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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Aug 2019

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Although machine learning methods have been used as an outcome prediction tool in many fields, their utilization in predicting incident outcome in occupational safety is relatively new. This study tests the performance of machine learning techniques in modeling and predicting occupational incidents severity with respect to accessible information of injured workers in agribusiness industries using workers’ compensation claims. More than 33,000 incidents within agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the United States for 2008–2016 were analyzed. The total cost of incidents was extracted and classified from workers’ compensation claims. Supervised machine learning algorithms for classification (support vector machines ...


Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Scallops (Pectinidae) are one of the most diverse families of bivalves and have been a model system in evolutionary biology. However, in order to understand phenotypic evolution, the Pectinidae needs to be placed in a deeper phylogenetic framework within the superfamily Pectinoidea. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny for 60 species from four of the five extant families within the Pectinoidea using a five gene dataset (12S, 16S, 18S, 28S rRNAs and histone H3). Our analyses give consistent support for the non-monophyly of the Propeamussiidae, with a subset of species as the sister group to the Pectinidae, the Propeamussiidae type species ...


Combinatorial Biosynthesis And The Basis For Substrate Promiscuity In Class I Diterpene Synthases, Meirong Jia, Sambit K. Mishra, Samuel Tufts, Robert L. Jernigan, Reuben J. Peters Jun 2019

Combinatorial Biosynthesis And The Basis For Substrate Promiscuity In Class I Diterpene Synthases, Meirong Jia, Sambit K. Mishra, Samuel Tufts, Robert L. Jernigan, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Terpene synthases are capable of mediating complex reactions, but fundamentally simply catalyze lysis of allylic diphosphate esters with subsequent deprotonation. Even with the initially generated tertiary carbocation this offers a variety of product outcomes, and deprotonation further can be preceded by the addition of water. This is particularly evident with labdane-related diterpenes (LRDs) where such lysis follows bicyclization catalyzed by class II diterpene cyclases (DTCs) that generates preceding structural variation. Previous investigation revealed that two diterpene synthases (DTSs), one bacterial and the other plant-derived, exhibit extreme substrate promiscuity, but yet still typically produce exo-ene or tertiary alcohol LRD derivatives ...


Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek Jun 2019

Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Purpose: To inform health behavior intervention design, we sought to quantify loneliness and its correlates, including social media use, among adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional research panel questionnaire. Setting: Responses were gathered from individuals in all 50 states surveyed via Internet from February 2018 to March 2018. Participants: A total of 20 096 US panel respondents aged 18þ. Measures: The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (theoretical score range ¼ 20-80) was administered along with demographic, structural, cognitive, and behavioral items. Analysis: After calibrating the sample to population norms, we conducted multivariable linear regression analysis ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.

Objective

Compare yield response of fungicide application timing across multiple fungicide classes and calculate the probability of ...


Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn Jun 2019

Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fresh air intake filtration is used on commercial swine breeding-gestation-farrowing farms to reduce the frequency of airborne infectious agents. For swine producers, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered the most economically challenging airborne pathogens. Reduced frequency of disease outbreaks has been attributed to retrofitting existing systems with filtration. Economic analysis of operating costs includes energy use, maintenance and replacement of filters. Filter replacement, the largest operational cost, is dependent on filter lifespan. However, limited data is available on filter lifespan and the rate of airflow reduction during the high dust-loading periods ...


A Critical Analysis Of Powell’S Results On The Interdivision Time Distribution, Vincent Quedeville, Jérôme Morchain, Philippe Villedieu, Rodney O. Fox Jun 2019

A Critical Analysis Of Powell’S Results On The Interdivision Time Distribution, Vincent Quedeville, Jérôme Morchain, Philippe Villedieu, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The cell-age and interdivision-time probability density functions (PDFs) have been extensively investigated since the 1940s due to their fundamental role in cell growth. The pioneering work of Powell established the first relationship between the interdivision-time and cell-age PDFs. In the literature, two definitions for the interdivision-time PDF have been proposed. One stands for the age-at-rupture PDF and is experimentally observable, whereas the other is the probability density that a cell divides at a certain age and is unobservable. From Powell’s results pertaining to the unobservable interdivision-time PDF, Painter and Marr derived an inequality that is true but is incorrectly ...


