature Extraction presentation and movies in a ZIP file from a presentation I gave at ISAC 2011 in Baltomore, Md.

Feature extraction is one phrase for image analysis.


Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Please see

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

for my series of MetaMorph MetaMatters articles in volume 2, numbers 3 through 6, on the Rogers PMN Panorama data set.

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

Brief summary (for more, see the Word doc)


Propiconazole Is A Specific And Accessible Brassinosteroid (Br) Biosynthesis Inhibitor For Arabidopsis And Maize., Burkhard Schulz, Thomas Hartwig, Claudia Corvalan, Norman Best, Joshua Budka, Sunghwa Choe Jan 2012

Propiconazole Is A Specific And Accessible Brassinosteroid (Br) Biosynthesis Inhibitor For Arabidopsis And Maize., Burkhard Schulz, Thomas Hartwig, Claudia Corvalan, Norman Best, Joshua Budka, Sunghwa Choe

Burkhard Schulz

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz) as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz). Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA), regulated genes increased proportional to the ...


Variation In Gene Transcript Profiles Of Two V1a-Type Arginine Vasotocin Receptors Among Sexual Phases Of Bluehead Wrasse (Thalassoma Bifasciatum), Sean C. Lema, Melissa A. Slane, Kelley E. Salvesen, John Godwin Jan 2012

Variation In Gene Transcript Profiles Of Two V1a-Type Arginine Vasotocin Receptors Among Sexual Phases Of Bluehead Wrasse (Thalassoma Bifasciatum), Sean C. Lema, Melissa A. Slane, Kelley E. Salvesen, John Godwin

Sean Lema

The neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) mediates behavioral and reproductive plasticity in vertebrates, and has been linked to the behavioral changes associated with protogyny in the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum). In this study, we sequenced full-length cDNAs encoding two distinct V1a-type AVT receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) from the bluehead wrasse, and examined variation in brain and gonadal abundance of these receptor transcripts among sexual phases. End point RT-PCR revealed that v1a1 and v1a2 transcripts varied in tissue distribution, with v1a1 receptor mRNAs at greatest levels in the telencephalon, hypothalamus, optic tectum, cerebellum and testis, and v1a2 receptor transcripts most abundant ...


Synergy Sted Multicolor 3d-Easysted Excel File, George Mcnamara Nov 2011

Synergy Sted Multicolor 3d-Easysted Excel File, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Excel 2007 file with calculations for multicolor 3D-EasySTED segmented waveplates (SWP) for fluorescence nanoscopy.

Additional explanation in my Introduction statement and in the Excel file. The Excel file uses an interpolation function available from XlXtrFun (http://www.xlxtrfun.com/XlXtrFun/XlXtrFun.htm). My thanks to Goetz Zinner, www.B-Halle.de, for communicating to me that a single 3D-EasySTED segmented waveplate can be used with multiple excitation and depletion wavelengths.

Please give Goetz Zinner full credit for recognizing that STED segmented waveplate can be manufactured to handle multiple excitation and depletion wavelengths. Different sets of wavelengths can be generated by choosing ...


Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara Oct 2011

Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Multi-Probe Microscopy is an ~1500 page Word document summarizing what I know and/or found interesting in light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and digital image analysis, from 1995-2005. Very little has been updated since 2005.


What Are Social Insects Telling Us About Aging?, Joel D. Parker Jan 2010

What Are Social Insects Telling Us About Aging?, Joel D. Parker

Joel D Parker

Abstract: Research on aging in social insects has progressed much more than has been generally acknowledged. Here I review what I think are the four greatest contributions of social insect work to the field of aging research with the hope of highlighting the truly exciting discoveries being made. These include the reversal of the fecundity / lifespan and size / lifespan trade-offs due to the evolution of sociality, that social environment can reverse the effects of aging, the contribution of social insect work to the overturning of the free radical theory of aging, and the discovery of vitellogenin as an important protein ...


