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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Constructos Teóricos En Economía Común Informática, Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos Aug 2015

Constructos Teóricos En Economía Común Informática, Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos

Lopez-Pablos, Rodrigo

Repasando elementos de economía comunitaria, solidaría y de la información, se construyen abstracciones teóricas fundamentales en una proto-explicación del rol de la información y el tiempo en la explicación del hecho económico digital y convencional. Infoagregadamente, se sitúa a la emisión informacional como expresión ontológica micro y macroinformática individual y colectiva del ser: el aseguramiento de la infodiversidad civilizatoria generacional; luego, se argumenta sobre la falacia filosófica computacional cognoscitiva detrás de una presunción teórica conceptual equivocada en el estudio y aplicación de lógicas artificiales: su potencial real para la generación de conocimiento híbrido y la creación de conocimiento sin precedentes ...


Can Peers Improve Agricultural Revenue?, Tisorn Songsermsawas, Kathy Baylis, Ashwini Chhatre, Hope Michelson Jan 2015

Can Peers Improve Agricultural Revenue?, Tisorn Songsermsawas, Kathy Baylis, Ashwini Chhatre, Hope Michelson

Kathy Baylis

Crop revenues vary greatly among farmers and the source of that variation is not fully understood. Using a household survey from India, we estimate peer effects on cash crop revenue. Results show that 60% of farmers' revenue can be explained by peers. Peer effects in input expenditure and land allocation cannot fully explain the variation in revenue, implying peers may also associate with management, negotiation and marketing strategies. Although caste-based networks are important, their effect is substantially smaller than that of self-reported peers. Peer effects are strongest for agricultural peers and in the cultivation of a new crop.


Brain Activity Follow Up Of Stock Market Financial Variables, Armando F. Rocha, João Vieito, Fábio T. Rocha Jan 2013

Brain Activity Follow Up Of Stock Market Financial Variables, Armando F. Rocha, João Vieito, Fábio T. Rocha

Armando F Rocha

Efficiency Market hypothesis assume that all investors reason in the same way to make their financial decisions. In contrast, Neurosciences have provided strong evidences that cognitive diversity is the hallmark of human intelligence. Neurofinances has shown that volunteers learned different profitable financial decision-making strategies depending on the kind of market they begun to trade. Here, we decide to further explore this hypothesis by studying a possible correlation between brain activity and the financial variables in a stock market game and to test if this correlation differ between experimental groups that trade in different market conditions. Present results show that volunteers ...


Site Assessment For Environmental Restoration, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2013

Site Assessment For Environmental Restoration, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Restoring degraded desert ecosystems is challenging but it can be done. The first key step is understanding the site history and understanding the disturbance and current site conditions. With this information the appropriate steps can be taken to improve the site ecosystem function and structure.


Environmental Impacts Of Stover Removal In The Corn Belt, Alicia English, Wallace E. Tyner, Juan Sesmero, Phillip Owens, David J. Muth Jr. Aug 2012

Environmental Impacts Of Stover Removal In The Corn Belt, Alicia English, Wallace E. Tyner, Juan Sesmero, Phillip Owens, David J. Muth Jr.

David J. Muth

When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into a simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs.


Economic Benefits Analysis Of Mining Industries In Png And Solomon Islands, Deogratias Harorimana Sr Apr 2012

Economic Benefits Analysis Of Mining Industries In Png And Solomon Islands, Deogratias Harorimana Sr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

This paper discusses mining and mineral operations in the two countries Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands with regards to its contribution to the overall Gross domestic Product and the economic development of each country.

Our finding shows that mining is an excellent contributor to economic growth and development as in the case of Papua New Guinea.Tax revenue from PNG Mining industries contributions to the PNG fiscal basket remains strong and growing steadily. The mining and minerals tax revenue remains an important contributor to the government fiscal budget over the last 10 years. This has been a strong contributor ...


Review Of Solomon Islands’ Policies And Programs To Promote Private Sector Development And Small Business, Deogratias Harorimana Sr Apr 2012

Review Of Solomon Islands’ Policies And Programs To Promote Private Sector Development And Small Business, Deogratias Harorimana Sr

Dr Deogratias Harorimana

Solomon Islands is a nation with vast resources with huge potential to excel economically if proper business atmosphere is provided for both private sector development and small and medium enterprises entrepreneurship. Conducive policies that, not only, a mere statement but is broken down to workable strategies with quantitative expected outcome with a strong mentoring mechanism is very important. Previous governments have continuously ignored the importance of having small business policies until lately when NCRA government came up with a set of policies that strategically addresses the significance of small and medium businesses. However, notwithstanding foreign investment is very important in ...


