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Articles 1 - 30 of 1616

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Stream Assessment On The Impact Of Agricultural Activity In The Dry River, Va, Heston Anderson, Nate Bickford Oct 2019

Stream Assessment On The Impact Of Agricultural Activity In The Dry River, Va, Heston Anderson, Nate Bickford

Virginia Journal of Science

Stream Bioassessments using macroinvertebrate population dynamics is a technique that determines water quality in natural aquatic environments based on the taxa found at the site. The aim of this study is to determine if agricultural activity in Rockingham County, VA has an impact on water quality in Dry River. Stream quality was evaluated by sampling and identifying macroinvertebrate taxa at various sites above and below disturbances. Each individual was ranked from 1-10 based on pollution tolerance or intolerance using the Biological Monitoring Working Party Index. The results in this study indicate that agricultural activity does impact water quality in Dry ...


The Diversity And Distribution Of Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) Along An Outdoor – Indoor Habitat Gradient: Preliminary Findings From Piedmont Virginia, William Kish, Sujan Henkanaththegedara Oct 2019

The Diversity And Distribution Of Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) Along An Outdoor – Indoor Habitat Gradient: Preliminary Findings From Piedmont Virginia, William Kish, Sujan Henkanaththegedara

Virginia Journal of Science

Although the United States supports a considerable diversity of spiders, some aspects of spider habitat use and niche specialization are poorly documented. Specifically, little attention has been given to explore how urban development affects the diversity and abundance of arthropods. We sampled spiders along an outdoor – indoor habitat gradient at Longwood University to understand the impact of urbanization on species diversity and abundance. We found 50 taxa of spiders belonging to 43 genera and 16 families. Overall, the most abundant spider family across three sampling sites was Araneidae (orb-weavers; 18.2%) followed by Lycosidae (wolf spiders; 14.8%), Salticidae (jumping ...


Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee Jul 2019

Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, membrane potential Δψ was given as the electric potential difference across the membrane. However, its physical origin for membrane potential Δψ was not well explained. Using the Lee proton electrostatic localization model with a newly formulated equation for protonic motive force (pmf) that takes electrostatically localized protons into account, membrane potential has now been better understood as the voltage difference contributed by the localized surface charge density ([H-+L] + nΣ i=1 [M(i+)L]) at the liquid-membrane interface as in an electrostatically localized protons/cations-membrane-anions capacitor. That is, the origin of membrane potential ...


Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne Jul 2019

Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to measure the effects of an acute pre-competition high-carbohydrate (HCHO) meal versus a mixed-macronutrient (MM) meal on physiology, perceptual responses, and performance in 15 division I female collegiate soccer players. Being there are conjectural advantages to pre-exercise meals higher in fiber, fat, and protein, this study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and perceptual effects of pre-competition MM meals. This study used a randomized, investigator-blinded, crossover design involving two dietary interventions – HCHO and MM meals – that were consumed four hours prior to two separate intra-squad soccer scrimmages. Assessments included running metrics via global positioning ...


The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller Jul 2019

The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TR) are an immunosuppressive subset of CD4+ T cells that maintain homeostasis of the immune system. They are sustained by the interaction between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules present on antigen presenting dendritic cells and the T Cell Receptor (TCR) expressed on TR cells that is specific for the MHC loaded with an antigenic peptide. Here, we show that in addition to MHC/TCR interaction, Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression by dendritic cells is required to maintain the TR cell population. CD11c+ dendritic cells represent a major subset of antigen presenting cells. Using flow cytometry ...


Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel Jul 2019

Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are known to produce a variety of toxins that negatively impact both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. One putative neurotoxic compound is the non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), which has epidemiological linkages to the development of several human neurological diseases. Three cyanobacterial species thought to produce BMAA —Microcystis aeruginosa, Synechococcus bacillaris, and Nostoc sp. —were grown in nutrient replete cultures to examine its synthesis and cellular distribution over a growth cycle. Production of BMAA was also examined in nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) deplete cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa. In addition, natural assemblages of phytoplankton dominated by cyanobacteria were collected from two ...


Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner Jul 2019

Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

In the eastern Bering Sea, Thysanoessa raschii are the most abundant krill species and a keystone trophic member that serve as both an important grazer and link to upper level consumers. In this system krill experience large annual variation in food resources, especially during ice advance and retreat; multiple lipid classes are used to temper the effects of those fluctuations, as well as to fuel reproduction and growth. Two shipboard feeding experiments that occurred during late spring and early summer of 2010, respectively, monitored the lipid retention in adult T. raschii and examined the fluctuation of specific lipid biomarkers under ...


Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali Jul 2019

Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In epithelial tissues, epithelial cells adhere to each other as well as to the underlying extra-cellular matrix (ECM). E-cadherin-based intercellular junctions play an important role in tissue integrity. These junctions experience cell-generated mechanical forces via apparent adaptor proteins such as beta (β) catenin, alpha (α) catenin and vinculin. Abnormalities in these junctions may result in skin related diseases and cancers. Here, I devised methods to determine the endogenous intercellular force within cell pairs as well as in large epithelial islands. I further ascertained the factors that affect the level of inter-cellular tension.

Experiments with pairs of epithelial cells exogenously expressing ...


Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo Jul 2019

Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo

Virginia Journal of Science

The recent focus on the importance of native plants and their pollinators has highlighted the critical role of local species in their natural environment. As urban encroachment, climate change, and invasive species continues to threaten native habitats, it is increasingly important to promote the use of local green spaces as refugia for native plants and their pollinators. The aim of this project, therefore, was to identify and assess the visitation frequency of insect pollinators associated with an urban setting within the Piedmont region of Virginia, and compare their association with native versus closely-related but non-native summer-flowering plants. Several modes of ...


Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier Jun 2019

Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond bipolar pulse cancellation, a recently discovered Phenomenon, is modulation of the effects of a unipolar electric pulse exposure by a second pulse of opposite polarity. This attenuation of biological response by reversal of the electric field direction has been reported with pulse durations from 60 ns to 900 ns for a wide range of endpoints, and it is not observed with conventional electroporation pulses of much longer duration (> 100 mu s) where pulses are additive regardless of polarity. The most plausible proposed mechanisms involve the field-driven migration of ions to and from the membrane interface (accelerated membrane discharge). Here ...


Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee Jun 2019

Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a natural process for an organism to transfer genetic material to another organism that is a completely different species, for example, from a blue-green alga to a non-photosynthetic bacterium. The phenomenon of HGT is not only of an interest to the science of molecular genetics and biology, but also to the biosafety issue of genetic engineering. The novel protocol reported here for the first time teaches how to measure HGT from a genetically engineered (GE) blue-green alga (gene donor) to wild-type E. coli (recipient). This novel protocol can be used to measure HGT frequency for ...


Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson Apr 2019

Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the study of the toxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and their ions on the development of zebrafish embryos, aiming to understand unique biological effects of NPs and ions, and design new in vivo assays to characterize the toxicity of these metal NPs and metal ions. Currently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of biological effects of nanomaterials are partially understood. Some studies assume that the toxic effects of NPs can be attributed to the release of their ions. We investigate the effects of silver NPs (Ag NPs) and silver ions (Ag+ ions) on the embryonic development of zebrafish ...


Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson Apr 2019

Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of implementing two Postural Restoration exercises and relating principles on deadlifts using a hexagonal barbell. Specifically, we aimed to examine the effects of the intervention on muscle activation and the location of the ground reaction force (GRF) center of pressure. Sixteen subjects (age 18-35 yrs.; male (n=14); female (n=2)), with at least 1 year of deadlifting experience, were randomly assigned into a control and intervention group (both n=8). Both groups performed two sets of three repetitions of deadlifts at 50% and at 80% of their estimated one ...


The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano Apr 2019

The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the systemic neuromechanical implications in individuals who have had an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) compared to healthy controls. The specific aims addressed were to: 1) examine differences in inter-limb coordination during walking at different speeds, 2) examine differences in trunk, neck and head acceleration during gait, and 3) investigate whether the reaction time responses assessed during stepping are negatively affected by ACLR.

