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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Growth Rates, Feed Converstion, And Carcass Traits In Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, J. L. Beckett, R. J. Delmore, G. C. Duff, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, T. E. Lawrence, N. Elam Dec 2009

Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Growth Rates, Feed Converstion, And Carcass Traits In Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, J. L. Beckett, R. J. Delmore, G. C. Duff, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, T. E. Lawrence, N. Elam

Animal Science

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of ...


Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education - Program: "What's Cooking On The Central Coast With The Pink And Dude Chefs?", Julie Chessen, David W. Hey, Lisa Nicholson, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott Dec 2009

Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education - Program: "What's Cooking On The Central Coast With The Pink And Dude Chefs?", Julie Chessen, David W. Hey, Lisa Nicholson, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott

Kinesiology

No abstract provided.


First Record Of The Extinct Sawfish Propristis Schweinfurthi Dames, 1883 (Batoidea: Pristiformes: Pristidae) From The Middle Eocene Of Spain, Francesc Farrés, Harry L. Fierstine Dec 2009

First Record Of The Extinct Sawfish Propristis Schweinfurthi Dames, 1883 (Batoidea: Pristiformes: Pristidae) From The Middle Eocene Of Spain, Francesc Farrés, Harry L. Fierstine

Biological Sciences

A partial rostrum of Propristis schweinfurthi Dames, 1883 was collected in the Bartonian strata of northeastern Spain. The specimen represents the second record of the species from Europe, and the second occurrence of a sawfish (Mesopristis osonensis Farrés, 2003) from the Vic-Manlleu Marls Formation. In spite of some evidence to the contrary, Propristis probably preferred ecological conditions similar to extant sawfishes, i.e., inhabiting near shore tropical to subtropical seas with occasional excursions into freshwater.


Concentrate Levels And Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Affect Rumen Fluid-Associated Bacteria Numbers In Dairy Heifers, G. J. Lascano, G. I. Zanton, A. J. Heinrichs Dec 2009

Concentrate Levels And Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Affect Rumen Fluid-Associated Bacteria Numbers In Dairy Heifers, G. J. Lascano, G. I. Zanton, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

Total viable rumenbacteria counts through the use of colony-unit forming assays lack accuracy because they only include culturable bacteria capable of initiating cell division. Thus, bacterial counts can be underestimated. The use of fluorescent characteristics of cell membranes allows flow cytometry to enumerate and distinguish dead from live bacteria cells. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the viable and total ruminal bacteria counts when 3 levels of forage:concentrate in diets were fed at restricted levels with the addition of Saccharomycescerevisiae (YC). Three cannulated post-pubertal Holstein heifers (age 18 ± 1.0 months) were fed corn silage (CS)-based ...


Culturally Speaking: Ethnic Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong Dec 2009

Culturally Speaking: Ethnic Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Clinical Research In Diabetes And Urinary Incontinence: What We Know And Need To Know, Suzanne Phelan, Francine Grodstein, Jeanette S. Brown Dec 2009

Clinical Research In Diabetes And Urinary Incontinence: What We Know And Need To Know, Suzanne Phelan, Francine Grodstein, Jeanette S. Brown

Kinesiology

Purpose: We discuss epidemiological and clinical trial research in women with urinary incontinence and diabetes, and provide directions for future research.
Materials and Methods: Published epidemiological and clinical trial literature examining diabetes and incontinence is presented.
Results: Multiple studies have now confirmed that the prevalence and incidence of incontinence is increased in women with type 2 diabetes. Emerging evidence also suggests higher incontinence rates in women with type 1 diabetes or prediabetes. Clinical trial research suggests that weight loss can decrease incontinence in women with prediabetes. An ongoing multicenter trial will examine the effects of weight loss on incontinence in ...


Reliability Of A Brief Intercept Survey For Trail Use Behaviors, Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb, Brent Hutto, Julian A. Reed, Steven P. Hooker Nov 2009

Reliability Of A Brief Intercept Survey For Trail Use Behaviors, Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb, Brent Hutto, Julian A. Reed, Steven P. Hooker

Kinesiology

Purpose: This study assessed test-retest reliability of an interviewer-administered trail survey.

Methods: An intercept survey was conducted with adults using 2 paved trails in Indiana and South Carolina (N = 295; mean age = 46.9 ± 18 y). The survey included items on frequency and duration of trail use for recreation and transportation, other patterns of trail use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fiftyfive adults completed the survey twice (2–16 d apart; mean = 7.4 ± 2.6 d). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Kappa coefficients, and percent agreement.

