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Identification Of High Responders For Interleukin-6 And Creatine Kinase Following Acute Eccentric Resistance Exercise In Elderly Obese Women, Vitor Tajra, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Denis Cesar Leite Vieira, Darlan Lopes De Farias, Tatiane Gomes Teixeira, Silvana Schwerz Funghetto, Alessandro Oliviera Silva, Nuno Manuel Frade De Sousa, Jeffrey Willardson, Margo Gomes Oliviera Karnikowski, Jonato Prestes Nov 2014

Identification Of High Responders For Interleukin-6 And Creatine Kinase Following Acute Eccentric Resistance Exercise In Elderly Obese Women, Vitor Tajra, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Denis Cesar Leite Vieira, Darlan Lopes De Farias, Tatiane Gomes Teixeira, Silvana Schwerz Funghetto, Alessandro Oliviera Silva, Nuno Manuel Frade De Sousa, Jeffrey Willardson, Margo Gomes Oliviera Karnikowski, Jonato Prestes

Jeffrey Willardson

Resistance exercise is used as a non-pharmacological tool to elicit both gains in and maintenance of physical function in the elderly. Thus, the present study examined the acute response of creatine kinase and interleukin-6 following an eccentric resistance exercise session in elderly obese women classified as high responders or normal responders.


Exercise Science Students Get First-Hand Experience, Valerie Wherley Apr 2014

Exercise Science Students Get First-Hand Experience, Valerie Wherley

Valerie Wherley

Sacred Heart University’s exercise science students have been busy this semester participating in various service-learning initiatives and clinics. During the semester, students are asked to complete 20 hours of service learning work so they get first-hand experience working with children and adolescents, engaging them in physical activity and sports and seeing classroom and textbook concepts come to life.


Chui Named As Department Chair Of Physical Therapy And Human Movement Science, Kevin Chui Ed Apr 2014

Chui Named As Department Chair Of Physical Therapy And Human Movement Science, Kevin Chui Ed

Kevin Chui

Sacred Heart University recently named Kevin Chui chair of the department of physical therapy and human movement science.


Engaging Youth In Lifelong Outdoor Adventure Activities Through A Nontraditional Public School Physical Education Program, Keri Schwab, Daniel L. Dustin Jan 2014

Engaging Youth In Lifelong Outdoor Adventure Activities Through A Nontraditional Public School Physical Education Program, Keri Schwab, Daniel L. Dustin

Keri Schwab

Engaging Youth in Lifelong Outdoor Adventure Activities through a Nontraditional Public School Physical Education Program


Effects Of Rest Interval Length On Smith Machine Bench Press Performance And Perceived Exertion In Trained Men, Ramires A. Tibana, Denis C. Vieira, Vitor Tajra, Martim Bottaro, Belmiro F. De Salles, Jeffrey Willardson, Jonato Prestes Dec 2013

Effects Of Rest Interval Length On Smith Machine Bench Press Performance And Perceived Exertion In Trained Men, Ramires A. Tibana, Denis C. Vieira, Vitor Tajra, Martim Bottaro, Belmiro F. De Salles, Jeffrey Willardson, Jonato Prestes

Jeffrey Willardson

This study compared two different rest intervals (RI) between sets of resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (M age = 24.3, SD = 3.5 yr.; M weigh t= 80.0 kg, SD = 15.3; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.04) performed five sets of Smith machine bench presses at 60% of one repetition maximum, either with 1.5 min. or 3 min. RI between sets. Their repetition performance, total training volume, velocity, fatigue, rating of perceived exertion, and muscular power were measured. All of these measures indicated that performance was significantly better and fatigue was significantly lower in the ...


Influence Of Exercise Order On Upper Body Maximum And Submaximal Strength Gains In Trained Men, Claudio O. Assumpcao, Ramires A. Tibana, Luan C. Viana, Jeffrey Willardson, Jonato Prestes Sep 2013

Influence Of Exercise Order On Upper Body Maximum And Submaximal Strength Gains In Trained Men, Claudio O. Assumpcao, Ramires A. Tibana, Luan C. Viana, Jeffrey Willardson, Jonato Prestes

Jeffrey Willardson

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise order on one-repetition maximum (1-RM) and ten-repetition maximum (10-RM) strength gains after 6 weeks of resistance training (RT) in trained men. Sixteen men were randomly assigned into two groups based on the order of exercises performed during training sessions: a group that performed large muscle group exercises first and progressed to small muscle group exercises (LG-SM); while a second group performed the opposite sequence and started with small muscle group exercises and progressed to large muscle group exercises (SM-LG). Four sessions of RT were conducted per week; all ...