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro May 2019

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


The Avian Archives Of Iowa And Frederic Leopold, Anita Kay, Erin Anderson May 2019

The Avian Archives Of Iowa And Frederic Leopold, Anita Kay, Erin Anderson

Reference and Instruction Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The Avian Archives of Iowa Online (avIAn) is a web portal for Iowa ornithological primary sources dating from 1895-2012. The portal’s eight archival collections provide robust documentation of over one hundred years of bird study in Iowa and encompass some of the Midwest’s most influential conservationists. This presentation and database demonstration will share documents and photographs from the Frederic Leopold collection. We will learn about Leopold’s life-long study of Wood Duck populations in Iowa while simultaneously exploring the content and functionality of this new and publicly accessible digital resource. In addition, we will present background information on ...


Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger May 2019

Rational Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management: An Application To The Gom Commercial Reef Fish Fishery, Quinn Weninger

Economics Working Papers

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) seeks to integrate the full complexity of real-world marine ecosystems into the design of fisheries management policies and regulations. EBFM is practiced currently with the help of complex ecosystem process models that track and simulate numerous ecosystem elements/organisms across space and time. For simplicity and to maintain tractability, the fishing sector component of process models maintain restrictive assumptions for harvesting technologies, fishing behavior, regulations, and fishing sector response to changing stock conditions. Predictions of fishing sector-ecosystem interaction obtained under these assumptions can grossly misinform EBFM policy design. An alternative rational fishing model is presented and ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel May 2019

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini May 2019

Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

This study exploits a novel dataset containing more than 89,000 farm-level surveys over a 17-year period to investigate how neonicotinoid seed treatments in maize, now ubiquitous, have affected the use of other insecticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most used class of insecticides in the world, but they are controversial because of their high toxicity to honeybees. In the United States, maize production accounts for the majority of neonicotinoid use, mostly as seed treatments. We find that neonicotinoids substituted for other major insecticides: plots planted with neonicotinoid- treated seeds were 52% and 47% less likely to be treated with a ...


Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese May 2019

Patterns Of Monarch Site Occupancy And Dynamics In Iowa, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Rachel A. Vanausdall, Kevin T. Murphy, Karen E. Kinkead, Paul W. Frese

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is the focus of large-scale habitat restoration efforts because of recent population declines. From 2006-2017 we monitored monarchs at >400 sites throughout Iowa to link site occupancy and colonization/extinction dynamics to the presence of milkweed, site-specific habitat metrics, and landscape context at differing spatial scales. We used a robust design occupancy model in Program MARK and a hierarchical model selection approach to estimate site occupancy, extinction and colonization probabilities, and detection probability. Occupancy models revealed that monarchs responded differently to landscape features, environmental conditions, and local habitat conditions for site occupancy, extinction, and colonization ...


Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir May 2019

Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nitrate (NO3−N) export from row crop agricultural systems with subsurface tile drainage continues to be a major water quality concern. Woodchip bioreactors are an effective edge-of-field practice designed to remove NO3−N from tile drainage. The NO3−N removal rate of woodchip bioreactors can be impacted by several factors, including hydraulic residence time(HRT). This study examined the impact of three HRTs, 2 h, 8 h, and 16 h, on NO3−N removal in a set of nine pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors in Central Iowa. NO3−N concentration reduction from the inlet to the outlet was significantly different for all ...


Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild May 2019

Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total ...


Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy May 2019

Design Implications For Surveys To Monitor Monarch Butterfly Population Trends, Karen E. Kinkead, Tyler M. Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Paul W. Frese, Kevin T. Murphy

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The Iowa Multiple Species Inventory and Monitoring (MSIM) Program includes a protocol for monitoring butterfly density on conservation lands using transects. Most data are collected from sites chosen randomly; additional sites are chosen non-randomly for other reasons. We analyzed a 12-year dataset for monarchs to address how density (per 50 m2 transect section) responded to site selection (random vs. non-random), latitude, and measures of the amount of milkweed and canopy cover on survey transects. Between 2006 and 2017, we conducted 2,328 surveys on 420 sites and detected a total of 2,757 adult monarchs. Monarch densities peaked in 2010 ...


Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster Apr 2019

Family Legacy Of Diabetes-Related Behaviors: An Exploration Of The Experiences Of African American Parents And Adult Children, Brianna Routh, Tera R. Hurt, Donna M. Winham, Lorraine Lanningham-Foster

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

African Americans are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and this risk may be influenced by familial experiences and cultural norms throughout the life course. This led us to conduct this study of 20 African American families with strong histories of T2DM to explore familial complexities that prevent or help manage diabetic symptoms. Experiences were analyzed inductively through individual family profiles created using content-analytic summaries. When profiles were further analyzed for emerging and theoretically informed data patterns, two themes emerged: (a) family interactions characterized by T2DM-related actions and communication patterns, and (b) intergenerational patterns of openness ...