Results: Kappa coefficients and percent agreement for 9 categorical items ranged ...


Surgical Removal Of Right-To-Left Cardiac Shunt In The American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) Causes Ventricular Enlargement But Does Not Alter Apnoea Or Metabolism During Diving, John Eme, June Gwalthney, Jason M. Blank, Tomasz Owerkowicz, Gildardo Barron, James W. Hicks Nov 2009

Surgical Removal Of Right-To-Left Cardiac Shunt In The American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) Causes Ventricular Enlargement But Does Not Alter Apnoea Or Metabolism During Diving, John Eme, June Gwalthney, Jason M. Blank, Tomasz Owerkowicz, Gildardo Barron, James W. Hicks

Biological Sciences

Crocodilians have complete anatomical separation between the ventricles, similar to birds and mammals, but retain the dual aortic arch system found in all non-avian reptiles. This cardiac anatomy allows surgical modification that prevents right-to-left (R–L) cardiac shunt. A R–L shunt is a bypass of the pulmonary circulation and recirculation of oxygen-poor blood back to the systemic circulation and has often been observed during the frequent apnoeic periods of non-avian reptiles, particularly during diving in aquatic species. We eliminated R–L shunt in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) by surgically occluding the left aorta (LAo; arising from right ventricle) upstream ...


Exhaustive Exercise Training Enhances Aerobic Capacity In American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis), John Eme, Tomasz Owerkowicz, June Gwalthney, Jason M. Blank, Bryan C. Rourke, James W. Hicks Nov 2009

Exhaustive Exercise Training Enhances Aerobic Capacity In American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis), John Eme, Tomasz Owerkowicz, June Gwalthney, Jason M. Blank, Bryan C. Rourke, James W. Hicks

Biological Sciences

The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be ‘metabolically inflexible’ in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify the nature of the crocodilian training response by analysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (CS)] and anaerobic [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] enzyme activities in selected skeletal muscles, ventricular and skeletal muscle ...


Evaluating Connectivity Between Marine Protected Areas Using Codar High-Frequency Radar, Brian Zelenke, Mark A. Moline, Burt H. Jones, Steven R. Ramp, Greg B. Crawford, John L. Largier, Eric J. Terrill, Newell Garfield Iii, Jeffrey D. Paduan, Libe Washburn Oct 2009

Evaluating Connectivity Between Marine Protected Areas Using Codar High-Frequency Radar, Brian Zelenke, Mark A. Moline, Burt H. Jones, Steven R. Ramp, Greg B. Crawford, John L. Largier, Eric J. Terrill, Newell Garfield Iii, Jeffrey D. Paduan, Libe Washburn

Biological Sciences

To investigate the connectivity between central California marine protected areas (MPAs), back-projections were calculated using the network of high-frequency (HF) radar ocean surface current mapping stations operated along the California coast by the member institutions of the Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program with funding provided by California voters through Propositions 40 & 50 and administered by the State Coastal Conservancy. Trajectories of 1 km resolution grids of water particles were back-projected from ten MPAs each hour, out through 40 days in the past, from each day in 2008, producing a map of where surface waters travel over a 40-day period to ...


What Distinguishes Weight-Loss Maintainers From The Treatment-Seeking Obese? Analysis Of Environmental, Behavioral, And Psychosocial Variables In Diverse Populations, Suzanne Phelan, Tao Liu, Amy Gorin, Michael Lowe, Joseph Hogan, Joseph Fava, Rena R. Wing Oct 2009

What Distinguishes Weight-Loss Maintainers From The Treatment-Seeking Obese? Analysis Of Environmental, Behavioral, And Psychosocial Variables In Diverse Populations, Suzanne Phelan, Tao Liu, Amy Gorin, Michael Lowe, Joseph Hogan, Joseph Fava, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Background Understanding the factors that influence successful weight control is critical for developing interventions.
Purpose The purpose of the study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral variables in distinguishing weight-loss maintainers (WLM) from treatment-seeking obese (TSO).
Methods WLM (n=167) had lost ≥10% of their maximum body weight, had kept the weight off for ≥5 years, and were now of normal weight. TSO-1 and TSO-2 had a history of dieting and body mass index ≥25. TSO-1 was predominantly Caucasian; TSO-2 was predominantly African-American. Bayesian model averaging was used to identify the variables ...


