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California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped Dec 2014

Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped

Kinesiology

Background

Identifying spatial clusters of chronic diseases has been conducted over the past several decades. More recently these approaches have been applied to physical activity and obesity. However, few studies have investigated built environment characteristics in relation to these spatial clusters. This study’s aims were to detect spatial clusters of physical activity and obesity, examine whether the geographic distribution of covariates affects clusters, and compare built environment characteristics inside and outside clusters.

Methods

In 2004, Nurses’ Health Study participants from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania completed survey items on physical activity (N = 22,599) and weight-status (N = 19,448). The ...


Agricultural Experiences And Factors Of Undergraduates Who Enroll In A College Of Agriculture, Benjamin G. Swan, Ann M. De Lay Dec 2014

Agricultural Experiences And Factors Of Undergraduates Who Enroll In A College Of Agriculture, Benjamin G. Swan, Ann M. De Lay

Agricultural Education and Communication

Industry partners and College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences (CAFES) faculty have observed students entering the college possessed fewer agriculture experiences and skills than their predecessors. They have also lamented the increasing pressure to develop industry-ready students, when the gaps are ever wider between their experience and skills entering college and what are required upon graduation. During the 2011 spring quarter, all CAFES students (N = 3,366) were sent an electronic survey that resulted in 911 responses (27% response rate). Three quarters of the students were female and one third were seniors. Prior to enrolling at the university, 34 ...


Factorial Validity Of An Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale For Seniors In The Nurses’ Health Study, Heather A. Starnes, Meghan H. Mcdonough, Kosuke Tamura, Peter James, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped Oct 2014

Factorial Validity Of An Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale For Seniors In The Nurses’ Health Study, Heather A. Starnes, Meghan H. Mcdonough, Kosuke Tamura, Peter James, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped

Kinesiology

Background

Using validated measures of individuals’ perceptions of their neighborhood built environment is important for accurately estimating effects on physical activity. However, no studies to date have examined the factorial validity of a measure of perceived neighborhood environment among older adults in the United States. The purpose of this measurement study was to test the factorial validity of a version of the Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-A) modified for seniors in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS).

Findings

A random sample of 2,920 female nurses (mean age = 73 ± 7 years) in the NHS cohort from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania ...


Diversity And Soil-Tissue Elemental Relations Of Vascular Plants Of Callahan Mine, Brooksville, Maine, U.S.A., Margaret R. Mansfield, Nathaniel S. Pope, Glen H. Mittelhauser, Nishanta Rajakaruna Sep 2014

Diversity And Soil-Tissue Elemental Relations Of Vascular Plants Of Callahan Mine, Brooksville, Maine, U.S.A., Margaret R. Mansfield, Nathaniel S. Pope, Glen H. Mittelhauser, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Metal-contaminated soils provide numerous stressors to plant life, resulting in unique plant communities worldwide. The current study focuses on the vascular plants of Callahan Mine in Brooksville, ME, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and other pollutants. One hundred and fifty-five taxa belonging to 50 families were identified, with the Asteraceae (21%), Poaceae (11%), and Rosaceae (9%) as the most species-rich families. Ninety-six species encountered at the Mine were native to North America (62%), including 11 taxa (7%) with rarity status in at least one New England state. Fifty-one species were non-native (33%), including nine taxa (6 ...


Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez Sep 2014

Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is a highly clonal marine angiosperm that can also reproduce sexually through flowering and seed formation. In a previous study, Fst values from six microsatellite loci suggested that a perennial San Francisco Bay subpopulation at Point Molate (Richmond, California) was able to recover from a drastic 2006 die-off through seed recruitment from neighboring eelgrass subpopulations, changing its reproductive strategy from clonal to sexual. Although Fst measures continue to be widely used in population genetics, the assumptions under which they operate are not always appropriate given certain circumstances, such small population sizes and/or asymmetrical migration rates. Our ...


