Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2012

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Acetaminophen is a common analgesic and antipyretic. Metabolism of acetaminophen and acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drug is distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body is reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Acetaminophen is usually safe and effective when taken as recommended, but consumption at higher levels may lead to liver damage. Additionally, other factors such as alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and malnutrition affect the maximum safe dose of acetaminophen.


The Long And Winding Road: Influences Of Intracellular Metabolite Diffusion On Cellular Organization And Metabolism In Skeletal Muscle, Stephen T. Kinsey, Kristin M. Hardy, Bruce R. Locke Jan 2007

The Long And Winding Road: Influences Of Intracellular Metabolite Diffusion On Cellular Organization And Metabolism In Skeletal Muscle, Stephen T. Kinsey, Kristin M. Hardy, Bruce R. Locke

Biological Sciences

A fundamental principle of physiology is that cells are small in order to minimize diffusion distances for O2 and intracellular metabolites. In skeletal muscle, it has long been recognized that aerobic fibers that are used for steady state locomotion tend to be smaller than anaerobic fibers that are used for burst movements. This tendency reflects the interaction between diffusion distances and aerobic ATP turnover rates, since maximal intracellular diffusion distances are ultimately limited by fiber size. The effect of diffusion distance on O2 flux in muscle has been the subject of quantitative analyses for a century, but the ...


A Reaction–Diffusion Analysis Of Energetics In Large Muscle Fibers Secondarily Evolved For Aerobic Locomotor Function, Kristin M. Hardy, Bruce R. Locke, Marilia Da Silva, Stephen T. Kinsey Jan 2006

A Reaction–Diffusion Analysis Of Energetics In Large Muscle Fibers Secondarily Evolved For Aerobic Locomotor Function, Kristin M. Hardy, Bruce R. Locke, Marilia Da Silva, Stephen T. Kinsey

Biological Sciences

The muscles that power swimming in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, grow hypertrophically, such that in juvenile crabs the cell diameters are


Does Intracellular Metabolite Diffusion Limit Post-Contractile Recovery In Burst Locomotor Muscle?, Stephen T. Kinsey, Pragyansri Pathi, Kristin M. Hardy, Amanda Jordan, Bruce R. Locke Jan 2005

Does Intracellular Metabolite Diffusion Limit Post-Contractile Recovery In Burst Locomotor Muscle?, Stephen T. Kinsey, Pragyansri Pathi, Kristin M. Hardy, Amanda Jordan, Bruce R. Locke

Biological Sciences

Post-metamorphic growth in the blue crab entails an increase in body mass that spans several orders of magnitude. The muscles that power burst swimming in these animals grow hypertrophically, such that small crabs have fiber diameters that are typical of most cells (600μm). Thus, as the animals grow, their muscle fibers cross and greatly exceed the surface area to volume ratio (SA:V) and intracellular diffusion distance threshold that is adhered to by most cells. Large fiber size should not impact burst contractile function, but post-contractile recovery may be limited by low SA:V and excessive intracellular diffusion distances. A ...