Supra-Physiological Doses Of Testosterone Affect Membrane Oxidation Of Human Neutrophils Monitored By The Fluorescent Probe C11-Bodipy581/591, Tacito Pessoa De Souza Jr, Andre K. Yamada, Roberto Simao, Tatiana G. Polotow, Rui Curi, Zachary Pope, Jeffrey Willardson, Marcelo P. Barros May 2013

Supra-Physiological Doses Of Testosterone Affect Membrane Oxidation Of Human Neutrophils Monitored By The Fluorescent Probe C11-Bodipy581/591, Tacito Pessoa De Souza Jr, Andre K. Yamada, Roberto Simao, Tatiana G. Polotow, Rui Curi, Zachary Pope, Jeffrey Willardson, Marcelo P. Barros

Jeffrey Willardson

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supra-physiological doses of testosterone (TES) on membrane oxidation of activated human neutrophils in vitro using an innovative and sensitive technique: the real-time detection with the fluorescence probe C11-BODIPY581/591. Methodological controls were performed with the lipid-soluble and powerful antioxidant astaxanthin at different neutrophil density cultures. Neutrophils from nine healthy young men (23.4 ± 2.5 years, 174.4 ± 7.0 cm height, and 78.3 ± 7.0 kg weight) were isolated and treated with 0.1 or 10 μM TES for 24 h and subsequently labeled with the free ...


Influence Of Upper-Body Exercise Order On Hormonal Responses In Trained Men, Roberto Simao, Richard Diego Leite, Guilherme Fleury Fina Speretta, Alex Souto Maior, Belmiro Freitas De Salles, Tacito Pessoa De Souza Jr, Jakob L. Vingren, Jeffrey Willardson Feb 2013

Influence Of Upper-Body Exercise Order On Hormonal Responses In Trained Men, Roberto Simao, Richard Diego Leite, Guilherme Fleury Fina Speretta, Alex Souto Maior, Belmiro Freitas De Salles, Tacito Pessoa De Souza Jr, Jakob L. Vingren, Jeffrey Willardson

Jeffrey Willardson

The aim of this study was to examine acute hormonal responses after different sequences of an upper-body resistance-exercise session. Twenty men completed 2 sessions (3 sets; 70% 1-repetition maximum; 2 min passive rest between sets) of the same exercises in opposite sequences (larger to smaller vs. smaller to larger muscle-group exercises). Total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured before and immediately after each sequence. The results indicate that the GH concentration increased after both sessions, but the increase was significantly greater (p < 0.05) after the sequence in which larger muscle-group exercises were performed prior to the smaller muscle-group exercises. No differences were observed between sessions for TT, FT, SHBG, C, or the T/C ratio at baseline or immediately after resistance exercise. These results indicate that performing larger muscle-group exercises first in an upper-body resistance-exercise session leads to a significantly greater GH response. This may have been due to the significantly greater exercise volume accomplished. In summary, the findings of this investigation support the common prescriptive recommendation to perform larger-muscle group exercises first during a resistance-exercise session.


A Qualitative Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Mental Skills Training Program For Youth Athletes, Lee-Ann Sharp, Jennifer Cumming, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J.G. Holland, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda Jan 2013

A Qualitative Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Mental Skills Training Program For Youth Athletes, Lee-Ann Sharp, Jennifer Cumming, Charlotte Woodcock, Mark J.G. Holland, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mental skills training (MST) program for male youth elite rugby athletes. Three focus groups were held with 21 under-16 male rugby athletes and four male coaches involved in the MST program to examine the quality of service delivery, athlete responses to the MST program, the mental qualities used by athletes, and its perceived influence on athlete performance. Following inductive-deductive content analysis, 40 subcategories and 16 categories emerged. Participants believed the MST program to be an interactive, well-planned program that increased athlete understanding of MST methods and awareness of ...


Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams Jan 2013

Introducing The Revised Applied Model Of Deliberate Imagery Use For Sport, Dance, Exercise, And Rehabilitation, Jennifer Cumming, Sarah E. Williams

Jennifer Cumming

This article reviews literature on cognitive and motivational imagery use in the sport, exercise, dance, and rehabilitation domains and outlines a revised applied model of imagery use. The original model by Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999 guides practitioners and researchers in determining what cognitive and/or motivational imagery to use in a particular situation for achieving a desired outcome. The revised model proposed builds on the original version by retaining its empiricallysupported “where”, “when”, and “why” components. Incorporating recent advancements in imagery research, the model distinguishes between what is imaged (i.e., the content) from why it is imaged (i.e ...


Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Layered Stimulus Response Training Improves Motor Imagery Ability And Movement Execution, Sarah E. Williams, Sam J. Cooley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This study aimed to test Lang’s bioinformational theory by comparing the effects of layered stimulus and response training (LSRT) with imagery practice on improvements in imagery ability and performance of a motor skill (golf putting) in 24 novices (age, M = 20.13 years; SD = 1.65; 12 female) low in imagery ability. Participants were randomly assigned to a LSRT (introducing stimulus and response propositions to an image in a layered approach), motor imagery (MI) practice, or visual imagery (VI) practice group. Following baseline measures of MI ability and golf putting performance, the LSRT and MI practice groups imaged successfully ...


Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming Jan 2013

Methodological Variations In Guided Imagery Interventions Using Movement Imagery Scripts In Sport: A Systematic Review, Sam J. Cooley, Sarah E. Williams, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Imagery studies have varied widely in the methods used to deliver guided imagery interventions. This variation has led to difficulties comparing studies and uncertainty as to what methods should be followed. A review is needed to evaluate the interventions to date to inform applied recommendations. The aim of this systematic review was to (1) assess the quality of intervention design, (2) investigate the extent to which interventions vary, (3) highlight the different methods that should be considered in the design and implementation of future interventions, and (4) investigate adherence to some of the current theories and models of imagery use ...


Effectiveness Of Exercise On Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer’S Disease, Sandor Balsamo, Jeffrey Willardson, Frederico Santos De Santana, Jonato Prestes, Denise Coscrato Balsamo, Dahan Da Cunha Nascimento, Leopoldo Dos Santos-Neto, Octavio T. Nobrega Jan 2013

Effectiveness Of Exercise On Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer’S Disease, Sandor Balsamo, Jeffrey Willardson, Frederico Santos De Santana, Jonato Prestes, Denise Coscrato Balsamo, Dahan Da Cunha Nascimento, Leopoldo Dos Santos-Neto, Octavio T. Nobrega

Jeffrey Willardson

Physical activity has a protective effect on brain function in older people. Here, we briefly reviewed the studies and results related to the effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. The main findings from the current body of literature indicate positive evidence for structured physical activity (cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise) as a promising non-pharmacological intervention for preventing cognitive decline. More studies are needed to determine the mechanisms involved in this preventative effect, including on strength, cardiorespiratory, and other types of exercise. Thus, the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease may depend on healthy lifestyle habits, such as a ...


Effects Of Different Antagonist Protocols On Repetition Performance And Muscle Activation, Andrade Paz, Jeffrey Willardson, Roberto Simao, Humberto Miranda Jan 2013

Effects Of Different Antagonist Protocols On Repetition Performance And Muscle Activation, Andrade Paz, Jeffrey Willardson, Roberto Simao, Humberto Miranda

Jeffrey Willardson

Objective: To investigate the acute effects of different antagonist manipulation protocols on maximal repetition performance and muscle activation during seated row (SR) exercise. Methods: Fifteen men (22.4 ± 1.1 years old, height 175 cm ± 5.5, weight 76.6 kg ± 7, and 12.3 ± 2.1 of body fat percentage) with previous resistance training experience (3.5 ± 1.2 years) performed four experimental protocols: (TP) one set to repetition failure of SR exercise; (AS) Antagonist static stretching for the pectoralis major (PM) followed by one set of SR; (PNFA) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation for PM followed by one set of ...