Use Of Artificial Sweeteners And Fat-Modified Foods In Weight Loss Maintainers And Always-Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, W. Lang, D. Jordan, Rena R. Wing Oct 2009

Use Of Artificial Sweeteners And Fat-Modified Foods In Weight Loss Maintainers And Always-Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, W. Lang, D. Jordan, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies, and use of fat- and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always-normal weight group (NW).
Subjects: WLM (N=172) had maintained ≥10% weight loss for 11.5 years, and had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.0 kg m-2. NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3 kg m-2 and no history of being overweight. Three, 24-h recalls on random, non-consecutive days were used to assess dietary intake.
Results: WLM reported consuming a diet that was lower in fat ...


The Relationship Between Student Teacher Heart And Career Intent, Benjamin G. Swan, Jamie Cano Sep 2009

The Relationship Between Student Teacher Heart And Career Intent, Benjamin G. Swan, Jamie Cano

Agricultural Education and Communication

Students enter an agricultural teacher preparation program planning to teach agriculture. However, career intent appears to change during the preservice program for many students. The teacher’s “heart” is the combination of a teacher’s: mission, faith in teaching, caring for their students, and enthusiasm displayed in the classroom. There is no published research that examines the development of the teacher’s “heart” and how it relates to career intent. Further, Palmer (1998) stated that teacher “heart” cannot be developed; only diminished. However, Peterson and Seligman (2004) stated that the virtues of care, enthusiasm, hope, faith, and mission can be ...


Evaluation Of School Wellness Policies In North San Luis Obispo County, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott, David W. Hey, Rosanna Taylor, Arlene Grant-Holcomb, Stephanie F. Teaford Sep 2009

Evaluation Of School Wellness Policies In North San Luis Obispo County, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott, David W. Hey, Rosanna Taylor, Arlene Grant-Holcomb, Stephanie F. Teaford

Kinesiology

In March 2009, a research team from the newly formed STRIDE Institute at California Polytechnic State University was contracted to review and evaluate Lillian Larsen Elementary Schools’ eating and physical activity environments with the intent to create baseline measures for school wellness improvement. This report summarizes STRIDE’s studies, observations and recommendations.


Evaluation Of School Wellness Policies In South San Luis Obispo County, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott, David W. Hey, Rosanna Taylor, Arlene Grant-Holcomb, Stephanie F. Teaford Sep 2009

Evaluation Of School Wellness Policies In South San Luis Obispo County, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott, David W. Hey, Rosanna Taylor, Arlene Grant-Holcomb, Stephanie F. Teaford

Kinesiology

A two year grant (October 2008-2010) was awarded to the San Luis Obispo County Public Health Department (SLOPHD) so that outside agencies could engage in school wellness policy (SWP) advocacy and community activities to aid in combating the growing epidemic of obesity among the county’s high risk populations. Under SLOPHD oversight, Healthy Eating Active Living (HEALSLO) proposed school district outcomes, objectives, and indicators. In March 2009, a research team from the newly formed STRIDE Institute at California Polytechnic State University was contracted to review and evaluate the Oceano Elementary School eating and physical activity environments with the intent to ...


Density Dependence And The Economic Efficacy Of Marine Reserves, Crow White Sep 2009

Density Dependence And The Economic Efficacy Of Marine Reserves, Crow White

Biological Sciences

Predictions on the efficacy of marine reserves for benefiting fisheries differ in large part due to considerations of models of either intra- or inter-cohort population density regulating fish recruitment. Here, I consider both processes acting on recruitment and show using a bioeconomic model how for many fisheries density dependent recruitment dynamics interact with harvest costs to influence fishery profit with reserves. Reserves consolidate fishing effort, favoring fisheries that can profitably harvest low-density stocks of species where adult density mediates recruitment. Conversely, proportion coastline in reserves that maximizes profit, and relative improvement in profit from reserves over conventional management, decline with ...


A Hump-Shaped Relationship Between Isolation And Abundance Of Notonecta Irrorata Colonists In Aquatic Mesocosms, Shannon J. Mccauley, Christopher J. Davis, Jennifer Nystrom, Earl E. Werner Sep 2009

A Hump-Shaped Relationship Between Isolation And Abundance Of Notonecta Irrorata Colonists In Aquatic Mesocosms, Shannon J. Mccauley, Christopher J. Davis, Jennifer Nystrom, Earl E. Werner

Biological Sciences

We examined the relationship between the isolation of experimental aquatic mesocosms and the abundance of an aquatic insect colonist, Notonecta irrorata, over two years. We used a curve-fitting approach to assess whether linear or quadratic models better describe the relationship between isolation and abundance. For two measures of mesocosm isolation, distance to nearest source and distance to the largest source population, there was a significant quadratic relationship between isolation and abundance. Abundance of colonizing N. irrorata was not found to be significantly related to a third measure of isolation, mesocosm connectivity. These results indicate that the relationship between habitat isolation ...


Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria Sep 2009

Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria

Food Science and Nutrition

Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood can have lasting effects on health, but evidence is lacking from prospective studies concerning the effects of early poverty on abdominal obesity in adulthood. Cross-sectional studies in adults from middle and high-income countries show that current socioeconomic status is inversely related to obesity in women, but the pattern in men is not consistent. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the influence of early socioeconomic status on waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. Thirteen relevant articles were located (five cross-sectional and eight cohort), including only one from a middle-income country and the ...


Rumen Fermentation Pattern Of Dairy Heifers Fed Restricted Amounts Of Low, Medium, And High Concentrate Diets Without And With Yeast Culture, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs Sep 2009

Rumen Fermentation Pattern Of Dairy Heifers Fed Restricted Amounts Of Low, Medium, And High Concentrate Diets Without And With Yeast Culture, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

Restricted feeding and highconcentratediets are potential strategies for growing dairyheifers. Ruminal manipulation with additives such as Saccharomyces cerevisiaeyeastculture (YC) has been shown to alter digestibility when added to this type of diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the ruminal fermentation and in situ digestibility of diets with 3 different levels of forage to concentrate (F:C) fed at restricted intake without and with YC addition. Three cannulated post-pubertal Holstein heifers (age 18.0 ± 1.2 months; body weight 449.6 ± 19.7 kg) were feddiets consisting of corn silage as the sole forage source in a 3 period ...


Phil Tong On Nutritious Frozen Dairy, Phillip S. Tong Sep 2009

Phil Tong On Nutritious Frozen Dairy, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora Aug 2009

Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective:Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder throughout the world. In particular, abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of skin colour and life-course socio-economic indicators on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) in young adults.

Design:Population-based birth cohort study. Individuals born in 1982 in Pelotas (southern Brazil) were visited on a number of occasions from birth to age 23–24 years. A sample of the cohort was sought in 2006 and 972 individuals were located. The analysis was restricted to individuals with ...


Culturally Speaking: Shelf Life, Phillip S. Tong Jun 2009

Culturally Speaking: Shelf Life, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Phylogeography Of The North American Red Fox: Vicariance In Pleistocene Forest Refugia, Keith B. Aubry, Mark J. Statham, Benjamin N. Sacks, John D. Perrine, Samantha M. Wisely Jun 2009

Phylogeography Of The North American Red Fox: Vicariance In Pleistocene Forest Refugia, Keith B. Aubry, Mark J. Statham, Benjamin N. Sacks, John D. Perrine, Samantha M. Wisely

Biological Sciences

Fossil, archaeological, and morphometric data suggest that indigenous red foxes in North America were derived from vicariance in two disjunct refugia during the last glaciation: one in Beringia and one in the contiguous USA. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogeographical analysis of the North American red fox within its presettlement range. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (354 bp) gene and D-loop (342 bp) from 220 historical red fox specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene produced two clades that diverged c. 400 000 years before present (bp): a Holarctic and a Nearctic clade. D-loop ...


Prevalence And Correlates Of Vitamin D Status In African American Men, Marilyn Tseng, Veda Giri, Deborah W. Bruner, Edwards Giovannucci Jun 2009

Prevalence And Correlates Of Vitamin D Status In African American Men, Marilyn Tseng, Veda Giri, Deborah W. Bruner, Edwards Giovannucci

Kinesiology

Background: Few studies have examined vitamin D insufficiency in African American men although they are at very high risk. We examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D insufficiency among African American men in Philadelphia. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional analysis were 194 African American men in the Philadelphia region who were enrolled in a risk assessment program for prostate cancer from 10/ 96–10/07. All participants completed diet and health history questionnaires and provided plasma samples, which were assessed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. We used linear regression models to examine associations with 25(OH)D ...