Evaluation Of Fungicides For Control Of Dollar Spot And Brown Patch Of Greens Height Creeping Bentgrass In Kansas, 2013, C. Thompson, R. Braun, M. Kennelly Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Fungicides For Control Of Dollar Spot And Brown Patch Of Greens Height Creeping Bentgrass In Kansas, 2013, C. Thompson, R. Braun, M. Kennelly

Horticulture and Crop Science

No abstract provided.


Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana Aug 2014

Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Subsequent to 1943, the use of Lead Arsenic was banned from the Orchards standing on the Hanford site. This use of Lead Arsenate pesticide was popular among the orchard owners and was dispersed over the site in a myriad of ways. The presence of the traces of lead and arsenic are found today, more than half a century later. Using a portable X-ray florescence analyzer (XRF), the values of lead and arsenic are evaluated while determining the efficiency of the equipment itself. Samples from different decision sites were collected, with lead arsenic values in the low, high and medium range ...


Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto Aug 2014

Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Light pollution (LP) can disrupt and/or degrade the health of all living things, as well as, their environments. The goal of my research at the NOAO was to check the accuracy of the citizen science LP reporting systems entitled: Globe at Night (GaN), Dark Sky Meter (DSM), and Loss of the Night (LoN). On the GaN webpage, the darkness of the night sky (DotNS) is reported by selecting a magnitude chart. Each magnitude chart has a different density/number of stars around a specific constellation. The greater number of stars implies a darker night sky. Within the DSM iPhone ...


Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf Aug 2014

Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) have developed to be extremely good parents by protecting their brood. Parental care leads to aggressive biting, chasing, and gill flaring to intimidate known predators. In this experiment, we show that environmental factors, such as the changing of temperature in this case, affect a female convict cichlid’s aggression toward caring for her offspring when an intruder is introduced. Females attack more in warmer water.


Comparison Of The Promega And Kikkoman Atp Devices, Ryan Hendrickson, James Nick Benardini, Kasthuri Venkateswaran Aug 2014

Comparison Of The Promega And Kikkoman Atp Devices, Ryan Hendrickson, James Nick Benardini, Kasthuri Venkateswaran

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Planetary Protection (PP) is a scientific discipline that aims to protect other celestial bodies from microorganisms found on Earth by preventing forward and backward contamination. Forward contamination is bringing life from Earth to a given celestial body and backward contamination is preventing contamination of eventual sample return missions from Mars back to Earth. PP verifies that NASA Planetary Protection requirements are met in part via the NASA Standard Assay in order to support the launch approval process and to comply with international law. The NASA Standard Assay verifies these bioburden requirements by quantifying any aerobic, heterotrophic, and heat-shock resistant isolates ...


Functional Response Of Protected Larval Delta Smelt, Carrie Fong, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Functional Response Of Protected Larval Delta Smelt, Carrie Fong, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, is a slender and small-bodied fish, (Limnoithona tetraspina, under a controlled lab setting. Delta smelt at 132 dph were placed in buckets with different concentrations of prey, L. tetraspina. Larval stage delta smelt were given 2 hours to feed. When the experiment was over, fish were then dissected and analyzed to see how many prey were ingested. So far the data suggests that delta smelt may be prey limited. In the controlled lab conditions fish were given much higher prey densities than what would normally be available in the wild. Not having enough prey to feed ...


Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea Aug 2014

Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

With the growing demands of water in California and the increasing cost of fossil fuels to operate water-cleaning equipment, Algae was cultivated in different concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (NPK) during different trails to identify the best growing conditions for the removal water contaminates. Before testing algae in waste water, the Algae: Dunaliella Primolecta, Chlorella Vulgaris, and Scenedesmus Dimorphus were cultivated in four different media containing distilled water and plant vitamins. The different mediums used include: Orchid Grow More (20-20-20), Miracle Grow (30-10-10), Murashige & Skoog, and Orchid Bloom Boster (11-35-15). As a result of the investigation, the algae, Scenedesmus ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of Microbial Isolates From The Mars Pathfinder, Kyla Bradylong, Adriana Blachowicz, Parag Vaishampayan, James N. Benardini, Wayne Schubert Aug 2014

