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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras Aug 2013

Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp. are six-rayed sea stars found along the rocky intertidal of the northeast Pacific Alaska to Santa Catalina Island, southern California. In central California, three clades of Leptasterias are found in separate or mixed populations, in diverse habitats that range from shallow pools of seagrass and algae to bare rock exposed to crashing waves. Initial field observations of two clades from different locations suggested that behavioral variation may relate to habitat differences among clades. To measure differences in activity, the righting response was timed at both field sites. As a result of behavioral variation observed in the field, more ...


Diurnal Rhythms Of Behavior And Brain Mrna Expression For Arginine Vasotocin, Isotocin, And Their Receptors In Wild Amargosa Pupfish (Cyprinodon Nevadensis Amargosae), Sean C. Lema, Lauren J. Wagstaff, Nina M. Gardner Jul 2010

Diurnal Rhythms Of Behavior And Brain Mrna Expression For Arginine Vasotocin, Isotocin, And Their Receptors In Wild Amargosa Pupfish (Cyprinodon Nevadensis Amargosae), Sean C. Lema, Lauren J. Wagstaff, Nina M. Gardner

Biological Sciences

Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) occupy remote desert habitats that vary widely in environmental conditions from day to night. In this study, die! patterns of behavior were documented for pupfish in their natural habitat, and examined relative to changes in the abundance of mRNAs encoding prepro-arginine vasotocin (pro-VT), prepro-isotocin (pro-IT), three distinct vasotocin receptors (V1a1, V1a2, and V2), and an isotocin receptor (ITR) in the brain. The behavior of wild pupfish varied diurnally, with frequent aggression from 12:00 to 15:00 h and courtship and spawning most common between 15:00 and 19:00h. Transcript abundance for pro-VT in ...


Identification Of Multiple Vasotocin Receptor Cdnas In Teleost Fish: Sequences, Phylogenetic Analysis, Sites Of Expression, And Regulation In The Hypothalamus And Gill In Response To Hyperosmotic Challenge, Sean C. Lema Jun 2010

Identification Of Multiple Vasotocin Receptor Cdnas In Teleost Fish: Sequences, Phylogenetic Analysis, Sites Of Expression, And Regulation In The Hypothalamus And Gill In Response To Hyperosmotic Challenge, Sean C. Lema

Biological Sciences

Vasopressin and its homolog vasotocin regulate hydromineral balance, stress responses, and social behaviors in vertebrates. In mammals, the functions of vasopressin are mediated via three classes of membrane-bound receptors: V1a-type, V1b-type and V2-type. To date, however, only a single class of vasotocin receptor has been identified in teleost fish. Here, cDNAs encoding three putative vasotocin receptors – two distinct V1a-type receptor paralogs (V1a1 and V1a2) and a previously undescribed V2- type receptor (V2) – and a single isotocin receptor were isolated and sequenced from the Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae). RT-PCR revealed that mRNAs for these receptors differed in expression patterns with ...


The Role Of Adherence In Mediating The Relationship Between Depression And Health Outcomes, Rena R. Wing, Suzanne Phelan, Deborah Tate Oct 2002

The Role Of Adherence In Mediating The Relationship Between Depression And Health Outcomes, Rena R. Wing, Suzanne Phelan, Deborah Tate

Kinesiology

Depression has been linked to poor health outcome in a number of studies; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship has received little attention. This paper explores the possibility that adherence mediates the relationship between depression and outcome. Principal findings regarding the relationship between depression, adherence, and outcome are reviewed. The data suggest that depression is related, at least moderately, to poorer adherence to a variety of treatment components. The relationship between adherence and outcome is more difficult to establish. In addition, current data, albeit limited, do not support the hypothesis that adherence mediates the relationship between depression and outcome. An ...