Lack Of Depolarization-Induced Suppression Of Inhibition (Dsi) In Layer 2/3 Interneurons That Receive Cannabinoid-Sensitive Inhibitory Inputs, Fouad Lemtiri-Chlieh, Eric S. Levine Sep 2007

Lack Of Depolarization-Induced Suppression Of Inhibition (Dsi) In Layer 2/3 Interneurons That Receive Cannabinoid-Sensitive Inhibitory Inputs, Fouad Lemtiri-Chlieh, Eric S. Levine

fouad Lemtiri-Chlieh

In layer 2/3 of neocortex, brief trains of action potentials in pyramidal neurons (PNs) induce the mobilization of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs), resulting in a depression of GABA release from the terminals of inhibitory interneurons (INs). This depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) is mediated by activation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) on presynaptic terminals of a subset of INs. However, it is not clear whether CB1 receptors are also expressed at synapses between INs, and whether INs can release eCBs in response to depolarization. In the present studies, brain slices containing somatosensory cortex were prepared from 14- to ...


Inhibition Of Astroglial Kir4.1 Channels By Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Y. Ohno, H. Hibino, Christoph Lossin, A. Inanobe, Y. Kurachi Jan 2007

Inhibition Of Astroglial Kir4.1 Channels By Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Y. Ohno, H. Hibino, Christoph Lossin, A. Inanobe, Y. Kurachi

Christoph Lossin, Ph.D.

The inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is responsible for astroglial K+ buffering. We recently found that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit Kir4.1 channel currents, which suggests that astroglial Kir currents might be involved in the pharmacological action of antidepressants. We therefore further examined the effects of the currently most popular antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and other related agents on Kir4.1 channels heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used. Fluoxetine, the typical SSRI, inhibited Kir4.1 channel currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 15.2 microM. The ...


Inhibition Of Astroglial Inwardly Rectifying Kir4.1 Channels By A Tricyclic Antidepressant, Nortriptyline., S. Su, Y. Ohno, Christoph Lossin, A. Inanobe, Y. Kurachi Jan 2007

Inhibition Of Astroglial Inwardly Rectifying Kir4.1 Channels By A Tricyclic Antidepressant, Nortriptyline., S. Su, Y. Ohno, Christoph Lossin, A. Inanobe, Y. Kurachi

Christoph Lossin, Ph.D.

The inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is responsible for astroglial K(+) buffering. We examined the effects of nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), on Kir4.1 channel currents heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells, using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Nortriptyline (3-300 microM) reversibly inhibited Kir4.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas it marginally affected neuronal Kir2.1 currents. The inhibition of Kir4.1 channels by nortriptyline depended on the voltage difference from the K(+) equilibrium potential (E(K)), with greater potency at more positive potentials. Blocking kinetics of the drug could be described by first-order kinetics, where dissociation of ...


Wavelet-Based Functional Mixed Models To Characterize Population Heterogeneity In Accelerometer Profiles: A Case Study. , Jeffrey S. Morris, Cassandra Arroyo, Brent A. Coull, Louise M. Ryan, Steven L. Gortmaker Dec 2006

Wavelet-Based Functional Mixed Models To Characterize Population Heterogeneity In Accelerometer Profiles: A Case Study. , Jeffrey S. Morris, Cassandra Arroyo, Brent A. Coull, Louise M. Ryan, Steven L. Gortmaker

Jeffrey S. Morris

We present a case study illustrating the challenges of analyzing accelerometer data taken from a sample of children participating in an intervention study designed to increase physical activity. An accelerometer is a small device worn on the hip that records the minute-by-minute activity levels of the child throughout the day for each day it is worn. The resulting data are irregular functions characterized by many peaks representing short bursts of intense activity. We model these data using the wavelet-based functional mixed model. This approach incorporates multiple fixed effects and random effect functions of arbitrary form, the estimates of which are ...


Mutations In Pmr5 Result In Powdery Mildew Resistance And Altered Cell Wall Composition, John P. Vogel, Ted K. Raab, Chris R. Somerville, Shauna C. Somerville Dec 2004

Mutations In Pmr5 Result In Powdery Mildew Resistance And Altered Cell Wall Composition, John P. Vogel, Ted K. Raab, Chris R. Somerville, Shauna C. Somerville

Ted K. Raab

Powdery mildews and other obligate biotrophic pathogens are highly adapted to their hosts and often show limited host ranges. One facet of such host specialization is likely to be penetration of the host cell wall, a major barrier to infection. A mutation in the pmr5 gene rendered Arabidopsis resistant to the powdery mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe orontii, but not to the unrelated pathogens Pseudomonas syringae or Peronospora parasitica. PMR5 belongs to a large family of plant-specific genes of unknown function. pmr5-mediated resistance did not require signaling through either the salicylic acid or jasmonic acid/ ethylene defense pathways, suggesting ...