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California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong Dec 2012

How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward Dec 2012

Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward

Dairy Science

The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aimof this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10 % phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMFMFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat ...


Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson Oct 2012

Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification.

Design Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn.

Setting South Africa.

Subjects Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ∼6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum.

Results ...


Regulated Deficit Irrigation Effect On Yield And Wine Color Of Cabernet Sauvignon In Central California, Michael J. Costello, W. Keith Patterson Oct 2012

Regulated Deficit Irrigation Effect On Yield And Wine Color Of Cabernet Sauvignon In Central California, Michael J. Costello, W. Keith Patterson

Wine and Viticulture

Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a management strategy that on grape can improve shoot/fruit ratio, water efficiency, and wine quality but has the potential to reduce yield. As part of a study on the influence of RDI on leafhopper density, we evaluated the effects on grape yield, berry size, berry soluble solids, and wine color. The studies were conducted at commercial vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley and in the Paso Robles region, CA, with Cabernet Sauvignon as the cultivar. Water deficits were imposed at either 50% (moderate deficit) or 25% (severe deficit) of standard irrigation (the control) for ...


Rapid Invasion Of Indo-Pacific Lionfishes (Pterois Volitans And Pterois Miles) In The Florida Keys, Usa: Evidence From Multiple Pre- And Post-Invasion Data Sets, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Pamela J. Schofield, J. Lad Akins, Alejandro Acosta, Michael W. Feeley, Jeremiah Blondeau, Steven G. Smith, Jerald S. Ault Oct 2012

Rapid Invasion Of Indo-Pacific Lionfishes (Pterois Volitans And Pterois Miles) In The Florida Keys, Usa: Evidence From Multiple Pre- And Post-Invasion Data Sets, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Pamela J. Schofield, J. Lad Akins, Alejandro Acosta, Michael W. Feeley, Jeremiah Blondeau, Steven G. Smith, Jerald S. Ault

Biological Sciences

Over the past decade, Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828), venomous members of the scorpionfish family (Scorpaenidae), have invaded and spread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. These species are generalist predators of fishes and invertebrates with the potential to disrupt the ecology of the invaded range. Lionfishes have been present in low numbers along the east coast of Florida since the 1980s, but were not reported in the Florida Keys until 2009. We document the appearance and rapid spread of lionfishes in the Florida Keys using multiple ...


Dynamics Of An Acute Coral Disease Outbreak Associated With The Macroalgae Dictyota Spp. In Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, Usa, Marilyn E. Brandt, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Rob Waara, Jeff Miller, Brian Witcher, Andrew J. Estep, Matt Patterson Oct 2012

Dynamics Of An Acute Coral Disease Outbreak Associated With The Macroalgae Dictyota Spp. In Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, Usa, Marilyn E. Brandt, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Rob Waara, Jeff Miller, Brian Witcher, Andrew J. Estep, Matt Patterson

Biological Sciences

Reports of coral disease outbreaks have increased in recent decades, but often few details are known about these outbreaks, such as environmental triggers, associated biological variables, or even the precise temporal span of the outbreak. Here we document an acute outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease on the highest live coral cover (15%–30%) reefs within Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA. This disease exhibited similar signs to white plague disease with the notable exception that a white film often was observed on the recently denuded skeleton. The temporal span of the disease was short (<2 mo). Partial mortality was recorded but there was no detectable impact to overall coral cover. A significant increase and then decrease in the cover of macroalgae, primarily of the genus Dictyota, occurred simultaneously with ...


Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard Oct 2012

Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard

Dairy Science

Plant-based oral vaccines are a promising emergent technology that could help alleviate disease burden worldwide by providing a low-cost, heat-stable, oral alternative to parenterally administered commercial vaccines. Here, we describe high-level accumulation of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at a mean concentration of 0.51%TSP in maize T1 seeds using an improved version of the globulin1 promoter. This concentration is more than fourfold higher than any previously reported lines. HBsAg expressed in maize seeds was extremely heat stable, tolerating temperatures up to 55 °C for 1 month without degradation. Optimal heat stability was achieved after oil extraction of ...


