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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Changes In Biotic And Abiotic Processes Following Mangrove Clearing, Elise Granek, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg Dec 2008

Changes In Biotic And Abiotic Processes Following Mangrove Clearing, Elise Granek, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

Biological Sciences

Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass ...


Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides Dec 2008

Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This article describes a method for fabricating 3D microfluidic devices by stacking layers of patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Paper-based 3D microfluidic devices have capabilities in microfluidics that are difficult to achieve using conventional open-channel microsystems made from glass or polymers. In particular, 3D paper-based devices wick fluids and distribute microliter volumes of samples from single inlet points into arrays of detection zones (with numbers up to thousands). This capability makes it possible to carry out a range of new analytical protocols simply and inexpensively (all on a piece of paper) without external pumps. We demonstrate a prototype 3D ...


Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role Of Behavioral And Psychological Factors, Rena R. Wing, George Papandonatos, Joseph L. Fava, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, Jeanne Mccaffery, Deborah F. Tate Dec 2008

Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role Of Behavioral And Psychological Factors, Rena R. Wing, George Papandonatos, Joseph L. Fava, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, Jeanne Mccaffery, Deborah F. Tate

Kinesiology

Few studies have examined predictors of weight regain after significant weight losses. This prospective study examined behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain in 261 successful weight losers who completed an 18-month trial of weight regain prevention that compared a control condition with self-regulation interventions delivered face-to-face or via the Internet. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain, both as main effects and as interactions with treatment group. Decreases in physical activity were related to weight regain across all 3 groups, and increased frequency of self-weighing was equally protective in the 2 ...


Dietary Exposure To 2,2´,4,4´-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (Pbde-47) Alters Thyroid Status And Thyroid Hormone–Regulated Gene Transcription In The Pituitary And Brain, Sean C. Lema, Jon T. Dickey, Irvin R. Schultz, Penny Swanson Dec 2008

Dietary Exposure To 2,2´,4,4´-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (Pbde-47) Alters Thyroid Status And Thyroid Hormone–Regulated Gene Transcription In The Pituitary And Brain, Sean C. Lema, Jon T. Dickey, Irvin R. Schultz, Penny Swanson

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Biological Responses In A Dynamic Bouyant River Plume, Mark A. Moline, Thomas K. Frazer, Robert Chant, Scott Glenn, Charles A. Jacoby, John R. Reinfelder, Jennifer Yost, Meng Zhou, Oscar Schofield Dec 2008

Biological Responses In A Dynamic Bouyant River Plume, Mark A. Moline, Thomas K. Frazer, Robert Chant, Scott Glenn, Charles A. Jacoby, John R. Reinfelder, Jennifer Yost, Meng Zhou, Oscar Schofield

Biological Sciences

Buoyant river plumes are highly dynamic and often characterized by marked physical and chemical gradients that interact to drive biological responses. For example, interactions among factors resulting in algal growth (e.g., nutrient and light availability) and algal loss (e.g., sinking and zooplankton grazing) vary with spatiotemporal changes in physics and chemistry. The nature of these interactions profoundly influences the transfer and transformation of materials carried by the plume, including nutrients and metals. In April 2005, during the Lagrangian Transport and Transformation Experiment (LaTTE), water from the Hudson River recirculated in a nearshore eddy before moving southward to mix ...


Dispersal Of The Hudson River Plume In The New York Bight: Synthesis Of Observational And Numerical Studies During Latte, Robert J. Chant, John Wilkin, Weifeng Zhang, Byoung-Ju Choi, Eli Hunter, Renato Castelao, Scott Glenn, Joe Jurisa, Oscar Schofield, Robert Houghton, Josh Kohut, Thomas K. Frazer, Mark A. Moline Dec 2008

Dispersal Of The Hudson River Plume In The New York Bight: Synthesis Of Observational And Numerical Studies During Latte, Robert J. Chant, John Wilkin, Weifeng Zhang, Byoung-Ju Choi, Eli Hunter, Renato Castelao, Scott Glenn, Joe Jurisa, Oscar Schofield, Robert Houghton, Josh Kohut, Thomas K. Frazer, Mark A. Moline