The findings of study 1 revealed that maximal coordination stability was achieved when walking at the person’s preferred gait speed. However, individuals with a previous ACLR exhibited reduced coordination stability ...


Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro Apr 2019

Cryptic Herbivorous Invertebrates Restructure The Composition Of Degraded Coral Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Florida, Usa, Angelo Jason Spadaro

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Coral reefs have been on a trajectory of decline for nearly a century due to a variety of factors that have contributed to the shift in these communities away from dominance by reef-building corals, with commensurate changes on community composition and function. Florida’s reefs are a compelling example of a degraded system that has undergone a phase shift, and thus offered an excellent model system for my study of the effects of grazing by cryptic herbivores on community composition and their potential restoration value. I had four major objectives: (1) determine the suitability of Maguimithrax spinosissimus for manipulating grazing ...


Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank Apr 2019

Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are human illness transmitted by an arthropod vector. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that VBD has a huge impact worldwide that is responsible for affecting a billion people and causes 700,000 deaths annually. In recent years, there has been a continuous increase in the incidences of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme diseases and human anaplasmosis as reported by Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Very few reliable VBD control strategies have emerged till now. Transmission-blocking vaccines can provide effective management of VBDs but requires identification and characterization of novel vector-pathogen conserved molecules that play a significant ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers Apr 2019

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori Jan 2019

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Vitellogenin Receptor As A Target For Tick Control: A Mini-Review, Robert D. Mitchell Iii, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Adalberto A. Pérez De León Jan 2019

Vitellogenin Receptor As A Target For Tick Control: A Mini-Review, Robert D. Mitchell Iii, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Adalberto A. Pérez De León

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

While much effort has been put into understanding vitellogenesis in insects and other organisms, much less is known of this process in ticks. There are several steps that facilitate yolk formation in developing oocytes of which the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is a key component. The tick VgR binds vitellogenin (Vg) circulating in the hemolymph to initiate receptor-mediated endocytosis and its transformation into vitellin (Vn). The conversion of Vg into Vn, the final form of the yolk protein, occurs inside oocytes of the female tick ovary. Vn is critical to tick embryos since it serves as the nutritional source for their ...


A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2019

A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The normal mammary microenvironment can suppress tumorigenesis and redirect cancer cells to adopt a normal mammary epithelial cell fate in vivo. Understanding of this phenomenon offers great promise for novel treatment and detection strategies in cancer, but current model systems make mechanistic insights into the process difficult. We have recently described a low-cost bioprinting platform designed to be accessible for basic cell biology laboratories. Here we report the use of this system for the study of tumorigenesis and microenvironmental redirection of breast cancer cells. We show our bioprinter significantly increases tumoroid formation in 3D collagen gels and allows for precise ...


Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn Jan 2019

Modeling The Seasonal Cycle Of Iron And Carbon Fluxes In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica, P. St-Laurent, P. L. Yager, R. M. Sherrell, H. Oliver, M. S. Dinniman, S. E. Stammerjohn

CCPO Publications

The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) is distinguished by having the highest net primary production per unit area in the coastal Antarctic. Recent studies have related this high productivity to the presence of fast-melting ice shelves, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study we describe the first numerical model of the ASP to represent explicitly the ocean-ice interactions, nitrogen and iron cycles, and the coastal circulation at high resolution. The study focuses on the seasonal cycle of iron and carbon, and the results are broadly consistent with field observations collected during the summer of 2010–2011. The ...


Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2019

Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The harmful effects of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) infection are reflected by severe neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in neonates and other complications associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. The transmission dynamics of ZIKV in or between neurons, or within the developing brains of the foetuses are not fully understood. Using primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, we show that ZIKV uses exosomes as mediators of viral transmission between neurons. Cryo-electron microscopy showed heterogeneous population of neuronal exosomes with a size range of 30-200 nm. Increased production of exosomes from neuronal cells was noted upon ZIKV infection. Neuronal exosomes contained both ...