An Experimental Evaluation Of The Use Of C3 Δ13C Plant Tissue As A Proxy For The Paleoatmospheric Δ13Co2 Signature Of Air, B. H. Lomax, C. A. Knight, J. A. Lake Sep 2012

An Experimental Evaluation Of The Use Of C3 Δ13C Plant Tissue As A Proxy For The Paleoatmospheric Δ13Co2 Signature Of Air, B. H. Lomax, C. A. Knight, J. A. Lake

Biological Sciences

Previous work suggests that the relationship between the carbon isotope composition of air (d13Ca) and plant leaf tissue (d13Cp) can be used to track changes in the carbon isotope composition of paleo-atmospheric CO2. Here we test this assertion in a series of experiments using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown under a range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations relevant to geologic time (380, 760, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 ppm). Nested within these CO2 experiments water availability was controlled (giving two sets of experimental plants; low and high water treatment at each CO2 concentration) to manipulate stomatal opening, a key process ...


Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong Sep 2012

Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Environmental Stress Proteomics Of Two Blue Mussel (Genus Mytilus) Congeners, Lars Tomanek Sep 2012

Environmental Stress Proteomics Of Two Blue Mussel (Genus Mytilus) Congeners, Lars Tomanek

Biological Sciences

Abstract of paper presented at the 28th Congress of the New European Society of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry Proceedings: Bilbao, Spain.


Gene Transcripts Encoding Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (Hif) Exhibit Tissue- And Muscle Fiber Type-Dependent Responses To Hypoxia And Hypercapnic Hypoxia In The Atlantic Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Kristin M. Hardy, Chandler R. Follett, Louis E. Burnett, Sean Lema Sep 2012

Gene Transcripts Encoding Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (Hif) Exhibit Tissue- And Muscle Fiber Type-Dependent Responses To Hypoxia And Hypercapnic Hypoxia In The Atlantic Blue Crab, Callinectes Sapidus, Kristin M. Hardy, Chandler R. Follett, Louis E. Burnett, Sean Lema

Biological Sciences

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that under low environmental oxygen regulates the expression of suites of genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, immune function, and growth. Here, we isolated and sequenced partial cDNAs encoding hif-α and arnt/hif-β from the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, an estuarine species that frequently encounters concurrent hypoxia (low O2) and hypercapnia (elevated CO2). We then examined the effects of acute exposure (1 h) to hypoxia (H) and hypercapnic hypoxia (HH) on relative transcript abundance for hif-α and arnt/hif-β in different tissues (glycolytic muscle, oxidative ...


Evaluation Of Headway G For Control Of Brown Patch Of Lawn Height Tall Fescue In Kansas, 2011, C Thompson, M Kennelly Aug 2012

Evaluation Of Headway G For Control Of Brown Patch Of Lawn Height Tall Fescue In Kansas, 2011, C Thompson, M Kennelly

Horticulture and Crop Science

No abstract provided.


Testing The Salinity Tolerance Levels Of Similar Invasive Species Found In The San Francisco Bay, Julia M. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen, Elizabeth Sheets Aug 2012

Testing The Salinity Tolerance Levels Of Similar Invasive Species Found In The San Francisco Bay, Julia M. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen, Elizabeth Sheets

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Testing the salinity tolerance levels of similar invasive species found in the San Francisco Bay

Julia Smith1,2, Elizabeth Sheets2, and C. Sarah Cohen2

1Department of Teacher Education, California State University, Sacramento 2Department of Biology and Romberg Tiburon Center, San Francisco State University

Three non-indigenous colonial ascidian species, Botrylloides violaceus, Botrylloides diegensis, and Botryllus schlosseri, have become well established in San Francisco Bay. Two species, B. violaceous and B. schlosseri, are globally distributed, and understanding the salinity ranges and tolerances of these successful invaders in their introduced habitats is important for predicting their spread. We ...


Simplified Microbial Mats: Unraveling A Complex Community One Alga At A Time., Donna A. Dela Calzada, Brad M. Bebout, Angela Detweiler Aug 2012

Simplified Microbial Mats: Unraveling A Complex Community One Alga At A Time., Donna A. Dela Calzada, Brad M. Bebout, Angela Detweiler

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Microbial mats are the oldest known ecosystems with an over 3.4 billion-year fossil record. Understanding their structure and function will help us better understand the biological evolution of life on early earth. They are rich in diversity (phylogenetically and physiologically) ranking amongst the most complex systems on earth. In this investigation, we aim to develop an effective method to study microbial mat organisms in relatively uncomplicated ecosystems that mimic the way they grow in nature. By growing “simplified microbial mats” on polypropylene cloth, we are able to observe the range of biogeochemical processes of a single species in a ...


Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen Aug 2012

Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp., a six-rayed sea star, is found in rocky intertidal habitats ranging from Alaska to central California. Leptasterias spp. can be monitored on a broad scale throughout their range by a variety of means using timed counts and random plot censusing in order to detect both large-scale and local-level changes in the environment due to climate change, land-based human activity, or other environmental events. Leptasterias brood their young externally until the embryos grow into fully developed juveniles. These juveniles disperse by crawling away, limiting their dispersal potential. This localized dispersal provides an opportunity to use Leptasterias spp. as sentinel ...


Functional Response Of Protected Larval Stage Delta Smelt (Hypomesus Transpacificus), Jorge Ruiz, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer, Joan Lindberg Aug 2012

Functional Response Of Protected Larval Stage Delta Smelt (Hypomesus Transpacificus), Jorge Ruiz, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer, Joan Lindberg

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is a protected slender-bodied fish endemic to the San Francisco Estuary. Smelt prey upon various zooplankton including the copepods such as Pseudodiaptomus forbesi. This experiment studied the prey maximum feeding rate of 2 larval stages (21 DHP, 35 DPH) of Delta smelt on various concentrations of P. forbesi. The copepod prey was offered at 7 different concentrations (2No./L–120No./L). After feeding was terminated the free prey and ingested prey were counted and analyzed to find the feeding rate of Delta smelt. Maximum feeding rate was found to be at much higher prey densities than ...


Analyzing Environmental Microbes For Genomic Regions Promoting Ionic Liquid Tolerance In E. Coli, Ann Nguyen, Alison Richins, Thomas Rüegg, Steven Singer, Michael Thelen Aug 2012

Analyzing Environmental Microbes For Genomic Regions Promoting Ionic Liquid Tolerance In E. Coli, Ann Nguyen, Alison Richins, Thomas Rüegg, Steven Singer, Michael Thelen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising as solvents to increase the efficiency of biofuel production; however, ILs are toxic to microbes used in the fermentation of liquid fuels. To engineer IL resistant biofuel hosts, environmental bacteria were screened for tolerance, and these were used to create gene libraries to test in E. coli. Future characterization of these libraries using molecular techniques will be used to identify genes that contribute IL-tolerance to transformed microbes.


Quantification And In Vitro Analysis Of Nanolipoproteins (Nlps) Containing Adjuvants, Purna Venkataraman, Craig Blanchette, Nicholas O. Fischer Aug 2012

Quantification And In Vitro Analysis Of Nanolipoproteins (Nlps) Containing Adjuvants, Purna Venkataraman, Craig Blanchette, Nicholas O. Fischer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) self-assemble into nanoscale structures that can be used as vaccines or drug delivery agents. Due to the nature of the NLPs, a variety of immune stimulating compounds or adjuvants can be readily incorporated into NLPs: a characteristic difficult to engineer into most other nanoscale platforms. In light of this, a method for quantifying the amount adjuvant actually incorporated into NLPs is a question of high importance. Through the use of reverse phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and an Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD), standard curves can be constructed by analyzing mixtures of NLP components of known concentration ...


Size And Weight Changes Of Leatherback Hatchlings Among Emergence Groups, Shane Morales, Kelly Stewart Aug 2012

Size And Weight Changes Of Leatherback Hatchlings Among Emergence Groups, Shane Morales, Kelly Stewart

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

In ideal leatherback sea turtle nests, all the hatchlings move together as a single group through the sand to leave the nest. Often, though, hatchlings emerge in two separate groups hours or days apart while others remain stuck in the sand where they may die unless they are dug out (excavation). First emergence groups spend the shortest amount of time in the sand while excavated hatchlings spend the longest amount of time in the sand (typically three days longer than first emergence hatchlings). Individuals from each of the separate emergences were weighed and measured (carapace only) in order to compare ...


A Genetic Survey Of English Sole Populations In The Salish Sea, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez, Gary A. Winans, Jon Baker, Amanda Cope Aug 2012

A Genetic Survey Of English Sole Populations In The Salish Sea, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez, Gary A. Winans, Jon Baker, Amanda Cope

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

This summer I interned at the Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, WA and participated in NOAA’s Salish Sea Project. The Salish Sea Project’s goal is to identify genetically distinctive groups of species in the Salish Sea that may have unique evolutionary and/or adaptive backgrounds. These findings will allow NOAA to promote and monitor the natural production of species in the Salish Sea, to select representative populations for experimental work regarding pollution, ocean acidification and climate change, to contribute to managing the ecosystem for intra- and inter-species diversity, and to help make informed decisions about adaptive management ...