Biological Sciences

Observations and modeling during the Lagrangian Transport and Transformation Experiment (LaTTE) characterized the variability of the Hudson River discharge and identified several freshwater transport pathways that lead to cross-shelf mixing of the Hudson plume. The plume’s variability is comprised of several different outflow configurations that are related to wind forcing, river discharge, and shelf circulation. The modes are characterized by coastal current formation and unsteady bulge recirculation. Coastal currents are favored during low-discharge conditions and downwelling winds, and represent a rapid downshelf transport pathway. Bulge formation is favored during high-discharge conditions and upwelling winds. The bulge is characterized by ...


Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken Nov 2008

Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken

Chemistry and Biochemistry

More than 200,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a primary or metastatic brain tumor annually. The life expectancy for these individuals is approximately 9-12 months from the time of diagnosis. This poor prognosis is due to the ineffectiveness of existing therapies (i.e., chemotherapy and radiotherapy) against brain cancer, where the primary problem is the inability to differentiate cancer cells from healthy brain cells.

Relative to healthy brain tissue, the heightened metabolism of cancer cells increases their reliance on the ion transport proteins NHE (sodium-proton exchanger) and NCX (sodium-calcium exchanger). Inhibition of these proteins disrupts the ...


Alkoxyamine Polymers: Versatile Materials For Surface Ligation Applications, Lindsey Hines, Jessica Moore, David Dahl, Belinda Lady, Johnathan Brantley, Hasan Palandoken Nov 2008

Alkoxyamine Polymers: Versatile Materials For Surface Ligation Applications, Lindsey Hines, Jessica Moore, David Dahl, Belinda Lady, Johnathan Brantley, Hasan Palandoken

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Immobilization of biomolecules (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates), on polymeric surfaces has been an area of intense research. The resultant bioconjugates often display increased stability, bioavailability and activity. Our research program seeks to explore the utility of the alkoxyamine (RONH2) functional group in new materials as versatile ligating sites for the immobilization of various compounds.

The ease with which alkoxyamines (RONH2) condense with aldehydes or ketones has prompted their widespread use in labelling liposome, bacterial and mammalian cell surfaces as well as chemoselectively ligating small molecule ‘recognition elements' onto polyfunctional substrates. These condensation reactions proceed in aqueous media to afford the ...


Removal Of Benzaldehyde From Methanol Using Alkoxyamine Functionalized Silica Gel, Dino Sulejmanovic, Carrie Jo Pruitt, Eric Conte, Hasan Palandoken, Shing-Yi Suen Nov 2008

Removal Of Benzaldehyde From Methanol Using Alkoxyamine Functionalized Silica Gel, Dino Sulejmanovic, Carrie Jo Pruitt, Eric Conte, Hasan Palandoken, Shing-Yi Suen

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Alkoxyamines (RONH2) react readily with aldehydes and ketones to form stable oxime ethers, and, thus are expected to be excellent scavengers of these compounds. We installed alkoxyamines on silica gel surface to remove benzaldehyde from methanol. Silica gel was immersed in H2O2/H2SO4 solution to activate the surface. Activated silica gel was then reacted with 3-chloropropyltrichlorosilane. Displacement of the chloride with N-hydroxyphthalimide and subsequent treatment with hydrazine provided alkoxyamines on the surface of silica gel. The resulting silica gel surface with alkoxyamine functional groups was immersed in a 100 ppm benzaldehyde solution in ...


The Effects Of A Networked Data Acquisition System On Student Learning In General Chemistry Laboratories, Stuart C. Burris, Les L. Pesterfield, Darwin Dahl, Hasan Palandoken, Jacqueline Pope-Tarrence Nov 2008

The Effects Of A Networked Data Acquisition System On Student Learning In General Chemistry Laboratories, Stuart C. Burris, Les L. Pesterfield, Darwin Dahl, Hasan Palandoken, Jacqueline Pope-Tarrence

Chemistry and Biochemistry

We have recently incorporated a networked data acquisition and analysis system into in our second semester general chemistry laboratories. Our investigation team has conducted a study to evaluate the effects of the networked data acquisition system on student performance on a Beer's Law laboratory. We focused on two specific phenomena: the effect of the networked data acquisition system on 1) student learning of specific content material and 2) student comfort level with laboratory work and data analysis. The study involved a networked data acquisition group (employing a UV-Vis spectrometer and colorimeters) and a control group (employing traditional, single wavelength ...


