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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Crowdsourcing Change: An Analysis Of Twitter Discourse On Food Waste And Reduction Strategies, Annie R. Specht, Emily B. Buck May 2019

Crowdsourcing Change: An Analysis Of Twitter Discourse On Food Waste And Reduction Strategies, Annie R. Specht, Emily B. Buck

Journal of Applied Communications

Food waste has emerged as a major issue in the United States as the nation collectively sends more than 133 billion pounds of food to its landfills every year. In September 2015, the USDA and EPA announced an initiative to cut U.S. food waste in half by 2030. Between 2015 and 2016, nearly 100,000 posts about food waste have been published on Twitter, a microblogging platform that has been a hub of “slacktivism” since its inception in 2006. Using a conceptual framework of social cognitive theory, online activism, and crowdsourcing, we analyzed food waste conversation participants’ demographics, online ...


Compensation For Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (Ssbs) To The Diet In Healthy College-Aged Participants, Gina Reyes Apr 2019

Compensation For Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (Ssbs) To The Diet In Healthy College-Aged Participants, Gina Reyes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Compensation for Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) to the Diet in Healthy College-aged Participants

Gina Reyes, Olivet Martinez, Trevor Steele, Sara Rosenkranz

Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics & Health

College of Human Ecology

Background:Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and other obesity-related diseases. Research evidence has been inconsistent with regard to the effects of increased SSB consumption on metabolic risk factors, potentially due to compensatory dietary-intake behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to determine whether participants compensated for the addition of two servings of SSBs per day ...


Construction Of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus For Oncolyitc Therapy, Marlene L. Campos Guerrero Apr 2019

Construction Of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus For Oncolyitc Therapy, Marlene L. Campos Guerrero

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Homologous recombination is a mechanism conducted to exchange nucleotides between two similar sequences, which allows researchers to knock out and add genetic sequences of their interest in vaccinia virus (VACV). In this study, a Western Reserve VACV strain with inserted genes encoding Red Florescence Protein (RFP) and Green Florescence Protein (GFP), will be targeted and replaced with the Thymidine Kinase gene, J2R as well as C11 gene, respectively. This will set the foundation for continual removal of genes as well as additions to make a virus that will more effectively target cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. To conduct this ...


Standardization And Extrapolation Of Icing Stability, Shelf Life, And Safety Under Heat Abuse, Jaden Castinado Apr 2019

Standardization And Extrapolation Of Icing Stability, Shelf Life, And Safety Under Heat Abuse, Jaden Castinado

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Inquiries from Kansas citizens requested information on the stability, shelf life, and safety of icings on baked goods after prolonged exposure to heat without refrigeration, often common at county and state fairs. Methods include compiling a sample of icing recipes from Kansas citizens and entering into a database so that recipes could be sorted by factors such as sugar and/or dairy content. A central composite design will then be used to identify trials with variable amounts of sugar, dairy, and sugar with dairy. Current work is focused on creating a concise and navigable database with sufficient data to create ...


Effects Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages On Glycemic And Insulinemic Outcomes: A Randomized Control Trial, Olivet Martinez Apr 2019

Effects Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages On Glycemic And Insulinemic Outcomes: A Randomized Control Trial, Olivet Martinez

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with improved metabolic health in adults, but there is limited experimental research examining the consequences of adding SSBs to the diet, particularly in healthy individuals. The aim of the current study was to determine whether there were differences in glycemic and insulinemic outcomes following three weeks of added caffeine-free soda, 100% fruit juice, or water in healthy young adults. College-aged participants (21.2±2.8yrs; n=36) were randomized to one of three beverage conditions: water (W), caffeine-free soda (S), or 100% fruit juice (FJ). Participants completed baseline anthropometric measurements, and fasting and ...