Nutritional Content Of Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca Monocerata) Bill Loads, Dustin Taylor, Ron Heintz Aug 2012

Nutritional Content Of Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca Monocerata) Bill Loads, Dustin Taylor, Ron Heintz

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Nutritional Content of Rhinoceros Auklet Bill Loads

Dustin E Taylor

Abstract

An adult Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) can only catch and carry a limited amount of prey to their nestlings after a foraging trip. The auklets therefore must maximize their efficiency by bringing back the most proportionally nutritious prey items to their nestlings. The prey carried back to the nesting sites (known as a ‘bill load’) can contain whole fish, as well as parts, most commonly fish heads. This study is aimed to determine whether returning with just heads to the nestlings was proportionally more nutritious than bringing back a ...


Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Study Zooplankton Trophic Ecology In San Francisco Estuary, Steven C. Westbrook, Julien Moderan, Wim Kimmerer Aug 2012

Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Study Zooplankton Trophic Ecology In San Francisco Estuary, Steven C. Westbrook, Julien Moderan, Wim Kimmerer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Zooplankton biomasses in estuaries are often high and represent an important food source for fish, like theendangered Delta Smelt. Human interferences (nitrates from crops, freshwater flow alteration, invasive species introduction…) have altered the structure of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) ecosystem. We use stable isotope analysis to improve our knowledge of the planktonic food web in the SFE and gain insights into its evolution over the past decades. Every living thing has a specific isotopic signature. For example, in the plankton we study exists Carbon 13 and Carbon 12. Carbon 13 is different only because it has one extra neutron ...


Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2012

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Acetaminophen is a common analgesic and antipyretic. Metabolism of acetaminophen and acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drug is distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body is reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Acetaminophen is usually safe and effective when taken as recommended, but consumption at higher levels may lead to liver damage. Additionally, other factors such as alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and malnutrition affect the maximum safe dose of acetaminophen.


Effects Of Pristane On Growth Of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus Gorbuscha), Brielle D. Kemis, Bonita Nelson Aug 2012

Effects Of Pristane On Growth Of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus Gorbuscha), Brielle D. Kemis, Bonita Nelson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Pristane is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon that is generated by copepods in marine ecosystems. Organisms that eat copepods do not readily metabolize pristane, which causes it to accumulate throughout the marine food web. Understanding how pristane affects marine fish is essential because pristane is often used as a bioindicator in lab studies and may be influencing results in those studies. Also, this hydrocarbon may significantly reduce growth of marine fish in the wild. A previous study indicated that pristane is an appetite suppressant and growth retardant in fish. However, the study implemented a feeding regime with unnaturally high levels of ...


Survival Of B. Horneckiae Spores Under Ground-Simulated, Sneha Tharayil, Parag Vaishampayan Aug 2012

Survival Of B. Horneckiae Spores Under Ground-Simulated, Sneha Tharayil, Parag Vaishampayan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Increasing efforts to find and study habitable conditions and the possibility of life on extraterrestrial cosmic bodies have also deepened the need for planetary protection advancements to prevent possibilities of forward and backward contamination. Despite stringent precautions to ensure spacecraft cleanliness, a number of spore-forming bacteria, including the biofilm forming strain, Bacillus horneckiae have been isolated from spacecraft associated surfaces. B. horneckiae spores have demonstrated unusually high resistance to rigorous sterilization procedures, and extreme conditions, including intense UV radiation. This exceptionally high tolerance of extreme conditions demonstrated by spore-forming bacteria highlighted the need to assess the viability of these microbes ...


Improving The Efficiency Of Homologous Gene Replacement By Disrupting Non-Homologous End Joining Pathway Gene Kusa In The Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella Alpina, Kathleen T. Krueger, Ziyu Dai Dr, Ugur Uzuner, Scott E. Baker Dr Aug 2012

Improving The Efficiency Of Homologous Gene Replacement By Disrupting Non-Homologous End Joining Pathway Gene Kusa In The Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella Alpina, Kathleen T. Krueger, Ziyu Dai Dr, Ugur Uzuner, Scott E. Baker Dr

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Mortierella alpina , a oleaginous filamentous fungus, is one of industrial fungal strains known for the production of arachidonic acid. It is also of particular interest for hydrocarbon biofuel production since it is able to produce up to 50% of its mass in rich, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA’s]. In addition to high fatty acid production, M. alpina like many other oleaginous fungi, already have mechanisms for accumulating significant concentrations of hydrophobic compounds making it a naturally equipped candidate to handle potential toxic concentrations of hydrocarbons. To date, three different transformation methods have been established for M. alpina that are ...