The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek Apr 2019

The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Objectives

Alternatively-cured meats often contain lower amounts of nitrate and/or nitrite in the formulation, which can lead to decreased color stability and reduced shelf life. Alternatively-cured meats rely on natural sources of nitrate and/or nitrite which are primarily derived from vegetable sources, but these natural sources can result in vegetablelike flavors; thus, processors often decrease the relative ingoing level of nitrite and/or nitrate. This reduction can potentially lead to decreased color stability and negatively affect the product’s shelf life. Furthermore, consumer perception of natural sources of nitrite has led to consideration of other nitrite alternatives. The ...


Fuel Properties Of Torrefied Biomass From Pruning Of Oxytree, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Apr 2019

Fuel Properties Of Torrefied Biomass From Pruning Of Oxytree, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The very fast growing Oxytree (PaulowniaClonin Vitro 112) is marketed as a promising new energy crop. The tree has characteristically large leaves, thrives in warmer climates, and requires initial pruning for enhanced biomass production in later years. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of initial (first year) pruning via thermal treatment. Specifically, we used torrefaction (‘roasting’) to produce biochar with improved fuel properties. Here for the first time, we examined and summarized the fuel properties data of raw biomass of Oxytree pruning and biochars generated via torrefaction. The effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C), process time (20~60 min ...


The Effect Of Biochar Addition On The Biogas Production Kinetics From The Anaerobic Digestion Of Brewers’ Spent Grain, Marta Dudek, Kacper Świechowski, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Apr 2019

The Effect Of Biochar Addition On The Biogas Production Kinetics From The Anaerobic Digestion Of Brewers’ Spent Grain, Marta Dudek, Kacper Świechowski, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar (BC) addition is a novel and promising method for biogas yield increase. Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an abundant organic waste with a large potential for biogas production. In this research, for the first time, we test the feasibility of increasing biogas yield and rate from BSG digestion by adding BC, which was produced from BSG via torrefaction (low-temperature pyrolysis). Furthermore, we explore the digestion of BSG with the presence BCs produced from BSG via torrefaction (low-temperature pyrolysis). The proposed approach creates two alternative waste-to-energy and waste-to-carbon type utilization pathways for BSG: (1) digestion of BSG waste to ...


Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Apr 2019

Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO2, NO, O2) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The ...


Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter Apr 2019

Development And Application Of A Quantitative Bioassay To Evaluate Maize Silk Resistance To Corn Earworm Herbivory Among Progenies Derived From Peruvian Landrace Piura, Miriam D. Lopez, Tesia S. Dennison, Tina M. Paque, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Craig A. Abel, Nick Lauter

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Corn earworm (CEW), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major insect pest of corn (Zea mays spp. mays L.). CEW larvae feed on silks, kernels and cobs, causing substantial yield and quality losses both through herbivory and by vectoring pathogens. The long-term goal of this work is to elucidate the genetic and biochemical basis of a potentially novel CEW resistance source discovered in silk tissue of Piura 208, a Peruvian landrace of maize (PI 503849). We developed a quantitative CEW bioassay and tested it on four populations that contrast alleles from Piura 208 with those from GT119, a CEW-susceptible ...


Enhancing Apsim To Simulate Excessive Moisture Effects On Root Growth, Elnaz Ebrahimi-Mollabashi, Neil I. Huth, Dean P. Holzwoth, Raziel A. Ordonez, Jerry L. Hatfield, Isaiah Huber, Michael J. Castellano, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Apr 2019

Enhancing Apsim To Simulate Excessive Moisture Effects On Root Growth, Elnaz Ebrahimi-Mollabashi, Neil I. Huth, Dean P. Holzwoth, Raziel A. Ordonez, Jerry L. Hatfield, Isaiah Huber, Michael J. Castellano, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy Publications

Shallow water table (WT) influences crop growth and production in many major agricultural regions across the globe. We enhanced the APSIM-soybean model to accurately simulate root depth in fields with shallow water tables. We used data from a controlled experiment (Rhizotron facilities) that included root depth observations for nine WT treatments to develop and calibrate the new model. Analysis indicated that unconstrained root growth occurs until volumetric soil moisture approaches 0.03 mm/mm below saturation. Below that threshold, root growth linearly decreases to zero at saturation. Inclusion of this factor into the model increased accuracy of root depth simulations ...


