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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer Jan 2019

Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5- 12 Years, Lamia Ayed Alotaibi Jan 2019

The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5- 12 Years, Lamia Ayed Alotaibi

Masters Theses

Epidemiological studies indicate that 12.5 million children and adolescents are considered obese (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Obesity is on the rise globally, and while it affects both children and adults, early measures can be taken to reduce the number of children who are obese, and therefore, come into adulthood at a higher risk for obesity-related diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. There are many studies in which programs are implemented and tested for effectiveness; therefore, a systematic review of these studies that examine which factors play into overall obesity prevention and health improvements ...


A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke Jan 2019

A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke

Masters Theses

Biological pretreatment of biomass is typically required for the production of liquid biofuels, which are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels. While traditional thermomechanical pretreatments are effective at helping to deconstruct lignocellulose, they are often expensive and tend to generate environmentally dangerous waste materials. An alternative to traditional pretreatment strategies is biological pretreatment, which has focused on lignocellulose-degrading organisms, such as white-rot fungi. While direct pretreatment of biomass with white-rot fungi has shown great promise, directly expressing functional white-rot fungi genes in plants (i.e. in planta expression) has the potential to be even more efficient because the biomass itself ...


Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha Jan 2019

Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha

Masters Theses

Mountains represent complex environment gradients which strongly affect local temperature regimes and rainfall. These changes in climate conditions drive a diversity of plant responses. As alpine environments are expected to change dramatically in response to climate change, understanding plant responses to environmental variation is critical in these environments. Although they are a critical component of alpine communities, the environmental responses of shrubs have been much less examined than trees, representing an important knowledge gap. Leaves, as the primary photosynthetic organs on plants, would be expected to respond strongly to local climate conditions. In this study, I documented how the leaf ...


Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi Jan 2019

Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi

Masters Theses

In recent times, medicinal plants have become the focus of scientists and research. However, many have used traditional medicine to take advantage of plant extracts to treat many diseases, especially neurological diseases. Various central nervous system receptors have been shown to associate with plant extracts influencing the pharmacology and in this manner conceivably assuming a role in human sickness and treatment. For instance, extracts from Cussonia paniculata Eckl. & Zeyh targeted several early nervous and mental disease, and Kalopanax pictus has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoidal arthritis, nerve pain and diabetes mellitus.

In the present study, we investigated ...


White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White Jan 2019

White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White

Masters Theses

White grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) is a digenetic trematode that uses a piscivorous bird, a pulmonate snail, and a centrarchid fish to complete its life cycle. To assess the impact of impoundment and sewage effluent on white grub infection parameters, infections in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were monitored in 3 reaches of the Sangamon River near Decatur, Illinois: Reach 1- free-flowing river upstream of Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, Reach 2- impounded flow below Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, and Reach 3- free-flowing river downstream of Sanitary District of Decatur, impacted by sewage effluent. Liver and kidney abundances ...


Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis Jan 2019

Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis

Masters Theses

Although plant invasions are of major conservation concern, understanding of the natural controls on invasion and their impacts is largely limited to static observational studies or artificially manipulated systems. Linking patterns of invasion with subsequent impacts in natural systems is necessary to fully assess invasion causes and consequences. Therefore, I employed a long-term approach to sequentially assess the controls on invasion and their subsequent impacts in a self-assembled system for the highly invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum. I modeled likely factors contributing to the probability of invasion and local invasion success of a natural invasion of M. vimineum in a ...


Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner Jan 2019

Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Members from a local Midwest adult fitness program (n = 5) who had been diagnosed T2DM participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 70 to 80 years with an average age of 74 years. Four of the participants were female and one participant was male. The questions included in this study were 1 .) in those with diagnosed T2DM, was a low overall HBM ...


Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl Jan 2019

Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl

Masters Theses

Soil microbes have profound impacts on plant growth and survival and can either promote or inhibit plant dominance. Exotic plants are often strongly invasive because they have escaped their natural enemies, potentially including antagonistic soil microbes. I examined how the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and a common native tree, Acer negundo, responded to soil microbial communities to determine the role of soil microbes in regulating invasion success. This was done by growing both species with microbes from invaded (L. maackii) and uninvaded (A. negundo) soils collected from three locations within a riparian forest. Seedlings were grown both in isolation (Experiment ...


Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr Jan 2019

Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr

Masters Theses

Aquatic systems are subjected to disturbances of various types, including natural and anthropogenic, or can deteriorate due to accumulating unfavorable conditions, including receding banks, decreasing riparian vegetation, and disrupted flow patterns. An analysis was done on a variety of streams in central Illinois that experienced one or multiple anthropogenic disturbances without remediation to determine the natural recovery dynamics of each system. A separate analysis was performed on a multi-site restored stream with a complex restoration project with a variety of restoration methods. This data were collected over at periods of time spanning from 5-15 years, including time prior to disturbance ...


Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan Jan 2019

Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan

Masters Theses

Mammalian development involves a complex system of regulatory signals and reactions resulting in highly differentiated cell types with specific structure and function. The liver is a major organ that has been studied extensively to understand underlying genetic processes responsible for specification, establishment and maintenance of tissue identity. Hepatoma and hepatoma variant cell lines have been used as models to understand genetic networks responsible for liver function. Whole genome microarray analysis of hepatocyte cell lines has revealed candidate genes that may serve as regulators or master regulators of liver specificity. In two previous studies in our lab, the role of candidate ...


Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel Jan 2019

Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel

Masters Theses

The globalization of society has led to the spread of the vectors, mosquitoes, and diseases. Each year millions of people are killed by diseases vectored by mosquitoes. For example, West Nile Virus alone killed over 2,000 people in North America in 2017; 8 of those deaths being in Illinois. Two prominent vectors of West Nile Virus are Culex pipiens and Culex restuans; which are difficult to differentiate based upon morphological features. In this study, mosquitoes collected from two Illinois counties, Coles County and Champaign County, were first identified based upon morphology and this identification was then compared to probe-based ...


Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng Jan 2019

Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng

Masters Theses

Gall making insects form a special feeding guild of phytophagous animals, and by manipulating host plant tissue differentiation, are able to avoid plant chemical defenses and thus have no need for counter defense mechanisms. Host plant selection is crucial to the evolution of these insects because successful gall formation is largely dependent on host plant ability to respond to stimuli. In Illinois and neighboring states, Antistrophus gall wasps associated with the rosin weed (S. integrifolium) and the cup plant (S. perfoliatum) are morphologically indistinguishable and thus have been treated as belonging to single species. However, the wasps from the host ...


2018 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity And Engagement, Eastern Illinois University Oct 2018

2018 Celebration Of Scholarship, Creativity And Engagement, Eastern Illinois University

Programs

Scholarship, creativity, innovation, and the many forms of collaborative engagement that shape faculty life and student learning are central to the mission of Eastern Illinois University. For that reason, our faculty, department chairs, college deans, the provost, and the entire campus community celebrate the achievements and outstanding contributions of our colleagues and students to their disciplines and professions every year.

And, as the following pages illustrate, faculty engaged in continuing scholarly and creative activities provide outstanding mentoring experiences for our undergraduate and graduate students.

In addition to recognizing faculty performances, shows, publications, grants and other professional efforts, the University will ...


When The Cure Kills—Cbd Limits Biodiversity Research, Zhiwei Liu, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Kamaljit Bawa, Peter Raven, Priyadarsanan Rajan Jun 2018

When The Cure Kills—Cbd Limits Biodiversity Research, Zhiwei Liu, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran Prathapan, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Kamaljit Bawa, Peter Raven, Priyadarsanan Rajan

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

The Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD) commits its 196 nation partiesto conserve biological diversity, useits components sustainably, and sharefairly and equitably the benefits fromthe utilization of genetic resources. Thelast of these objectives was further codifiedin the Convention’s Nagoya Protocol (NP),which came into effect in 2014. Althoughthese aspirations are laudable, the NP andresulting national ambitions on Access andBenefit Sharing (ABS) of genetic resourceshave generated several national regulatoryregimes fraught with unintended consequences(1). Anticipated benefits from thecommercial use of genetic resources, especiallythose that might flow to local or indigenouscommunities because of regulatedaccess to those resources, have largely beenexaggerated and not ...


The Role Of Red Leaf Coloration In Prey Capture For Pinguicula Planifolia, Jenna Annis, Janice Coons, Charles Helm, Brenda Molano-Flores Jan 2018

The Role Of Red Leaf Coloration In Prey Capture For Pinguicula Planifolia, Jenna Annis, Janice Coons, Charles Helm, Brenda Molano-Flores

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Anthocyanins in the leaves of carnivorous plants are suggested to play a role inprey capture. In this study, we investigated the role of red leaf coloration (an indicator of anthocyanins)on prey capture using Pinguicula planifolia (Chapman’s Butterwort). Overall,red leaves had less prey (i.e., Collembola) than green leaves, suggesting that red colorationdoes not enhance prey capture for Chapman’s Butterwort. However, the frequent presenceof Collembola on leaves suggests that this plant species could be relying on other cues toattract prey (e.g., olfactory cues).