Classification Of Multi-Domain Glycoside Hydrolases To Aid In The Enzymatic Production Of Biofuels From Biomass, Emi Leonard, Gregg Beckham, Deanne Sammond, Michael Crowley Aug 2012

Classification Of Multi-Domain Glycoside Hydrolases To Aid In The Enzymatic Production Of Biofuels From Biomass, Emi Leonard, Gregg Beckham, Deanne Sammond, Michael Crowley

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Biomass conversion to renewable biofuels provides an alternative to conventional fossil-fuel based transportation fuels and a means to reduce dependence on foreign oil. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be quite resistant to enzymatic deconstruction, a phenomenon generally termed biomass recalcitrance. As enzymes represent a substantial cost in biofuels production, there is significant impetus to understand and improve their efficiency in converting cell wall carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. Much research has been conducted on single "free" enzymes with one catalytic unit per protein and on the much larger, complexed "cellulosomes" with many tens of catalytic units per protein, but ...


Characterization Of A Vibrio Fischeri Aminopeptidase And Evidence For Its Influence On An Early Stage Of Squid Colonization, Pat M. Fidopiastis, Bethany A. Rader, David G. Gerling, Nestor A. Gutierrez, Katherine H. Watkins, Michelle West Frey, Spencer V. Nyholm, Cheryl A. Whistler Aug 2012

Characterization Of A Vibrio Fischeri Aminopeptidase And Evidence For Its Influence On An Early Stage Of Squid Colonization, Pat M. Fidopiastis, Bethany A. Rader, David G. Gerling, Nestor A. Gutierrez, Katherine H. Watkins, Michelle West Frey, Spencer V. Nyholm, Cheryl A. Whistler

Biological Sciences

Vibrio fischeri cells are the sole colonists of a specialized light organ in the mantle cavity of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. The process begins when the bacteria aggregate in mucus secretions outside the light organ. The cells eventually leave the aggregate, enter the light organ, and encounter a rich supply of peptides. The need to dissociate from mucus and presumably utilize peptides led us to hypothesize that protease activity is integral to the colonization process. Protease activity associated with whole cells of Vibrio fischeri strain ES114 was identified as the product of a putative cell membrane-associated aminopeptidase (PepN). To ...


How Do Host Sex And Reproductive State Affect Host Preference And Feeding Duration Of Ticks?, Nicholas B. Pollock, Larisa K. Vredevoe, Emily N. Taylor Aug 2012

How Do Host Sex And Reproductive State Affect Host Preference And Feeding Duration Of Ticks?, Nicholas B. Pollock, Larisa K. Vredevoe, Emily N. Taylor

Biological Sciences

Parasitism is one of the most notable forms of symbiosis in the biological world, with nearly all organisms hosting parasites. In many vertebrates, males have higher ectoparasite burdens than females, especially when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Furthermore, reproductive females may have higher ectoparasite burdens than non-reproductive females. It is possible that testosterone-stimulated behaviors in males and offspring investment by females incur energetic costs that inhibit immune function. If questing ticks can sense host sex or reproductive condition prior to attachment, they could potentially choose hosts with the poorest immune function, thereby leading to improved feeding success and decreased feeding duration ...


Influence Of Intensity And Duration Of Regulated Deficit Irrigation On Erythroneura Elegantula (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) On Grape, Michael J. Costello, Shawn T. Veysey Aug 2012

Influence Of Intensity And Duration Of Regulated Deficit Irrigation On Erythroneura Elegantula (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) On Grape, Michael J. Costello, Shawn T. Veysey

Wine and Viticulture

We conducted studies in a Paso Robles, CA, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyard in 2002 and 2003 to estimate the impact of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) intensity and duration on western grape leafhopper, Erythroneura elegantula Osborn. Treatments were based on deficit intensity, 50 and 25% of standard irrigation (moderate and severe deficits, respectively), and deficit duration, 3 or 6 wk time, initiated at the grape phenological stage of berry set.The standard irrigation served as the control, and was intended to be as close to 100% of evapotranspiration (1.0 ETc) for grape in this area. Each week we took ...