Diversity Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbionts Of Chamaecrista Fasciculata (Partridge Pea) Across Variable Soils, Hanna E. Dorman, Lisa E. Wallace Jan 2019

Diversity Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbionts Of Chamaecrista Fasciculata (Partridge Pea) Across Variable Soils, Hanna E. Dorman, Lisa E. Wallace

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

We evaluated whether geographic distance and soil characteristics influence genetic structure of nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts associated with the host plant Chamaecrista fasciculata (Partridge Pea). We tested phylogeographic clustering and associations between genetic distance, geographic distance, and soil variables using sequences of 2 bacterial genes and soil chemistry across 23 sites in Mississippi. We identified rhizobia isolated from Partridge Pea as Bradyrhizobium. We detected significant genetic structure at a regional level, and determined that rhizobia within each region were more phylogenetically related than expected. Significant correlation between genetic distance and distances based on soil chemistry suggests environmental influences on rhizobia diversity ...


Clonally Expanded Alpha-Chain T-Cell Receptor (Tcr) Transcripts Are Present In Aneurysmal Lesions Of Patients With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (Aaa), Song Lu, John V. White, Raquel I. Judy, Lisa L. Merritt, Wan Lu Lin, Xiaoying Zhang, Charalambos Solomides, Ifeyinwa Nwaneshiudu, John Gaughan, Dimitri S. Monos, Emilia L. Oleszak, Chris D. Platsoucas Jan 2019

Clonally Expanded Alpha-Chain T-Cell Receptor (Tcr) Transcripts Are Present In Aneurysmal Lesions Of Patients With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (Aaa), Song Lu, John V. White, Raquel I. Judy, Lisa L. Merritt, Wan Lu Lin, Xiaoying Zhang, Charalambos Solomides, Ifeyinwa Nwaneshiudu, John Gaughan, Dimitri S. Monos, Emilia L. Oleszak, Chris D. Platsoucas

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening immunological disease responsible for 1 to 2% of all deaths in 65 year old or older individuals. Although mononuclear cell infiltrates have been demonstrated in AAA lesions and autoimmunity may be responsible for the initiation and account for the propagation of the disease, the information available about the pathogenesis of AAA is limited. To examine whether AAA lesions from patients with AAA contain clonally expanded α-chain TCR transcripts, we amplified by the non-palindromic adaptor-PCR (NPA-PCR)/Vα-specific PCR and/or the Vα-specific PCR these α-chain TCR transcripts. The amplified transcripts were cloned and sequenced ...


Seasonal Spatial Segregation In Blue Sharks (Prionace Glauca) By Sex And Size Class In The Northeast Pacific Ocean, Sara M. Maxwell, Kylie L. Scales, Steven Bograd, Dana K. Briscoe, Heidi Dewar, Elliott L. Hazen, Rebecca L. Lewison, Heather Welch, Larry B. Crowder Jan 2019

Seasonal Spatial Segregation In Blue Sharks (Prionace Glauca) By Sex And Size Class In The Northeast Pacific Ocean, Sara M. Maxwell, Kylie L. Scales, Steven Bograd, Dana K. Briscoe, Heidi Dewar, Elliott L. Hazen, Rebecca L. Lewison, Heather Welch, Larry B. Crowder

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Aim: Animal tracking can provide unique insights into the ecology and conservation of marine species, such as the partitioning of habitat, including differences between life history stages or sexes, and can inform fisheries stock assessments, bycatch reduction and spatial management such as dynamic management.

Location: Northeast Pacific Ocean.

Methods: We used satellite tracking data from 47 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the Northeast Pacific to determine movements and home range along the west coast of North America, and sex–size class (immature females, mature males) specific habitat preferences using boosted regression trees. Using a suite of static and dynamic environmental ...


Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina Jan 2019

Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

(First Paragraph) Marine turtles have been the subject of research over many decades, inspired by their unique life history and necessitated by their declining populations from a suite of human impacts including direct harvest, bycatch in marine fisheries, pollution, and climate change. Despite this, much about marine turtle biology has remained a mystery (Godley et al., 2008; Rees et al., 2016; Wildermann et al., 2018), but the rate of scientific discovery is increasing rapidly. As research techniques and conservation practices expand, the marine turtle research community has kept abreast of these developments and their application to marine turtles. In this ...


Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen For Sjtpl And Sjc23 Schistosome Vaccines, Increases Efficacy In Water Buffalo In A Field Trial In China, Akram A. Da'dara, Changlin Li, Xinling Yu, Mao Zheng, Jie Zhou, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Yue-Sheng Li, Donald A. Ham Jan 2019

Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen For Sjtpl And Sjc23 Schistosome Vaccines, Increases Efficacy In Water Buffalo In A Field Trial In China, Akram A. Da'dara, Changlin Li, Xinling Yu, Mao Zheng, Jie Zhou, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Yue-Sheng Li, Donald A. Ham

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis remains a serious zoonotic disease in China and the Philippines. Water buffalo and cattle account for the majority of transmission. Vaccination of water buffalo is considered a key strategy to reduce disease prevalence. Previously, we showed that vaccination of water buffalo with SjC23 or SjCTPI plasmid DNA vaccines, induced 50% efficacy to challenge infection. Here, we evaluated several parameters to determine if we can develop a two dose vaccine that maintains the efficacy of the three dose vaccine. We performed four trials evaluating: (1) lab produced vs. GLP grade vaccines, (2) varying the time between prime and boost, (3 ...


Does Helping-At-The-Nest Help? The Case Of The Acorn Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Sahas Barve Jan 2019

Does Helping-At-The-Nest Help? The Case Of The Acorn Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Sahas Barve

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cooperative breeding groups often involve "helpers-at-the-nest"; indeed, such behavior typically defines this intriguing breeding system. In few cases, however, has it been demonstrated that feeding nestlings by helpers, rather than some other behavior associated with helpers' presence, leads to greater reproductive success. One prediction of the hypothesis that feeding behavior per se is responsible for the fitness benefits conferred by helpers is that there should be close congruence between the patterns of helping-at-the-nest and the fitness effects of helpers. Here we look for such a relationship in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in order to begin to identify ...


Mapping Status And Conservation Of Global At-Risk Marine Biodiversity, Casey C. O'Hara, Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez, Gina M. Ralph, Benjamin S. Halpern Jan 2019

Mapping Status And Conservation Of Global At-Risk Marine Biodiversity, Casey C. O'Hara, Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez, Gina M. Ralph, Benjamin S. Halpern

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

To conserve marine biodiversity, we must first understand the spatial distribution and status of at‐risk biodiversity. We combined range maps and conservation status for 5,291 marine species to map the global distribution of extinction risk of marine biodiversity. We find that for 83% of the ocean, >25% of assessed species are considered threatened, and 15% of the ocean shows >50% of assessed species threatened when weighting for range‐limited species. By comparing mean extinction risk of marine biodiversity to no‐take marine reserve placement, we identify regions where reserves preferentially afford proactive protection (i.e., preserving low‐risk ...


Patterns Of Diatom Diversity Correlate With Dissolved Trace Metal Concentrations And Longitudinal Position In The Notheast Pacific Coastal Offshore Transition Zone, P. Dreux Chappell, E. Virginia Armbrust, Katherine A. Barbeau, Randelle M. Bundy, Jagruti Vedamati, Bethany D. Jenkins Jan 2019

Patterns Of Diatom Diversity Correlate With Dissolved Trace Metal Concentrations And Longitudinal Position In The Notheast Pacific Coastal Offshore Transition Zone, P. Dreux Chappell, E. Virginia Armbrust, Katherine A. Barbeau, Randelle M. Bundy, Jagruti Vedamati, Bethany D. Jenkins

OEAS Faculty Publications

Diatoms are important primary producers in the northeast Pacific Ocean, with their productivity closely linked to pulses of trace elements in the western high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the oceanographic time series transect 'Line P.' Recently, the coastal-HNLC transition zone of the Line P transect was identified as a hotspot of phytoplankton productivity, potentially controlled by a combination of trace element and macronutrient concentrations. Here we describe diatom community composition in the eastern Line P transect, including the coastal- HNLC transition zone, with a method using high-throughput sequencing of diatom 18S gene amplicons. We identified significant correlations between ...