An Efficient Protocol For Root Studies In The Common Sunflower Using Composite Plants, Tyler Parks Jan 2018

An Efficient Protocol For Root Studies In The Common Sunflower Using Composite Plants, Tyler Parks

Masters Theses

Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is one of the most important oilseed crop in the world. Oil from the seeds is prized for its' exceptional quality and flavor. Despite this, sunflowers have been forced onto marginal lands often on semi-arid and non-fertile soil, due to disease pressures and economics making it critical to produce more resilient lines and varieties to withstand these new stresses. The recent availability of the sunflower genome can allow genome-wide characterization of gene families. Stable transformation protocols, which can be used for characterization studies, have been developed for H. annuus using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they produce low efficiency ...


Effects Of Main-Stem Impoundments On Hydrology And Larval Fish Communities In Major Tributaries Of Two Large Midwestern Rivers, Jordan Pesik Jan 2018

Effects Of Main-Stem Impoundments On Hydrology And Larval Fish Communities In Major Tributaries Of Two Large Midwestern Rivers, Jordan Pesik

Masters Theses

Anthropogenic modifications, like impoundments, have altered natural environmental conditions in most lotic systems and impacted fish ecology in many ways. We examined the effect of large river impoundments on fish reproductive behavior by studying the larval fish communities in tributaries of the impounded Illinois and unimpounded Wabash Rivers. We hypothesized that larval fish communities would be similar between the geographically proximal systems, but temporal structuring would depend largely on flow regimes. Biweekly larval densities were greatest among all taxa in the Wabash system, though overall communities were similar between systems. Of the six tributaries, the four smallest rivers were most ...


Co-Product Potential Of Algae Biocake, Elizabeth J. Nixon Jan 2018

Co-Product Potential Of Algae Biocake, Elizabeth J. Nixon

Masters Theses

Society needs to find replacements for fossil fuels, which are finite resources that may be fully depleted within a few generations. While solar and wind have great potential as alternative energy sources, they are unlikely to completely replace all of the current fuel sources, particularly liquid fuels. Plant biomass has great potential for this market, and is already used in many forms for heat energy (e.g. direct combustion). However, the bulk density of important bioenergy crops, particularly grasses, is often low, which necessitates the use of binders in densification strategies. In the present study, waste algae biocake from a ...


Resolution Of The Nutritional Requirements And Metabolic Profile Of Clostridium Scindens Atcc 35704, A Major Bile Acid-Dehydroxylating Anaerobe In The Human Gut, Rachana Shrestha Jan 2018

Resolution Of The Nutritional Requirements And Metabolic Profile Of Clostridium Scindens Atcc 35704, A Major Bile Acid-Dehydroxylating Anaerobe In The Human Gut, Rachana Shrestha

Masters Theses

Bile acids (cholate and chenodeoxycholate) are synthesized from cholesterol in the human liver, and secreted in small intestine for food digestion. However, a portion of these primary bile acids is converted in the colon to toxic secondary bile acids, deoxycholate and lithocholate. Secondary bile acid formation is the result of 7α-dehydroxylating anaerobes, and one of the key players in this conversion is Clostridium scindens. Interestingly, little is known about the basic physiology and nutrition of C. scindens. Therefore, the goal of this research was to understand the nutritional requirement, and determine the 7α-dehydroxylation activity and end products from glucose fermentation ...


Reproductive Health And Morphometric Comparison Of Catostomid Species In Two Midwestern Rivers, Bethany Ellen Hoster Jan 2018

Reproductive Health And Morphometric Comparison Of Catostomid Species In Two Midwestern Rivers, Bethany Ellen Hoster

Masters Theses

Wastewater treatment effluent, agricultural runoff, and impoundments can alter the water quality and flow regime of rivers. Fishes around the world are increasingly exposed to estrogenic compounds due to the discharge of wastewater into rivers. Estrogenic compounds, such as those found in birth control pills and soybean byproducts, are endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. The Sanitary District of Decatur serves the municipal and industrial entities of Macon County, IL, and discharges its effluent into the Sangamon River, which includes byproducts of industrial soybean processing. I assessed impacts of treated wastewater on the health of fishes in the Sangamon River. Abnormal caudal ...