Wick Irrigation, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2012

Wick Irrigation, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Wick irrigation offers the potential for very low cost, robust microirrigation in difficult environments. Wick irrigation was first used in India in combination with buried clay pot irrigation. It has proven itself in the most severe desert conditions.


Straw Bale Building, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2012

Straw Bale Building, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Straw bale building offers many advantages, high insulation value, thermal mass of interior plaster, resistance to fire, and low embodied resource cost. Super-insulation becomes possible at affordable prices with straw bales. Used with great success for both residential and commercial building projects.


True Cost Accounting For A Post-Autistic Economy, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2012

True Cost Accounting For A Post-Autistic Economy, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

True cost accounting attempts to include the full cost of products and services in economic consideration. This brings what are often categorized as "external costs" into pricing. The failure to include these social and environmental costs has led to many of our worst crises -- from global climate change to ill health and resource depletion.


Super Efficient Irrigation With Buried Clay Pots, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2012

Super Efficient Irrigation With Buried Clay Pots, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Buried clay pot irrigation was first described in an agricultural extension bulletin in China more than 2000 years ago. The clay pot provides demand responsive irrigation at very high efficiency. Clay pot irrigation can be 5-10 times more efficient than conventional irrigation. It is being used more widely in Asia, Africa, Latin American and the US.


L’Essor Et Le Déclin De L’Occident: Une Perspective Géographique (The Rise And Fall Of The West: A Geographical Perspective), Nicole Andréa Mathys, Jean-Marie Grether, Claude Lutzelschwab Jan 2012

L’Essor Et Le Déclin De L’Occident: Une Perspective Géographique (The Rise And Fall Of The West: A Geographical Perspective), Nicole Andréa Mathys, Jean-Marie Grether, Claude Lutzelschwab

Nicole Andréa Mathys

This paper proposes a new representation of the worldwide distribution of human population and economic activity over two millennia. Combining the Maddison and the G-Econ databases, it tracks the evolution of the world’s demographic and economic centers of gravity during the 1-2010 period. The distributional and temporal patterns that emerge are clear and contrasted, with a stable East- Asian predominance during the first eighteen centuries, followed by a boomerang-like westward shift during the last two centuries. New turning points are identified, suggesting that the reversal of the Western shift occurred as early as the 1920s in demographic terms and ...


The Evolution Of Cooperation: How Patience Matters, Atin Basu Choudhary, Raja Mazumder, Vahan Simoyan Jan 2012

The Evolution Of Cooperation: How Patience Matters, Atin Basu Choudhary, Raja Mazumder, Vahan Simoyan

Atin Basu Choudhary

The evolution of cooperation has been the focus of much attention from evolutionary game theorists. Of course, conventional game theorists often cite the Folk Theorem to suggest that cooperation is very likely as long as people are patient. However, experimental and real world evidence of the Folk Theorem has been sparse. We investigate whether cooperation can evolve endogenously in a population where people have different patience levels. We motivate our model by asking the following question: why don’t biologists cooperate with each other by contributing to biological databases? We apply the Folk theorem from conventional game theory and assume ...


Rebound In Us Productive Sectors, Harry D. Saunders Jun 2011

Rebound In Us Productive Sectors, Harry D. Saunders

Harry D. Saunders

This presentation describes rebound measurements in the US economy, the dominance of "embedded energy" (production-side energy use), and the economic costs of polices to mitigate rebound effects.


An Income-Based Analysis Of Historical Us Energy Consumption, Harry D. Saunders Apr 2011

An Income-Based Analysis Of Historical Us Energy Consumption, Harry D. Saunders

Harry D. Saunders

This paper introduces a new decomposition of energy consumption to reveal the effects of consumer income levels on energy use. It concludes that the great bulk of energy consumption in the US is embedded in goods and services purchased by consumers and that this component of energy demand is growing more rapidly than direct use of energy by households owing to the preferences of high-income consumers. Significantly, this embedded component of energy demand has historically experienced large rebound magnitudes. The analysis also concludes that energy consumption is driven by more than just income level, with the lowest-income consumers using more ...


