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Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara Oct 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/63

Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.

These are based on:

1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )

2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.

3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...


Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause Of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics In The Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population, Torstein Tengs Dr. Sep 2014

Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause Of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics In The Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population, Torstein Tengs Dr.

Dr. Torstein Tengs

The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida ...


The Plasmodium Bottleneck: Malaria Parasite Losses In The Mosquito Vector, Ryan C. Smith, Joel Vega-Rodríguez, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena Aug 2014

The Plasmodium Bottleneck: Malaria Parasite Losses In The Mosquito Vector, Ryan C. Smith, Joel Vega-Rodríguez, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Ryan C. Smith

Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.


Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch Aug 2014

Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch

Ryan C. Smith

Subtilisin-like protease 2 (SUB2) is a conserved serine protease utilized by Plasmodium parasites as a surface sheddase required for successful merozoite invasion of host red blood cells and has been implicated in ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut. To determine if SUB2 is a suitable vaccine target to interfere with malaria parasite development, the effects of SUB2-immunization on the Plasmodium life cycle were examined in its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Swiss Webster mice were immunized with SUB2 peptides conjugated to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or KLH alone, and then challenged with Plasmodium berghei. To determine the effects of immunization on ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara Jun 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20140602Mon

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/42

Please see also http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/26

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and/or Nano-Lanterns ...


Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence In Migratory Waterfowl In The United States, 2007-2009, Scott R. Groepper Mr., Thomas Deliberto, Mark Vrtiska, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford, Scott Hyngstrom Jan 2014

Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence In Migratory Waterfowl In The United States, 2007-2009, Scott R. Groepper Mr., Thomas Deliberto, Mark Vrtiska, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford, Scott Hyngstrom

Scott R Groepper

SUMMARY. We analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), in the United States from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). The goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. Apparent prevalence of AIV was highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007–2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the Mississippi Flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (range, 7.3%–8.9%). Dabbling ducks had higher apparent prevalence of AIV (12.8%–18.8 ...


Disease Risks Posed By Wild Birds Associated With Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark Jan 2014

Disease Risks Posed By Wild Birds Associated With Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

No abstract provided.


Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca Jan 2014

Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca

Richard J. Camp

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua’i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis ...


Flash4 Dark Reference Images, George Mcnamara Apr 2013

Flash4 Dark Reference Images, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Hamamatsu FLASH4.0 dark reference images, acquired with 10 second exposure times, no light to camera. Camera offset (set by Hamamatsu( is ~100 (the average intensity of the first image is always ~1 intensity level higher - an odd feature, but trivial in practice for a 16-bit camera).

George McNamara, Ph.D.

Single Cells Analyst at L.J.N. Cooper Lab

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


Video Codec Performance (Excel Spreadsheet), George Mcnamara Feb 2013

Video Codec Performance (Excel Spreadsheet), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Video codec performance (Excel spreadsheet). Movie was made in 2005-2006 when I worked at City of Hope National Medical Center. VTLF refers to Video Timelapse Light Facility. Videos were outputted from MetaMorph as AVI files. Personally, I always recommend uncompressed video files fro scientific uses. I also encourage posting the original scientific data format (ex. .lsm, .zvi, .lif, .stk).


Pubspectra Tattletales, George Mcnamara Feb 2013

Pubspectra Tattletales, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales for Multiplex Fluorescent Reporters in Single Cells for Metabolomics

George McNamara

As of April 2013: L.J.N. Cooper & D.A. Lee Cellular Immunotherapy Lab, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Email: gtmcnamara@mdanderson.org, geomcnamara@earthlink.net

Tattletales is my concept for spatial multiplexing many fluorescent protein (FP) biosensors in the same live cell. For example, there are excellent FP biosensors to Ca++ ions, pH, glucose, ribose, glutamine, glutamate, ATP, redox, ROS, pyruvate, cAMP, cGMP, IP3, PI(3,4,5)P3, cell cycle indicators (Fucci2), PKA, PKC, photsphatases, caspase(s) [1, 2]. However, these are typically used one biosensor per experiment, due in part to flooding the cell with soluble biosensor. That is, conventionally, either a metabolite (glucose) reporter or a signal transduction (Ca++) reporter can be imaged. By flooding the cell with the reporter, signal to noise ratio is compromized by autofluorescence.

Tattletales takes advantage of spatial multiplexing to both increase the number of different reporters, and improve signal to noise ratio by localizing each biosensor to a small volume. I started with the observation by Robinett et al [3] who localized 512 GFP-nls-LacI to a 256 LacO array as a 200 nm diameter diffraction limited spot (nuclear background due to overexpression). Many thousands of DNA binding proteins, of known sequence specifities, exist (LacI, TetR, GalR, etc for cell line studies; ZF-FPs, TALE-FPs to STRs, telomere repeat binding factors-FPs, etc for primary cells) and can be fused (as cDNAs) to different fluorescent proteins and FP biosensors.