Effects Of Caffeine On High-Intensity Functional Training Performance, Melitza Ramirez, Jesse Stein, Katie Heinrich Apr 2019

Effects Of Caffeine On High-Intensity Functional Training Performance, Melitza Ramirez, Jesse Stein, Katie Heinrich

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Caffeine demonstrates an ergogenic effect on endurance exercise performance, however, its efficacy during high-intensity functional training (HIFT) is unknown. HIFT is an exercise program that incorporates a variety of multi-joint movements performed at a relatively high-intensity and designed to improve parameters of general physical fitness and performance. Our study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine on HIFT performance. Thirteen HIFT-trained men (age = 28.5±6.6 years, HIFT experience = 4.1±3.0 years, body weight= 84.3±9.9 kg) were randomized in a double-blind, crossover design. After consent, participants completed two HIFT sessions separated by a 7-day ...


Fresh Start: A Program To Promote Physical Activity Among College Freshmen, Mia Taylor Apr 2019

Fresh Start: A Program To Promote Physical Activity Among College Freshmen, Mia Taylor

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Fresh Start: A Program to Promote Physical Activity Among College Freshmen

Mia Taylor, Emily Mailey, Eryn Coates, Jerica Garcia,

Hailey Hunter, Courtney Moore

Department of Kinesiology

College of Human Ecology

Physical activity levels tend to decline as students transition from high school to college, and freshmen college women have been a population of interest. It is possible providing unique physical activity information via text messages could support freshmen women in increasing their physical activity levels. Freshmen females (n=30) were recruited to participate in a 9-week program that involved wearing an ActivPal for 3 individual weeks (beginning, middle, and end ...


Peptide Conjugation Of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules, Baltazar Claro-Martinez Apr 2019

Peptide Conjugation Of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules, Baltazar Claro-Martinez

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

In recent years, nanocarrier cellular therapy has been a rapidly growing area for research in the treatment of malignant and infectious diseases – most notably cancer. Conventional cancer treatment has consisted of highly toxic, highly insoluble, untargeted delivery of drugs that kill both cancerous and healthy cells. Research in the Tomich lab consists of the synthesis of Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules (BAPCs), which are self-assembling peptide nanospheres composed of one or both of these branched peptide sequences: h5 and h9. These peptides possess similar molecular characteristics of phosphoglycerides but are synthesized chemically within the lab. Previous publications by the Tomich group ...


Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter Apr 2019

Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

While the effects of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be easily observed and have been studied closely, the mechanisms for their virulence habits have not. Several studies have suggested the mechanisms for plasmid transfer and conjugation, particularly concerning plasmid Ti (pTi), the TraR (TraR1) regulator, and the quorum sensing (QS) system associated with it. Very little is known, however, about the second plasmid (pAt) present within the bacteria nor its regulatory QS systems. To further understand these mechanics of plasmid conjugation, we have devised a series of experiments in order to find connections between the conjugation of both pTi and pAt and ...


Comparison Of Immunohistochemistry Methods For Visualization Of Middle Eastern Respiratory Viral Antigen, Elena Carlos Apr 2019

Comparison Of Immunohistochemistry Methods For Visualization Of Middle Eastern Respiratory Viral Antigen, Elena Carlos

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Although there have been less than 2,400 cases reported, the case fatality rate is 35%. Dromedary camels are the known host animal for the virus. However, they are difficult to manage experimental animals. In a recent study, alpacas proved to be a suitable experimental animal to further characterize MERS-CoV infection. Our work is part of a wider project focused on studying the efficacy of MERS-CoV antigen and RNA labeling in infected alpaca tissues, when these tissues are preserved in novel modular alcohol ...


Therapeutic Peptide Sequences And Gatekeepers Loaded With Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, Dursitu Hassen Apr 2019

Therapeutic Peptide Sequences And Gatekeepers Loaded With Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, Dursitu Hassen

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

The research community is developing and looking into new ways of effectively delivering anti-cancer treatment. According to National Cancer Institute over 1.5 million new cases of cancer are predicted in the United States, just alone in 2018. The major hurdles that have been identified by scientists are finding mechanisms that assist in decreasing the side effects of cancer treatment and to increase the effectiveness of the drug. In our lab, a highly toxic peptide sequence, SA-K6L9-AS is encapsulated in MSNs (mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and capped with a gatekeeper. The function of a gatekeeper is preventing ...