Bigheaded Carp Reproduction In Large River Tributaries With Evaluation Of Sampling Gear Performance, Daniel R. Roth Jan 2018

Bigheaded Carp Reproduction In Large River Tributaries With Evaluation Of Sampling Gear Performance, Daniel R. Roth

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Self-Recognition In The Competition Between Genets Of Solidago Altissima, Charles Jaques Jan 2018

The Effect Of Self-Recognition In The Competition Between Genets Of Solidago Altissima, Charles Jaques

Masters Theses

Competition is a major driving force in the abundance, distribution, and diversity within any biological system. Plants are more likely to suffer reductions in fitness as a consequence of competition, as they typically occur in dense communities. Individuals within these populations must respond to both inter- and intraspecific competition. Recent studies suggest that the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin may play an integral role in the success of individuals within different plant populations and communities. However, a less known interaction is that between individual clones within a genet as they grow, spread, and begin to interact with nearby rival ...


The Role Of Prrx1 And Snai2 As Master Regulators Of Fibroblast Identity, Huda A. Alzahrani Jan 2018

The Role Of Prrx1 And Snai2 As Master Regulators Of Fibroblast Identity, Huda A. Alzahrani

Masters Theses

Mammalian development involves a complex system of regulatory signals and reactions, leading to the creation of distinct tissues with specific structures and functions controlled by various gene expression profiles. Tissue-specific gene expression is by controlled specific combinations of transcription factors and cofactors that dictate cell differentiation via activation and repression of genes in mammalian cells.

Whole genome microarray analyses of fibroblasts have revealed candidate genes that may serve as master regulators of fibroblast identity, such as Prrx1 and Snai2, that activate downstream genes such as Bmp3, Twist, Shox2, Cfos, Slug, Sema3A, Spp1, and Col1a1. A previous study showed that Prrx1 ...


Medicinal Properties Of Cyperus Species (Sedge Family, Cyperaceae), Lata Maishaya Udari Jan 2018

Medicinal Properties Of Cyperus Species (Sedge Family, Cyperaceae), Lata Maishaya Udari

Masters Theses

The grasses that yield therapeutically important products are among the least studied in the Cyperaceae family. Herb-based medicine from ancient times have played a vital role in ailments of various disease and nowadays it has been a particular area of interest in medicine. Phytochemicals are inherent compounds derived from plants that are biologically active, non-nutritive chemicals that act as a defensive or prophylactic medicine in humans. Their extracts have proven to show inhibition properties against different microbes. Despite the prevalence of Cyperus species and their traditional use in medicine, the chemical components responsible for their attributes remain largely unknown. This ...


The Effects Of Two Different Sports Drinks On Rpe And Finishing Speed Of An Endurance Run In Highly Trained Distance Runners, Matthew J. Feldhake Jan 2018

The Effects Of Two Different Sports Drinks On Rpe And Finishing Speed Of An Endurance Run In Highly Trained Distance Runners, Matthew J. Feldhake

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a protein-containing sport drink with a traditional non-protein sport drink has on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and finishing speed of an half marathon. Of the possible factors that would support including protein in a sport drink the primary one was its inhibitory effect on serotonin release in the brain. This could help attenuate perceived exertion, thus allowing individuals to compete at a higher level for longer durations (Davis, Alderson, & Welsh, 2000).

This study was conducted using nine members of the Eastern Illinois University Men's Cross Country team ...


Impact Of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus X Giganteus) Cultivation On Midwestern Farmland Birds, Matthew Craffey Jan 2018

Impact Of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus X Giganteus) Cultivation On Midwestern Farmland Birds, Matthew Craffey

Masters Theses

Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) is a promising bioenergy feedstock, newly introduced to North America. However, the qualities that make Giant Miscanthus an attractive bioenergy feedstock may pose challenges to local wildlife. To assess the impacts of Giant Miscanthus on Midwestern farmland birds, I conducted point count and vegetation surveys at three sites in east-central Illinois where Giant Miscanthus was being cultivated. I used occupancy modeling to assess the relative influence of Giant Miscanthus on five species relative to other habitat and landscape characteristics. Dickcissel (Spiza Americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and Red-Winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) occupancy was positively associated ...