Host-Plant Effects On The Behavior Of Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus Females Raised From Melon, David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring Mar 1996

Host-Plant Effects On The Behavior Of Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus Females Raised From Melon, David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring

Horticulture and Crop Science

The behaviors of female Eretmocerus sp. nr. californiens raised from Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring on melon, Cucumis melo L., were analysed on four different host plant species (cotton, melon, sweet potato and Abutilon theophrasti Medic). Comparison with previously published results of similarly treated females reared from sweet potato plants showed performance related differences leading to oviposition. In the present study, the generalized behavioral pathway (walking, host- encounter, antennation, probing and oviposition) did not vary among host plant species for melon- reared parasitoid females. Host assessment by antennation leading to host acceptance for probing varied from 10.5- 12.3 sec ...


Behaviors Of Female Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Attacking Bemisia Argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) On Cotton, Gossypium Hirsutum, (Malavaceae) And Melon, Cucumis Melo (Cucurbitaceae), David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring Feb 1996

Behaviors Of Female Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Attacking Bemisia Argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) On Cotton, Gossypium Hirsutum, (Malavaceae) And Melon, Cucumis Melo (Cucurbitaceae), David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring

Horticulture and Crop Science

Behaviors of Eretmocerus sp. nr. californicus females attacking Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and melon, Cucumis melo L., were quantified. Adult female behaviors were described and quantified for Eret. sp. nr. californicus to establish a behavioral time budget analysis. Females readily searched for host whitefly nymphs on cotton leaves with walking speeds averaging 0.5 mm/s. Females remained infrequently on melon leaves; those that did remain and search for hosts averaged walking speeds of 0.33 mm/s. The duration of host assessment by antennation was related to subsequent behaviors. Rejecting a host was a shorter process than accepting it for further evaluation irrespective of plant species or nymphal stage. Probing the margins of the host nymph the ovipositor was repeated less frequently on an individual host on melon leaves than on cotton. Evidence for a behavioral preference for oviposition under early instars was documented for Eret. sp. nr. californicus females ...


Life History And Description Of Immature Stages Of Euaresta Stigmatica (Diptera: Tephritidae) On Ambrosia Spp. (Asteraceae) In Southern California, David H. Headrick, Richard D. Goeden, Jeffrey A. Teerink Jan 1995

Life History And Description Of Immature Stages Of Euaresta Stigmatica (Diptera: Tephritidae) On Ambrosia Spp. (Asteraceae) In Southern California, David H. Headrick, Richard D. Goeden, Jeffrey A. Teerink

Horticulture and Crop Science

Euaresta stigmatica Coquillett is bivoltine and nearly monophagous on four native ragweeds, Ambrosia spp. (Asteraceae), in the southwestern United States. In southern California, larvae of the spring (F1) generation develop singly in and feed on one or both ovules of young fruiting involucres of Ambrosia ilicifolia (Gray) Payne, with a small proportion infesting the staminate involucres. Adults emerge after ≈1 mo, with their reproductive organs immature. The F2 generation develops in the involucres of fall-blooming Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hooker. The egg is described and illustrated for the first time for any species of Euaresta. First, second, and third instars ...


Behaviors Of Female Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Attacking Bemisia Argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) On Sweet Potato, David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring Jan 1995

Behaviors Of Female Eretmocerus Sp. Nr. Californicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Attacking Bemisia Argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) On Sweet Potato, David H. Headrick, Thomas S. Bellows, Jr., Thomas M. Perring

Horticulture and Crop Science

Behaviors of Eretmocerus sp. nr. californicus Howard females on Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring infesting sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lain, were described and quantified. Walking speeds of up to 1.3 mm/s were calculated for females searching for host whitefly nymphs on sweet potato leaves. Females encountered all host stages during searching with approximately the same relative frequency as their relative abundance (average of 17.03% of hosts available were encountered). Females also arrested and antennated all of the host stages with the same relative frequency as their encounter rate (62.8%). Females showed a clear and significant preference for probing second instars over all other stages. Of the hosts probed, females chose all stages for oviposition with the same relative frequency. Successful exsertion of the ovipositor under a host nymph occurred after initial probes 12 times and after repeated probing attempts 15 times. Oviposition occurred under 13.5% of the hosts assessed by antennation; however, 20 of the 27 (74%) nymphs under which the ovipositor was exserted received an egg. Females spent 41% of the total time in searching, host assessment, probing, and oviposition: the remainder of the time (59%) was spent host feeding, grooming, and resting.