Characterization Of A Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin, Diana Najera Apr 2019

Characterization Of A Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin, Diana Najera

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Characterization of a Membrane-Bound Insect Transferrin

Diana G. Najera, Michelle E. Coca, Kayla E. Nutsch, and Maureen J. Gorman

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Kansas State University

Transferrins are extracellular proteins that bind iron. Vertebrate transferrins have well-characterized roles in iron transport and immunity, but the functions of transferrins in most other animals are poorly understood. The goals of this study are to identify the functions of transferrin-3 (Tsf3) from Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and to determine whether Tsf3 is conserved in other species of insects. Our experimental approach has been to predict important features of the protein, analyze ...


Pilot Studies Of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms In Insect Cells, Michelle Coca Apr 2019

Pilot Studies Of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms In Insect Cells, Michelle Coca

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Pilot Studies of Two Possible Iron Uptake Mechanisms in Insect Cells

Michelle E. Coca, Diana G. Najera, and Dr. Maureen J. Gorman

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics

College of Arts and Sciences

Iron plays an important role in energy metabolism and other essential physiological processes; however, because iron can also be toxic, its uptake by cells must be strictly regulated. In humans, there is a well-understood pathway of iron uptake and multiple poorly understood pathways. How iron is transported into insect cells is unknown. The goal of this study was to test two models of iron uptake by cultured ...


Examination Of Preference And Tolerance For Exercise Intensity And College Student Fitness, Blanca Delatorre Apr 2019

Examination Of Preference And Tolerance For Exercise Intensity And College Student Fitness, Blanca Delatorre

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Individuals who prefer and tolerate higher intensity exercise demonstrate higher fitness levels over time. PURPOSE: To examine relationships between Preference (P) and Tolerance (T) for exercise intensity and fitness before and after 8-week college activity courses. METHODS: Participants were students in 8-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT; n=54, 54% male, age= 22±3 years) or traditional weight training (TWT; n=41, 71% male,age= 23±4 years). During the first and last class sessions, participants completed the 16-item Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire [score range=8 (low)-40 (high)]. After a standardized warm-up, they completed ...


The Role Of Iron Fortification And Supplementation In Addressing Iron Deficiency, Kevin Loya Apr 2019

The Role Of Iron Fortification And Supplementation In Addressing Iron Deficiency, Kevin Loya

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Affecting an estimated 2 billion people, iron deficiency continues to be a leading risk factor causing disability and death worldwide. Iron deficiency is caused when the body fails to produce hemoglobin due to the lack of iron uptake. Ultimately, this can cause iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent type of anemia in the world. There are many different forms that can be supplemented to avoid iron deficiency anemia but determining the most effective form will help us understand future directions of iron fortification. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost ...


Boron Uptake In Salt Cedars Via Aquaporins, Alexcis Barnes Apr 2019

Boron Uptake In Salt Cedars Via Aquaporins, Alexcis Barnes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Salt Cedar (Tamarix) is a dicot plant highly tolerant to the chemical boron. This is interesting because for most plants boron is an essential yet toxic metalloid. Plants have a hard time excluding it. The goal of the project is to identify a potential protein sequence (order of amino acids forming a protein) for an aquaporin that allows the transport of boron, moving through a pore. In addition to selecting the sequences, a 3D model of the protein has been constructed to see how boron is entering the cells through the channels of these proteins. A dynamic model is being ...


Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett Apr 2019

Establishment Of 3-D Human Colorectal Cancer Spheroids, India Barnett

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Three-Dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an important role in cancer biology by providing a life-like microenvironment as a model for drug discovery and treatment. Hydrogels, like many other 3D scaffolds, demonstrate a unique property as matrices for 3D cell culture. The goal of this project is to establish a 3D cell culture for colorectal cancer and apply this 3D model to drug testing. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States with an early detection rate of 39%. Previously, 2D cell culture of human colorectal cancer cells, SW480, was used to determine the efficacy of ...