Phylogenetic Diversity Of Microbial Isolates From The Mars Pathfinder, Kyla Bradylong, Adriana Blachowicz, Parag Vaishampayan, James N. Benardini, Wayne Schubert

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

As spacecraft are sent to different planets, they take with them microscopic pieces of life from Earth. It is the task of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group to keep as much of this life off other planets as possible as well as document any life that may have been sent. During the construction of the Mars Pathfinder, samples were collected from various locations on the spacecraft to test for contamination. These samples were then isolated, grown, documented, preserved and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced for identification. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is utilized because it is a highly ...


Salinity And Temperature Distribution Of Jellyfish In The San Francisco Estuary, Trisha Huynh, Brooke Bemowski, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Salinity And Temperature Distribution Of Jellyfish In The San Francisco Estuary, Trisha Huynh, Brooke Bemowski, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Jellyfish are generally characterized by their jelly-like bodies and internal lining (two tissue layers). They found both in the phylum Ctenophora and the phylum Cnidaria. Ctenophores differ from cnidarians primarily due to the rows of “combs”, or cilia, which are used for transportation. Additionally, ctenophores possess sticky cells while cindarians possess stinging cells. Jellyfish depend on zooplankton (small floating aquatic animals) as a food source; as a result, they are potential competitors and predators to plankton-eating fish and may negatively impact fish populations.

As recently as 1950, jellyfish have entered the San Francisco Bay from the Mediterranean Sea (probably in ...


Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The San Francisco Bay Estuary is home to many species of marine and wildlife that create a delicate ecological balance. Invasive jellyfish introduced to the bay though cargo shipping are believed to be competing with the endangered delta smelt for the same food source of copepods. Samples of zooplankton were taken from high and low salinity zones in the San Francisco Bay over three years in months June through February to correlate with the peak of the jellyfish lifecycle. The preserved samples are looked through and jellyfish are removed and recorded. The species of jellyfish is determined using features such ...


Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton Aug 2014

Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Aquaponics is the use of water from a fish tank to provide nutrients to plants in a soil-less environment. The rocks cultivate the bacteria that turns the ammonia into nitrates that the plants need, and the plant bed functions as a filter for the fish tank. In this study, with the guidance of Doctor Dudley Burton, Doctor Brook Murphy, we researched the optimal plant density for basil in an Aquaponics system. We attempted to control or measure all the other variables to consider, as to isolate the variable of distance between plants. The water flow was spread through the plant ...


Assessment Of Salmon Habitat On The Feather River, Nathan Sweem Aug 2014

Assessment Of Salmon Habitat On The Feather River, Nathan Sweem

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Human activity in central valley streams has had a significantly negative impact on salmon habitat (Williams 2006). The presence of dams impedes sediment transport which is critical to salmon spawning (Williams 2006; Kondolf 1997). As part of an effort to enhance salmon spawning, the California Department of Water Resources added 7000 ft3 of gravel to Cottonwood Hatchery, Upper Auditorium, and Auditorium riffles on the Lower Feather River below the Thermalito Dam Complex in July of 2014. Stream conditions at Cottonwood Hatchery riffle were assessed by conducting analysis of sediment grain size, water depth and velocity, gravel permeability, and dissolved ...


Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2014

Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Microplankton are a diverse group of planktonic organisms ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 millimeters. Since the group is defined solely by size, it spans numerous taxonomic groups, including both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Microplankton are abundant in all aquatic ecosystems and are important prey for many organisms, including bivalves, crustaceans, and fish. The San Francisco Bay is truly an estuary as saltwater enters the estuary under the Golden Gate Bridge and freshwater flows in from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Thus, there is a gradient of salinity from freshwater (0) in the rivers to saltwater by the Golden ...