Buried Clay Pot Irrigation, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2011

Buried Clay Pot Irrigation, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Buried clay pot irrigation was first described in Chinese texts from more than 2000 years ago. It uses a porous clay pot to provide demand responsive irrigation. Efficiency is often 3-10 times conventional surface irrigation.


Passive Solar Design, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2011

Passive Solar Design, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Passive solar architecture can provide heating, cooling, ventilation and daylighting by using the sun and microclimate resources. Building energy consumption can be cut 80-90% at no increase in building cost by using integrated design principles.


Science For The Environment: Examining The Allocation Of The Burden Of Uncertainty, Elisa Vecchione Jan 2011

Science For The Environment: Examining The Allocation Of The Burden Of Uncertainty, Elisa Vecchione

Elisa Vecchione

The aim of this paper is to review the basic literature on scientific uncertainty in its statistical paradigm in order to provide enlightenment on one pivotal facet of the precautionary principle, i.e. the allocation of the burden of proof to demonstrate that an activity is not harmful to the environment. The purpose is not to explain a new theory of statistical inference, but to show how regulatory policymaking that is properly informed by scientific expertise and designed to avoid one type of error, may actually make other errors more likely and thus expose the public to danger. This problem ...


The Survival Of The Conformist: Social Pressure And Renewable Resource Management, Alessandro Tavoni Jan 2011

The Survival Of The Conformist: Social Pressure And Renewable Resource Management, Alessandro Tavoni

Alessandro Tavoni

This paper examines the role of other-regarding behavior as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of cooperation in resource use under variable social and environmental conditions. By coupling resource stock dynamics with social dynamics concerning compliance to a social norm prescribing non-excessive resource extraction in a common 10 pool resource, we show that when reputational considerations matter and a sufficient level of social stigma affects the violators of a norm, sustainable outcomes are achieved. We find large parameter regions where norm-observing and norm-violating types coexist, and analyze to what extent such coexistence depends on the environment.


Alternative "More Efficient" Irrigation Systems, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2010

Alternative "More Efficient" Irrigation Systems, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Many traditional irrigation systems work well for ecological restoration projects. These demand responsive systems are very water efficient and robust and have proved themselves in the most extreme desert conditions.


Energy Abundance, Trade And Industry Location, Nicole Andréa Mathys, Reyer Gerlagh Jan 2010

Energy Abundance, Trade And Industry Location, Nicole Andréa Mathys, Reyer Gerlagh

Nicole Andréa Mathys

We study the effect of countries’ energy abundance on trade and sector activity, conditional on sector’s energy intensity, using an unbalanced panel with 14 high-income countries from Europe, America and Asia, 10 broad sectors, and years 1970-1997. We find that (i) countries with large energy endowments have low energy prices, and are thus energy abundant both on micro and macro level. (ii) Energy abundant countries have a high level of energy embodied in exports relative to imports. (iii) Energy intensive sectors export from and (iv) have higher economic activity in energy abundant countries. (v) The trade and location effects ...


Incorporating Fairness Motives Into The Impulse Balance Equilibrium And Quantal Response Equilibrium Concepts: An Application To 2x2 Games, Alessandro Tavoni Jun 2009

Incorporating Fairness Motives Into The Impulse Balance Equilibrium And Quantal Response Equilibrium Concepts: An Application To 2x2 Games, Alessandro Tavoni

Alessandro Tavoni

Substantial evidence has accumulated in recent empirical works on the limited ability of the Nash equilibrium to rationalize observed behavior in many classes of games played by experimental subjects. This realization has led to several attempts aimed at finding tractable equilibrium concepts which perform better empirically; one such example is the impulse balance equilibrium (Selten, Chmura, 2008), which introduces a psychological reference point to which players compare the available payoff allocations. This paper is concerned with advancing two new, empirically sound, concepts: equity-driven impulse balance equilibrium (EIBE) and equity-driven quantal response equilibrium (EQRE): both introduce a distributive reference point to ...