Many biosensors are available as affinity series [1, 4], now enabling extended dynamic range. I realized that spatial multiplexing of many DNA binding protein-reporters by localizing to different spots in the cell nucleus and distinguished by combinatorial addressing, where N address colors provide 2^N addresses (example, 3 colors is 2^3 = 8 combinations). Multiplexing ...


The Hudson’S Bay Company Brigades Of 1832-33 And The Malaria Epidemic In California, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2013

The Hudson’S Bay Company Brigades Of 1832-33 And The Malaria Epidemic In California, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

The ecological and cultural impacts of the Hudson’s Bay Company fur brigades to California were long term and important, but the expedition of 1832-33 caused a catastrophe by introducing the intermittent fever. The “intermittent fever” led to mortality rates from 50-90 percent or more, and it is likely more than 30,000 people died from the fever in the affected areas of California.


West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark Jan 2013

West Nile Virus West Nile Virus Infection In American Robins: New Insights On Dose Response., Larry Clark

Larry Clark

West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment ...


An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd Dec 2012

An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic problems of our time. Desertification describes circumstances of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from the climatic variation and human activities. The fundamental goal of this thesis was to assess the effects of desertification in Yobe State, Nigeria. The present threat of desertification in the sahel has reached an alarming stage where crops cultivation and animal rearing/grazing are no more productive, soil has lost its nutrient/fertility, various infrastructure had given way because of windstorm from the neighbouring Niger Republic and sand dunes had taken ...


Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa Dec 2012

Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This research work looked in the used of Remote Sensing to improve Agricultural production in Kutigi, Niger State. The aim of the study is to use remote sensing to improve rice farming activities in Kutigi, Niger State. It is very important to identify such methods to improve Agricultural production because experts are always interested in new researches and findings to better the standard of living in any environment. In view of this, Remotely-sensed data could be used or employed to elevate most of these agricultural problems in Kutigi through the following objectives: Using Landsat imagery to assess the present landuse ...


Molecular Surveillance Of Low Pathogenic Avianinfluenza Viruses In Wild Birds Across The United States:Inferences From The Hemagglutinin Gene, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci Van Dalen, Alan B. Franklin, Theodore D. Anderson, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis Dec 2012

Molecular Surveillance Of Low Pathogenic Avianinfluenza Viruses In Wild Birds Across The United States:Inferences From The Hemagglutinin Gene, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci Van Dalen, Alan B. Franklin, Theodore D. Anderson, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis

Alan B Franklin

A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for ...


Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara Oct 2012

Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Halloween 2012 makes trick or treating more visual and interactive than in past years.

the download is a ZIP file containing three files.

Print out the (unnumbered) image on as large and nice printer paper as possible - I used glossy 44" wide here in Miami (University of Miami, MillerSchool of Medicine, Calder Library, Biomedical Communications dept - I also made another print on "fabric", also 44" wide to take with me to an HHMI Janelia Farm conference on 'turning images into knowledge' that ends on Oct 31 - might stay up for a second conference, "GFP..." that start Nov 4).

The other ...


Variations In Climatic Parameters And Food Crop Yields: Implications On Food Security In Benue State, Nigeria., Emmanuel Adamgbe, Fanan Ujoh Oct 2012

Variations In Climatic Parameters And Food Crop Yields: Implications On Food Security In Benue State, Nigeria., Emmanuel Adamgbe, Fanan Ujoh

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Agricultural production in Nigeria like in other developing countries is highly vulnerable to variations in climatic parameters which may have inverse or direct effect on the performance of food crops. This paper examines the patterns and trends of the variations in the climatic parameters and the implications of such variations on efficient yield rates of some food crops in Benue State using data on climatic variables (rainfall, temperature, sunshine) and the yield of some crops per hectare for 25 years (1986-2010). Data on the climatic variables were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency, AirForce Base, Makurdi while the data on ...


Regulation Of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity By A Litaf-Like Transcription Factor In The Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae, Ryan C. Smith, Abraham G. Eappen, Andrea J. Radtke, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena Oct 2012

Regulation Of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity By A Litaf-Like Transcription Factor In The Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae, Ryan C. Smith, Abraham G. Eappen, Andrea J. Radtke, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Ryan C. Smith

The mosquito is the obligate vector for malaria transmission. To complete its development within the mosquito, the malaria parasite Plasmodium must overcome the protective action of the mosquito innate immune system. Here we report on the involvement of the Anopheles gambiae orthologue of a conserved component of the vertebrate immune system, LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF), and its role in mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity. An. gambiae LITAF-like 3 (LL3) expression is up-regulated in response to midgut invasion by both rodent and human malaria parasites. Silencing of LL3 expression greatly increases parasite survival, indicating that LL3 is part of an anti-Plasmodium defense ...


Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara Sep 2012

Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20120831Fri-20120904Tue Cosmic Ray Particles by CCD imaging.zip contains image files in support of a Microscopy Today article - please see

http://www.microscopy-today.com/


Differentiating Entamoeba Histolytica, Entamoeba Dispar And Entamoeba Moshkovskii Using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) In Rural Communities In Malaysia, Rohela Mahmud Sep 2012

Differentiating Entamoeba Histolytica, Entamoeba Dispar And Entamoeba Moshkovskii Using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) In Rural Communities In Malaysia, Rohela Mahmud

Rohela Mahmud

Background: In this study, a total of 426 human faecal samples were examined for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii infection via a combination of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Entamoeba species. Methods: Faecal sample were collected from 426 participants in five rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia. The faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique followed by iodine staining and examined via microscopy for the presence of Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples for Entamoeba species cysts were further ...


Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara Aug 2012

Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Cosmic ray particles image series acquired using a Hamamatsu ORCA-II ERG scientific grade CCD camera, cooled to -60 C. Each image is a consecutive 600 second (10 minute) exposure time with no light to the camera.

While processing the data, I discoverd that the background changed around planes 25 and 227 (see Excel file and jpeg screenshots), so I also processed only planes 025-227 (203 planes total, 2030 minutes, 33.83 hours). the CCD industry "rule of thumb" for a "typical" CCD sensor (i.e. 1/3" CCD) is that one cosmic ray particle strikes a sensor approximately every 30 ...


Dynamics Of Land Use/Land Cover Changes And Its Implication On Food Security In Anyigba, North Central, Nigeria, Tokula E. Arome, Sunday P. Ejaro (Phd) May 2012

Dynamics Of Land Use/Land Cover Changes And Its Implication On Food Security In Anyigba, North Central, Nigeria, Tokula E. Arome, Sunday P. Ejaro (Phd)

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This study assessed land use/land cover changes and its effect on Agricultural land in Anyigba. The objectives were to identify and delineate different land use / land cover categories, assess the rate of change that occurred and examine the impact of land use/land cover change on food security using satellite remote sensing data collected at three different years (1987 Land sat TM, 2001 Land Sat TM and 2011 Land Sat ETM). The study utilized GIS software such as Idrisi Andes academic and ArcGIS 9.3. The study area covers approximately 31.8km2, and four major land use/cover classes ...


Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara Mar 2012

Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

George McNamara (now at University of Miami) report for Hua Yu and Richard Jove, City of Hope National Medical Center, on optical density dynamic range of several flatbed scanners.


Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

T7-1 is the designation for the LMRG Nanoscopy session at ABRF in Orlando, FL, on March 20, 2012. The PDF file here is a draft of my presentation.

May not be very helpful since (1) would probably help to know what is in my head and each slide will [hopefully] prompt me to say, and (2) 10 minute talk so I am going to push the "next slide" button after saying very little.

__________________

Publisher statement:

The T7-1 Introduction to Nanoscopy Nano Talk is copyrighted (c) George McNamara, 2012. Except for (1) screenshots from research articles (which are copyrighted by ...


Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

The Internet is enabling greater access to spectral imaging publications, spectral graphs, and data than that was available a generation ago. The spectral imaging systems discussed in this issue of Cytometry work because reagent and hardware spectra are reproducible, reusable, and provide input to spectral unmixing and spectral components recognition algorithms. These spectra need to be readily available in order to determine what to purchase, how to use it, and what the output means. We refer to several commercially sponsored and academic spectral web sites and discuss our spectral graphing and data sites. Sites include fluorescent dye graph servers from ...


Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Feature Extraction presentation and movies in a ZIP file from a presentation I gave at ISAC 2011 in Baltomore, Md.

Feature extraction is one phrase for image analysis.


Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Please see

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

for my series of MetaMorph MetaMatters articles in volume 2, numbers 3 through 6, on the Rogers PMN Panorama data set.

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

Brief summary (for more, see the Word doc)


Epidemiological And Genetic Data Supporting The Transmission Of Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Among Human And Domestic Animals, Rohela Mahmud Feb 2012

Epidemiological And Genetic Data Supporting The Transmission Of Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Among Human And Domestic Animals, Rohela Mahmud

Rohela Mahmud

Background: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals ...


Socio-Economic Effects Of Demolishing Squatter Settlements And Illegal Structures In Abuja Metropolis, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, Ishaku Iy Mallo Phd, Victor G. Obasanya Jan 2012

Socio-Economic Effects Of Demolishing Squatter Settlements And Illegal Structures In Abuja Metropolis, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, Ishaku Iy Mallo Phd, Victor G. Obasanya

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Abuja the Federal Capital Territory and study area is located between latitudes 8o25’ and 9o25’ North of the Equator and longitudes 6o45’ and 7o45’ East of the Greenwich Meridian. The study was carried out in Abuja Phase 1, and it is aimed at highlighting various socioeconomic effects of demolition of illegal structures and informal or squatter settlements on the people within the study area. Data was collected through reconnaissance survey, personal interviews with respondents, and a well laid out questionnaire. The results indicate that the demolition exercise embarked upon by the authorities in the Federal Capital Territory was a response ...