The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina Macmillan, Kelly Stewart Aug 2014

The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina Macmillan, Kelly Stewart

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Once sea turtle hatchlings emerge from their nest, they must find their way to the ocean by using cues such as a bright horizon and the slope of the beach. While moving toward the water, hatchlings often must navigate past predators and through vegetation, sticks, footprints in the sand, and other dangers such as ghost crab holes. Sometimes hatchlings become confused (or disoriented) and turn in circles to find the right route to the water. Sea turtle hatchlings also may become disoriented as a result of human impacts such as town lights or trash. The purpose of our experiment was ...


Sex Ratio Assessment Of Endangered Kemp’S Ridley Sea Turtle Foraging Populations: Validation Of A Testosterone Elisa For Juvenile Sex Determination, William A. Hilton, Camryn D. Allen Aug 2014

Sex Ratio Assessment Of Endangered Kemp’S Ridley Sea Turtle Foraging Populations: Validation Of A Testosterone Elisa For Juvenile Sex Determination, William A. Hilton, Camryn D. Allen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Currently all species of sea turtles are listed as threatened or endangered with extinction under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In order to effectively construct management approaches we need as much information on various sea turtle populations as possible including demography, genetic origin, and critical habitat. One demographic piece of data that is lacking is the sex ratio of turtle populations in foraging habitats, as this information is integral in determining overall population abundance. Because secondary sex characteristics (i.e. males have longer tails) are not evident until turtles start to reach sexual maturity, the sex of juvenile turtles ...


Habitat Preference Of The Introduced Green Crab Carcinus Maenas, Brittany Susan Daum, Andy Chang Aug 2014

Habitat Preference Of The Introduced Green Crab Carcinus Maenas, Brittany Susan Daum, Andy Chang

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The aim of this experiment was to determine if Carcinus Maenas (European Green Crab) hhas a habitat preference in Seadrift Lagoon located in Stinson Beach, California. This experiment was accomplished by placing crab traps on the two types of substrate in Seadrift (sand and algae). The traps were pulled up every 24 hours and the size and sex of crabs was recorded. The data was analyzed to see if there was a difference in habitat preference based upon size, sex, and number of crabs. Using a Poisson Regression model, the size and sex of crabs were not significantly different between ...


Learning Design Through The Lens Of Service: A Qualitative Study, David W. Hey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, Brian P. Self, James Widmann, J. Kevin Taylor Apr 2014

Learning Design Through The Lens Of Service: A Qualitative Study, David W. Hey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, Brian P. Self, James Widmann, J. Kevin Taylor

Kinesiology

Twenty-four senior-level capstone engineering design projects were completed at a large, public, primarily undergraduate university involving 85 students (70 male and 15 female). All projects involved the design of equipment to facilitate physical activity for people with disabilities. The effects on: i) learning design, ii) attitude towards people with disabilities, iii) motivation to complete team design projects and iv) interdisciplinary collaboration were analyzed through 24 one-hour focus groups. We explored the student experience using a constructivist approach and grounded theory. Four major themes (with associated sub-themes) emerged from our data analysis: learning design (project management, iterative design process, and user-centered ...


Student Apathy As Defined By Secondary Agricultural Education Students, Ann M. De Lay, Benjamin G. Swan Mar 2014

Student Apathy As Defined By Secondary Agricultural Education Students, Ann M. De Lay, Benjamin G. Swan

Agricultural Education and Communication

Student motivation continues to be a source of concern for educators. This phenomenological study captured the voices of secondary agriculture students as they shared their perspectives and experiences surrounding student apathy. Four focus group interviews were conducted at four central California high schools with distinguished agriculture programs. The following question guided the research: What experience do secondary agriculture students have with student apathy in their academic environments? Findings suggest student apathy is born of personal choice and grown through mediocre teaching, archaic assessment and the absence of learning purpose. Recommendations suggest students, teachers, the local school and teacher educators form ...