How Fast Is The World's Center Of Co2 Emissions Moving Eastwards?, Nicole Andréa Mathys, Grether Jean-Marie Jan 2009

How Fast Is The World's Center Of Co2 Emissions Moving Eastwards?, Nicole Andréa Mathys, Grether Jean-Marie

Nicole Andréa Mathys

Borrowing from physics the concept of center of mass and applying it to the distribution of CO2 anthropogenic sources provided by the EDGAR data base, we can draw on the Earth’s surface the trajectory of the world’s pollution center of gravity over the 1970-2005 period. It is strongly heading to the East, and more so than GDP, which suggests that Asian production is getting more CO2 intensive than Western production.


Climate Change And Freshwater Resources, Noah D. Hall, Bret B. Stuntz, Robert H. Abrams Jan 2008

Climate Change And Freshwater Resources, Noah D. Hall, Bret B. Stuntz, Robert H. Abrams

Noah D Hall

The Earth’s climate is warming. This is the unequivocal conclusion of climate scientists. Despite the complexities of climatology, certain consistent trends emerge with implications for water availability: as the world gets warmer, it will experience increased regional variability in precipitation, with more frequent heavy precipitation events and more susceptibility to drought. These simple facts will have a profound impact on freshwater resources throughout the United States, as the warmer climate will reduce available water supplies and increase water demand. Unfortunately, current water law and policy are not up to the new challenges of climate change and resulting pressures on ...


Risks, Farmers’ Suicides And Agrarian Crisis In India: Is There A Way Out?, Srijit Mishra Jan 2008

Risks, Farmers’ Suicides And Agrarian Crisis In India: Is There A Way Out?, Srijit Mishra

Srijit Mishra

Poor returns to cultivation and absence of non-farm opportunities are indicative of the larger socio-economic malaise in rural India. This is accentuated by the multiple risks that the farmer faces – yield, price, input, technology and credit among others. The increasing incidence of farmers’ suicides is symptomatic of a larger crisis, which is much more widespread. Risk mitigation strategies should go beyond credit. Long term strategies requires more stable income from agriculture, and more importantly, from non-farm sources. Private credit and input markets need to be regulated. A challenge for the technological and financial gurus is to provide innovative products that ...


When Fairness Bends Rationality: Ernst Fehr Meets John Nash, Alessandro Tavoni Jan 2008

When Fairness Bends Rationality: Ernst Fehr Meets John Nash, Alessandro Tavoni

Alessandro Tavoni

No abstract provided.


Resilience In Ecology And Belief, Ram Ranjan Aug 2007

Resilience In Ecology And Belief, Ram Ranjan

Ram Ranjan

TThis paper explores the crucial linkage between societal risk perception and the survival of threatened ecosystems exhibiting non-linear stock dynamics. Perception of risk over specie’s importance and over its survival chances may be subject to resilience and therefore may differ from actual risks. Whereas, ecosystems stand a better chance of survival if they aren’t stressed beyond their resilience thresholds. When an ecosystem’s sustainability and the subjective perception of risks of their loss are both influenced by the stock of a common natural resource, several resource management outcomes are possible, not all of which may ensure the sustainability ...


Water Walls: An Effective Option For High Performance Buildings, David A. Bainbridge Jul 2007

Water Walls: An Effective Option For High Performance Buildings, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Water wall thermal mass has been proven over the last 40 years on a wide range of residential and commercial projects in temperate and cold climates. It provides better thermal comfort and more efficient energy transfer at reasonable cost.


Achieving Economic And Ecological Resilience Through Natural Resource Management, Ram Ranjan Jul 2007

Achieving Economic And Ecological Resilience Through Natural Resource Management, Ram Ranjan

Ram Ranjan

Historically, the subsistence based lifestyles of small scale economies (SSEs) have avoided pushing the stock of their natural resources beyond thresholds where their resilience could be lost. However, rising frequencies of natural disasters coupled with a growing outside influence from the developed economies are increasingly putting pressure on the economic and natural resources of these societies. This paper explores the nature and role of inter-linkages between ecological and economic resilience in SSEs towards maintaining long term sustainability in the face of these external influences. It is shown that initial conditions associated with the stock of natural and physical capital could ...


True Cost Accounting For A Post-Autistic Economy, David A. Bainbridge Jan 2007

True Cost Accounting For A Post-Autistic Economy, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

True cost accounting includes all environmental and social costs. If these are neglected the market fails. The critical link between ecosystem and humanity and the price of goods has been ignored at our peril.