Aptamers For Diagnostics With Applications For Infectious Diseases, Muslum Ilgu, Rezzan Fazlioglu, Meric Ozturk, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton Apr 2019

Aptamers For Diagnostics With Applications For Infectious Diseases, Muslum Ilgu, Rezzan Fazlioglu, Meric Ozturk, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Aptamers are in vitro selected oligonucleotides (DNA, RNA, oligos with modified nucleotides) that can have high affinity and specificity for a broad range of potential targets with high affinity and specificity. Here we focus on their applications as biosensors in the diagnostic field, although they can also be used as therapeutic agents. A small number of peptide aptamers have also been identified. In analytical settings, aptamers have the potential to extend the limit of current techniques as they offer many advantages over antibodies and can be used for real-time biomarker detection, cancer clinical testing, and detection of infectious microorganisms and ...


Utilization Of Reduced Haploid Vigor For Phenomic Discrimination Of Haploid And Diploid Maize Seedlings, Kimberly Vanous, Talukder Jubery, Ursula K. Frei, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Thomas Lubberstedt Apr 2019

Utilization Of Reduced Haploid Vigor For Phenomic Discrimination Of Haploid And Diploid Maize Seedlings, Kimberly Vanous, Talukder Jubery, Ursula K. Frei, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Thomas Lubberstedt

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Potential benefits of incorporating embryo culture (EC) into a doubled haploid (DH) program, including shortening the breeding cycle and increasing chromosome doubling rates, make the laborious and tedious task of excising embryos worth the effort. Difficulties arise during embryo selection considering the marker gene R1-nj, which is typically used in DH programs, is not expressed in early stages after pollination. Although transgenic approaches have been implemented to bypass this issue, there is so far no known non-transgenic method of selecting haploid embryos. The findings of this study reveal methods of selecting haploid embryos that allow the possibility of incorporating EC ...


Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell Apr 2019

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Influence Of Amino Acid Supplementations In Juvenile Yellow Perch Fed Plant Protein Combinations, Aaron J. Von Eschen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Influence Of Amino Acid Supplementations In Juvenile Yellow Perch Fed Plant Protein Combinations, Aaron J. Von Eschen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in combination with soy protein concentrate (SPC) with and without an essential amino acid (EAA) complex were assessed as protein alternatives in juvenile Yellow Perch Perca flavescens diets. Diets contained 5% FM, 40% SPC, and 20% or 40% DDGS each with or without EAA. No mortalities or health assessment differences were observed during the trial and all fish readily accepted the experimental diets. Diets supplemented with EAA produced greater weight gain, improved feed conversion, and apparent protein digestibility. Performance was consistently improved for fish fed diets containing amino acid supplements. Based on these results ...


Evaluation Of Snp Genotyping In Alpacas Using The Bovine Hd Genotyping Beadchip, Manuel More, Gustavo Gutierrez, Max Rothschild, Francesca Bertolini, F. Abel Ponce De Leon Apr 2019

Evaluation Of Snp Genotyping In Alpacas Using The Bovine Hd Genotyping Beadchip, Manuel More, Gustavo Gutierrez, Max Rothschild, Francesca Bertolini, F. Abel Ponce De Leon

Animal Science Publications

Alpacas are one of four South American Camelid species living in the highlands of the Andes. Production of alpaca fiber contributes to the economy of the region and the livelihood of many rural families. Fiber quantity and quality are important and in need of a modern breeding program based on genomic selection to accelerate genetic gain. To achieve this is necessary to discover enough molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular, to provide genome coverage and facilitate genome wide association studies to fiber production characteristics. The aim of this study was to discover alpaca SNPs by genotyping forty alpaca ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn Mar 2019

Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, for the first time, we present the evaluation of a semi-continuous pit manure recharge system on the mitigation of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from a swine finisher barn. The pit recharge system is practiced on many swine farms in the Republic of Korea, primarily for improving air quality in the barn. It consists of an integrated waste management system where the fraction of stored manure is pumped out (10× of the daily production of manure, 3× a day); solids are separated and composted, while the aerobically treated liquid fraction is then returned to the ...