A Preliminary Study Of The Role Of Nickel In Enhancing Flowering Of The Nickel Hyperaccumulating Plant Alyssum Inflatum Nyár. (Brassicaceae), R. Ghasemi, Z. Zare Chavoshi, R.S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna Mar 2014

A Preliminary Study Of The Role Of Nickel In Enhancing Flowering Of The Nickel Hyperaccumulating Plant Alyssum Inflatum Nyár. (Brassicaceae), R. Ghasemi, Z. Zare Chavoshi, R.S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Alyssum inflatum is a native of serpentine soils and is able to hyperaccumulate nickel (Ni), but the importance of Ni to reproduction in the species is unknown. We investigated if reproductive fitness is enhanced by Ni in the growth medium, and included a treatment involving a relatively high level of Mg to provide a comparison with elevated levels of another metal. Seedlings were grown in a modified Hoagland solution culture in an inert medium of Perlite and were treated with Ni (100 μM), a high concentration of Mg (5 mM), or under control conditions (solution culture without Ni or the ...


Using Crossword Puzzles To Enhance Students' Learning Of Technical Biological Terms, William D. Stansfield Mar 2014

Using Crossword Puzzles To Enhance Students' Learning Of Technical Biological Terms, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Culturally Speaking: The Time Is Right For Drinkable Yogurts To Take Off In The United States, Phillip Tong Feb 2014

Culturally Speaking: The Time Is Right For Drinkable Yogurts To Take Off In The United States, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Paper-Based Standard Addition Assays, Cory A. Chaplan, Haydn T. Mitchell, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2014

Paper-Based Standard Addition Assays, Cory A. Chaplan, Haydn T. Mitchell, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Standard addition assays conducted on paper-based microfluidic devices are introduced as an alternative to external standards for calibrating quantitative tests. To demonstrate this technique, a colorimetric, paper-based, standard addition assay was optimized for the determination of glucose concentrations in the range of 0 to 5 mM. Comparable results were obtained from the assay via digital image colorimetry under three different lighting conditions.


Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman Jan 2014

Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Mammalian cells are known to express genes that are associated with repairing damaged DNA. The transcript CDKN1A is one of several cell cycle regulator genes expressed in response to cell damage by ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, male and female lymphocytes; previously exposed ex vivo to IR, were used to demonstrate linear gene expression responses that may vary between genders. We used qRT-PCR to generate response curves for CDKN1A. No differences were identified for the endogenous control gene GAPDH. CDKN1A expression demonstrated average fold changes well above three fold for three of the four healthy patient donors at 24 ...


Wastewater Filtration Using Dunaliella Primolecta, Scenedesmus Dimorphus And Chlorella Vulgaris, Tamar Melkonian, Angeles Mora, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea Jan 2014

Wastewater Filtration Using Dunaliella Primolecta, Scenedesmus Dimorphus And Chlorella Vulgaris, Tamar Melkonian, Angeles Mora, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

California is facing a water crisis due to the lack of rain in the recent years. If California continues without rain, California will eventually run out of fresh water. Residents are asked to reduce their intake by a 20% decrease and the cost to consume water is increasing rapidly. At this point, California cannot afford to waste any water. Because of the high demands of water, Agricultural businesses have increased their prices and pay a lot more for extensive water cleaning equipment. In order to recycle water, it is questioned if algae can replace water-cleaning equipment. In order to work ...


The Effects Of Electrolyte Chemical Composition, Concentration And Ph On The Electrochemical Redox Reactions, Sea Choi, Xiao-Ying Yu Jan 2014

The Effects Of Electrolyte Chemical Composition, Concentration And Ph On The Electrochemical Redox Reactions, Sea Choi, Xiao-Ying Yu

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Electrolyte composition, concentration, pH, ionic strength, and temperature have long been known to play a role in the interface of the electrode-electrolyte. However, detailed studies are not sufficient. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a widely used electrochemical technique for obtaining qualitative information in electroanalysis. CV is often the first experiment performed in an electrode surface in an electrochemical study. It measures the number of electrons transferred and intermediates formed during oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions by observing its current, intensity and position of peak potential with applied voltage. This is accomplished by using a three-electrode system including working electrode (WE), counter electrode (CE ...