Evaluation Of Ancient Grains And Grain Free Dog Food On Nutrient Utilization And Stool Consistency In Dogs, Luis Lopez Apr 2019

Evaluation Of Ancient Grains And Grain Free Dog Food On Nutrient Utilization And Stool Consistency In Dogs, Luis Lopez

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

“Grain-free” and “ancient grain” claims have become popular in the pet food industry. However, there are no studies evaluating these types of diets. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of “grain-free” and “ancient grain” carbohydrate sources on nutrient utilization and stool consistency in dogs. Two dog diets were formulated to contain the same amount of carbohydrate sources: an ancient grain (AG) with spelt, millet, and sorghum, and a grain free (GF) with potato, pea, and tapioca starch. Experimental diets were fed to twelve Beagles housed in individual cages. This study was conducted as a completely ...


Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover Apr 2019

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Sex Differences In Exercise Recovery, Cristian Erives Apr 2019

Sex Differences In Exercise Recovery, Cristian Erives

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that recovery from peripheral fatigue measured by pre- and post-potentiated twitch forces following extreme intensity (80%) exercise is faster than following severe intensity exercise (40% MVC). Women have been shown to have predominately higher percentages of slow twitch muscle fibers compared to men. Purpose: To test the hypothesis that Qtw (potentiated twitch) following exercise is recovered faster in women in both exercise intensities. Methods: 6 subjects (3 men, 3 woman, age 24 ± 4 yrs, 74.5 ± 17.4 kg; 173 ± 5 cm) performed 2 intermittent isometric knee extension tests to exhaustion at 40% and ...


Characterizing Protein Aggregates In Drosophila Muscle Tissue, Marta Stetsiv Apr 2019

Characterizing Protein Aggregates In Drosophila Muscle Tissue, Marta Stetsiv

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

NUAK is a conserved protein kinase that can phosphorylate multiple target substrates within a cell. NUAK is expressed in numerous tissues, including skeletal muscle, and has known function in regulating cytoskeletal motors. Humans possess two copies of NUAK—NUAK1/ARK5 and NUAK2/SNARK. NUAK1-/-; NUAK2-/- double mutants are embryonic lethal in mice. However, mutation of a single Drosophila NUAK gene is viable throughout larval stages, allowing for the in vivo examination of genes that function with NUAK. NUAK mutants show muscle degeneration, partially caused by the inability to clear protein aggregates. Based upon our preliminary data from bioinformatics analysis and ...


Behavioral Paradigms For Studying Neural Circuits Of Social Behavior And 
Fear Conditioning In A Zebrafish Model Of Autism, Jared Newell Apr 2019

Behavioral Paradigms For Studying Neural Circuits Of Social Behavior And 
Fear Conditioning In A Zebrafish Model Of Autism, Jared Newell

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Zebrafish is an important genetically tractable vertebrate model system to study the development and function of brain circuits relevant to human affective disorders, like schizophrenia and fear and anxiety disorders. Our group uses zebrafish to study neural circuits and developmental factors underlying autism spectrum disorders. Patients with autisms show compromised social behavior, deficiencies in smell and taste, and elevated anxiety and stress responses. Many of these behavioral abnormalities have been correlated with dysfunctions of the amygdaloid complex, which is the regulatory core of the emotional brain in humans and other vertebrates. To study how mutations of autism genes such as ...


An Investigation Of Physical Activity At Boys And Girls Club, Jerica Garcia Apr 2019

An Investigation Of Physical Activity At Boys And Girls Club, Jerica Garcia

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

National statistics and trends show an increase in childhood obesity, and lack of physical activity (PA) among children may contribute to these trends. The overall purpose of this study was to observe and collect data on the PA of children grades K-6 attending two local Boys and Girls Club (BCG) after school programs. Both sites were observed for one week at baseline. Physical activity data were collected from the children objectively via accelerometers. The researchers observing the sites logged setting characteristics (minutes of active recreation time offered) and BGC staff behaviors (PA encouragement or discouragement). Baseline results showed children at ...


Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo Apr 2019

Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Agrobacterial Diversity and Competitive Interactions Within an Infected Sunflower

Veronica E. Mateo, Kansas State University

Faculty Advisor/Mentor: Thomas Platt, Ph.D., tgplatt@ksu.edu

Co-Author(s): Emireth Monarrez, Seward County Community College; Priscila Guzman, Kansas State University; Ashlee Herken, Kansas State University; Teresa Shippy, Kansas State University

Bacterial communities are highly diverse with each being distinct in composition. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soilborne plant pathogen. Some A. tumefaciens strains can cause crown gall disease, in which infected plants develop a tumor. This bacterium disrupts the host plant by genetically transforming plant cells thereby manipulating the plant’s physiology ...


A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald Apr 2019

A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Cells can migrate collectively in tightly or loosely-associated groups during tissue and organ formation, during embryonic development, in tumor metastases, and in wound healing. Drosophilaborder cellsserve as an excellent genetic model of collective cell migration inside a developing tissue. During ovarian development, 6-8 cells form the border cell cluster and migrate together as a cohesive group to reach the large oocyte. Previous experiments have shown that Nuclear inhibitor of Protein Serine Threonine Phosphatase 1 (NiPP1) causes border cells to separate into single cells, rather than stay in a group, and limits their ability to migrate. NiPP1 inhibits the ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno Apr 2019

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Comparing Strength Outcomes Of An 8 Week Hift Interventon Vs 8 Week Traditional Weight Training., Jason Sartor Apr 2019

Comparing Strength Outcomes Of An 8 Week Hift Interventon Vs 8 Week Traditional Weight Training., Jason Sartor

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

COMPARING STRENGTH OUTCOMES OF AN 8 WEEK HIFT INTERVENTON VS 8 WEEK TRADITIONAL WEIGHT TRAINING.

Jason Sartor1, Justin A. DeBlauw1, Brittany S. Hollerbach1 and Katie M. Heinrich1

1Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

High-intensity functional training (HIFT) temporally combines aerobic and resistance exercise at relative high intensity levels. Functional workouts include varied exercises that simulate movements of daily living to improve overall fitness. Traditional weight training (TWT) focuses on progressive sets and repetitions of resistance exercise performed both with free weights and machines. With comparison Data of these interventions’ individuals can obtain a better understanding of ...


Budgeting Basics For New Academic Chairpersons, N. Douglas Lees, David J. Malik, Jane R. Williams Mar 2019

Budgeting Basics For New Academic Chairpersons, N. Douglas Lees, David J. Malik, Jane R. Williams

Academic Chairpersons Conference Proceedings

The session is geared to new chairpersons who have little or no experience with budgets. Emphases will be placed on working with the dean to create fiscal flexibility and to incentivize budget expansion.


Evaluation Of Two Implants For Steers On Early-Intensively Grazed Tallgrass Native Range, J. K. Farney, M. E. Corrigan Feb 2019

Evaluation Of Two Implants For Steers On Early-Intensively Grazed Tallgrass Native Range, J. K. Farney, M. E. Corrigan

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: To evaluate the effect of two implants that have different lengths of effective use on stocker cattle gains within an intensive early double-stocked native tallgrass prairie grazing system.

Study Description: Stocker steers (n = 281) were implanted with Revalor-G (Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) or Synovex One Grass (Zoetis, Inc., Kalamazoo, MI) and grazed on tallgrass native range for 90 days during the summer. The steers were individually weighed, after an overnight shrink, on the day of implanting, at midpoint of grazing, and the end of the grazing period. Total gains and average daily gain were evaluated.

The Bottom Line ...


Consumers' Evaluations Of Genetically Modified Food Messages, Taylor K. Ruth, Joy N. Rumble Jan 2019

Consumers' Evaluations Of Genetically Modified Food Messages, Taylor K. Ruth, Joy N. Rumble

Journal of Applied Communications

Consumers are concerned about the risks related to genetically modified (GM) food, and there is a need for agricultural communicators and educators to address those concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore Florida residents’ latitudes of acceptance, rejection, and noncommitment toward GM food messages. The findings from this study can be used to guide communication and education campaigns for GM food. An online survey was distributed to a non-probability sample of 500 Florida residents to fulfill the purpose of the study. The messages that most aligned with the respondents’ views toward GM food discussed how potential risks related ...