Biological Effects Within No-Take Marine Reserves: A Global Synthesis, Sarah E. Lester, Benjamin S. Halpern, Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, Jane Lubchenco, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Steven D. Gaines, Satie Airamé, Robert R. Warner May 2009

Biological Effects Within No-Take Marine Reserves: A Global Synthesis, Sarah E. Lester, Benjamin S. Halpern, Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, Jane Lubchenco, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Steven D. Gaines, Satie Airamé, Robert R. Warner

Biological Sciences

The study and implementation of no-take marine reserves have increased rapidly over the past decade, providing ample data on the biological effects of reserve protection for a wide range of geographic locations and organisms. The plethora of new studies affords the opportunity to reevaluate previous findings and address formerly unanswered questions with extensive data syntheses. Our results show, on average, positive effects of reserve protection on the biomass, numerical density, species richness, and size of organisms within their boundaries which are remarkably similar to those of past syntheses despite a near doubling of data. New analyses indicate that (1) these ...


Thyroid Hormone Regulation Of Mrnas Encoding Thyrotropin Β-Subunit, Glycoprotein Α-Subunit, And Thyroid Hormone Receptors Α And Β In Brain, Pituitary Gland, Liver, And Gonads Of An Adult Teleost, Pimephales Promelas, Sean C. Lema, Jon T. Dickey, Irvin R. Schultz, Penny Swanson May 2009

Thyroid Hormone Regulation Of Mrnas Encoding Thyrotropin Β-Subunit, Glycoprotein Α-Subunit, And Thyroid Hormone Receptors Α And Β In Brain, Pituitary Gland, Liver, And Gonads Of An Adult Teleost, Pimephales Promelas, Sean C. Lema, Jon T. Dickey, Irvin R. Schultz, Penny Swanson

Biological Sciences

Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate growth, morphological development, and migratory behaviors in teleost fish, yet little is known about the transcriptional dynamics of gene targets for THs in these taxa. Here, we characterized TH regulation of mRNAs encoding thyrotropin subunits and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in an adult teleost fish model, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Breeding pairs of adult minnows were fed diets containing 3,5, 3,-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) or the goitrogen methimazole for 10 days. In males and females, dietary intake of exogenous T3 elevated circulating total T3, while methimazole depressed plasma levels of ...


Growth Hormone Alters The Proteome Of Differentiated Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2009

Growth Hormone Alters The Proteome Of Differentiated Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

Growth Hormone (GH) improves growth and lactation in many species. Mammary epithelium is responsive to GH though the mechanism of these effects has not yet been fully characterized. Bovine Mammary Alveolar Cell-T (MAC-T) cells uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin (DIP) and are a widely used ruminant mammary cell model. We have found significant changes in triacyglycerol, cholesterol and phospholipid distribution in MAC -T cells stimulated with 10 ng/ml GH. To characterize these direct effects of GH on a proteomic level, total protein was isolated from MAC-T cells after differentiation for seven ...


Novel Lepidopteran Sex Pheromone Components From Marmara Gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), J. Stephen Mcelfresh, Jardel A. Moreira, Elizabeth E. Grafton-Cardwell, David H. Headrick, John M. Heraty, Marta Guillen, Jocelyn G. Millar Apr 2009

Novel Lepidopteran Sex Pheromone Components From Marmara Gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), J. Stephen Mcelfresh, Jardel A. Moreira, Elizabeth E. Grafton-Cardwell, David H. Headrick, John M. Heraty, Marta Guillen, Jocelyn G. Millar

Horticulture and Crop Science

Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is a sporadic pest of citrus and a number of other crops in southern and central California. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennogram detection analyses of headspace volatiles collected by solid phase microextraction from virgin female moths revealed at least four related compounds in the extracts that elicited significant antennal responses from antennae of male moths. These compounds were identified as (8E,10E)-tetradecadien-1-ol, and the corresponding aldehyde, acetate, and formate ester, representing the first report of a formate as a lepidopteran pheromone component. The four compounds were consistently found in headspace volatiles collected from ...


Culturally Speaking: Raw Milk Quality, Phillip S, Tong Apr 2009

Culturally Speaking: Raw Milk Quality, Phillip S, Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Preventing Childhood Obesity: What Works?, Ll Birch, A K. Ventura Apr 2009

Preventing Childhood Obesity: What Works?, Ll Birch, A K. Ventura

Kinesiology

Rates of overweight in North American children and adolescents have increased dramatically since the 1970s. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and calls for prevention and treatment programs to reverse this trend have been made. However, the evidence base needed for effective action is still incomplete, especially for childhood obesity prevention programs. This paper focuses on primary prevention of childhood obesity and has three aims: (1) to briefly describe current primary prevention approaches for childhood obesity and the evidence for their impact; (2) to elucidate promising, but untested intervention strategies using an ecological framework and evidence from experimental and epidemiological ...