Exercise And Blood Flow Restriction, Zachary K. Pope, Jeffrey Willardson, Brad J. Schoenfeld Jan 2013

Exercise And Blood Flow Restriction, Zachary K. Pope, Jeffrey Willardson, Brad J. Schoenfeld

Jeffrey Willardson

Pope, ZK, Willardson, JM, and Schoenfeld, BJ. Exercise and blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2914– 2926, 2013—A growing body of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of exercise (low-intensity resistance training, walking, cycling) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) for increased muscular strength and hypertrophy. The BFR is achieved via the application of external pressure over the proximal portion of the upper or lower extremities. The external pressure applied is sufficient to maintain arterial inflow while occluding venous outflow of blood distal to the occlusion site. With specific reference to low-intensity resistance training, the ability to ...


The Reality Of Fantasy Sports: A Metaphysical And Ethical Analysis, Chad R. Carlson Jan 2013

The Reality Of Fantasy Sports: A Metaphysical And Ethical Analysis, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

Fantasy sports have become a major sector of our sport industry. With millions of participants worldwide and billions of dollars generated, fantasy sports have become a fixed part of our sport spectatorship. However, this prevalence has come without much intellectual investigation. Therefore, in this paper I discuss the metaphysics and ethics of fantasy sports. After providing arguments for the consistency of fantasy sports with prominent descriptions of play and games, I compare fantasy sports to other genres of play and games – sports, card games, ‘cybersports’, and spectatorship. After this juxtaposition, I delineate how fantasy sports are different from their real ...


Book Review: Gadamer’S Ethics Of Play: Hermeneutics And The Other, Chad R. Carlson Jan 2013

Book Review: Gadamer’S Ethics Of Play: Hermeneutics And The Other, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

No abstract provided.


Comparing Thigh Muscle Cross-Sectional Area And Squat Strength Among National Class Olympic Weightlifters, Power Lifters, And Bodybuilders, James J. Di Naso, Brian L. Pritschet, John D. Emmett, Jill W. Owen, Jeffrey Willardson, Travis W. Beck, Jason M. Defreitas, Fabio E. Fontana Jun 2012

Comparing Thigh Muscle Cross-Sectional Area And Squat Strength Among National Class Olympic Weightlifters, Power Lifters, And Bodybuilders, James J. Di Naso, Brian L. Pritschet, John D. Emmett, Jill W. Owen, Jeffrey Willardson, Travis W. Beck, Jason M. Defreitas, Fabio E. Fontana

Jeffrey Willardson

Few studies have compared anthropometric characteristics among national class athletes from different resistance training disciplines, such as Olympic Weightlifting (OL), Power Lifting (PL), and Bodybuilding (BB). Objective: The purpose of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist in the relationship between thigh muscle cross-sectional area and back squat strength among national class athletes from the sports of OL, PL, and BB. Methods: Fifteen national class athletes were assessed for back squat strength, mid-thigh circumference, and mid-thigh skinfold from which total thigh cross-sectional was estimated. A series of One-Way ANOVAs and Pearson Product Moment Correlations were used to ...


Transforming The Nigerian Nation Through Science, Technology And Mathematics Education, Jerome O. Okafor Mar 2012

Transforming The Nigerian Nation Through Science, Technology And Mathematics Education, Jerome O. Okafor

Prof. Jerome O Okafor

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Load On Movement Coordination During Sled Towing, Michael Lawrence, Daniel Leib, Cara Masterson, Erin Hartigan Jan 2012

The Effect Of Load On Movement Coordination During Sled Towing, Michael Lawrence, Daniel Leib, Cara Masterson, Erin Hartigan

Daniel Leib

INTRODUCTION Towing sleds while walking is a popular resistance exercise for the healthy athlete. One reason for the popularity of sled towing is that it is widely believed to be a ‘functional’ exercise. Preliminary research suggests towing while walking can increases lower extremity moment impulses; however whether towing a sled utilizes the same coordination patterns as un-resisted walking is unknown. While altered patterns may not be as relevant to a healthy athlete, sled towing is also sometimes used in the rehabilitation of athletes who sustained a lower extremity injury (anterior cruciate ligament rupture) with the goal of regaining movement symmetry ...


Effects Of Fatigue On Golf Performance, Daniel J. Leib, Nicholas R. Higdon, W. Holmes Finch, Eric L. Dugan Jan 2012

Effects Of Fatigue On Golf Performance, Daniel J. Leib, Nicholas R. Higdon, W. Holmes Finch, Eric L. Dugan

Daniel Leib

No abstract provided.


Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland Jan 2012

Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland

Jennifer Cumming

Drawing from the experiences of the authors in developing, conducting, and evaluating sport psychology interventions, several considerations are highlighted and recommendations offered for effective psychometric assessment. Using the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999) as a working example, opportunities for bias to undermine a measure’s validity and reliability are discussed with reference to a respondent’s four cognitive processes: (a) comprehension, (b) retrieval, (c) decision-making, and (d) response generation. Further threats to an instrument’s psychometric properties are highlighted in the form of demand characteristics athletes perceive in the environment. With these concerns in mind, several ...


Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall Jan 2012

Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire- Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.


Book Review: National Title: The Unlikely Tale Of The Naib Tournament, Chad R. Carlson Jan 2012

Book Review: National Title: The Unlikely Tale Of The Naib Tournament, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Tournaments: The Red Cross Games And The Early Ncaa-Nit Relationship, Chad R. Carlson Jan 2012

A Tale Of Two Tournaments: The Red Cross Games And The Early Ncaa-Nit Relationship, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between the National Invitational Tournament (NIT) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). To do so, the author explores the Red Cross War Benefit Games, which pitted the champions of the two tournaments against one another, with the proceeds benefiting the Red Cross. These contests represented the only times the two tournaments or their teams interacted. The author explores the Games’ significance and the manner in which they helped propel the NCAA men’s basketball tournament to preeminent status.


The Collage Of Functional Health Education For Effective Healthy Decisions And Health Promotion, Prof. Jerome Okonkwo Okafor Nov 2011

The Collage Of Functional Health Education For Effective Healthy Decisions And Health Promotion, Prof. Jerome Okonkwo Okafor

Prof. Jerome O Okafor

No abstract provided.


The Motherland, The Godfather, And The Birth Of A Basketball Dynasty: American Efforts To Promote Basketball In Lithuania, Chad R. Carlson Aug 2011

The Motherland, The Godfather, And The Birth Of A Basketball Dynasty: American Efforts To Promote Basketball In Lithuania, Chad R. Carlson

Chad Carlson

The United States transported basketball to other nations around the world in many different ways and with varying degrees of success during the early decades of the twentieth century. In Lithuania, the efforts of Lithuanian Americans star Frank Lubin and other Americans in Lithuania proved wildly successful and wove basketball into the fabric of Lithuanian national identity. Throughout the late 1930s, these members of the Lithuanian community in the United States spent a great deal of time in their motherland and changed local perceptions of basketball to the point at which it became Lithuania's national pastime.


Can Self-Esteem Protect Against The Deleterious Consequences Of Self-Objectification For Mood And Body Satisfaction In Physically Active Female University Students?, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Gemma Pearce Apr 2011

Can Self-Esteem Protect Against The Deleterious Consequences Of Self-Objectification For Mood And Body Satisfaction In Physically Active Female University Students?, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Gemma Pearce

Jennifer Cumming

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In ...


A Time-Efficient Method For Analyzing Bone Strain With Large Subject Pools, Daniel Leib, Eric Dugan, Henry Wang Jan 2011

A Time-Efficient Method For Analyzing Bone Strain With Large Subject Pools, Daniel Leib, Eric Dugan, Henry Wang

Daniel Leib

No abstract provided.


Imagining Yourself Dancing To Perfection? Correlates Of Perfectionism Among Ballet And Contemporary Dancers, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Jennifer Cumming, Danielle Aways, Lucinda Sharp Jan 2011

Imagining Yourself Dancing To Perfection? Correlates Of Perfectionism Among Ballet And Contemporary Dancers, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Jennifer Cumming, Danielle Aways, Lucinda Sharp

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated perfectionism prevalence and its relationship to imagery and performance anxiety. Two hundred and fifty (N = 250) elite students (66.4% female; Mage = 19.19, SD = 2.66) studying mainly classical ballet or contemporary dance in England, Canada, and Australia completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, imagery, and performance anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cohorts: dancers with perfectionistic tendencies (40.59% of the sample), dancers with moderate perfectionistic tendencies (44.35%), and dancers with no perfectionistic tendencies (15.06%). Notably, these labels are data driven and relative; only eight dancers reported high absolute scores. Dancers with perfectionistic tendencies ...