The Importance Of Physiological Limits In Determining Biogeographical Range Shifts Due To Global Climate Change: The Heat-Shock Response, Lars Tomanek Oct 2008

The Importance Of Physiological Limits In Determining Biogeographical Range Shifts Due To Global Climate Change: The Heat-Shock Response, Lars Tomanek

Biological Sciences

Physiological processes that set an organism’s thermal limits are in part determining recent shifts in biogeographic distribution ranges due to global climate change. Several characteristics of the heat-shock response (HSR), such as the onset, maximal, and upper limit of heat-shock protein (Hsp) synthesis, contribute to setting the acute upper thermal limits of most organisms. Aquatic animals from stable, moderately variable, or highly variable thermal environments differ in their HSR. Some animals living in extremely stable thermal environments lack the response altogether. In contrast, rocky intertidal animals that experience highly variable thermal conditions start synthesizing Hsps, that is, the onset ...


Recruitment Of Coastal Fishes And Oceanographic Variability In Central California, J. R. Wilson, B. R. Broitman, J. E. Caselle, D. E. Wendt Sep 2008

Recruitment Of Coastal Fishes And Oceanographic Variability In Central California, J. R. Wilson, B. R. Broitman, J. E. Caselle, D. E. Wendt

Biological Sciences

Recruitment of pelagic larval fishes to the nearshore environment is dependent on a suite of biological and physical processes operating at many spatial and temporal scales. Nearshore circulation processes associated with coastal upwelling are widely upheld as major determinants of year class strength for many rockfishes (Sebastes spp.), but the mechanism by which these processes drive recruitment is largely unknown. We used Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fishes (SMURFs) to monitor recruitment of two rockfish complexes (Sebastes spp.) and cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) from March to September of 2004 and 2005 at 3 sites along the central California coast ...


The Impact Of Outcrossing On Yields Of ‘Hass’ Avocado, Lauren C. Garner, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Michael T. Clegg, Carol J. Lovatt Sep 2008

The Impact Of Outcrossing On Yields Of ‘Hass’ Avocado, Lauren C. Garner, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Michael T. Clegg, Carol J. Lovatt

Horticulture and Crop Science

‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is characterized by excessive flower and fruit abscission, resulting in extremely low fruit set. Low outcrossing rates might be a factor contributing to low yields. It is hypothesized that self-fertilized flowers and resulting fruit abscise at a much higher rate than fruit that are the product of outcrossing. However, significant relationships between outcrossing rates and yields have only been established in a few avocado studies. The objective of this research was to investigate the importance of outcrossing to yield in a commercial ‘Hass’ orchard containing ‘Bacon’, an effective pollinizer of ‘Hass’. Microsatellite markers were used ...


Introduction To The Limnology And Oceanography Special Issue On Autonomous And Lagrangian Platforms And Sensors (Alps), Mark A. Moline, T. D. Dickey, E. C. Itsweire, M. J. Perry Sep 2008

Introduction To The Limnology And Oceanography Special Issue On Autonomous And Lagrangian Platforms And Sensors (Alps), Mark A. Moline, T. D. Dickey, E. C. Itsweire, M. J. Perry

Biological Sciences

This issue is devoted to recent developments of autonomous and Lagrangian platforms and sensors (ALPS) and their uses for solving a broad range of interdisciplinary aquatic problems. The collective papers treat a variety of problems that generally require measurements spanning a continuum of temporal and spatial scales. ALPS platforms in this issue include surface drifters, profiling and other types of subsurface floats, gliders, unmanned boats, autonomous underwater vehicles, and instrumented animals. ALPS platforms can provide access in difficult environments (e.g., under ice and in high-sea states). They are also important for emerging networked ocean and lake observing systems that ...


Synergistic Applications Of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles And Regional Ocean Modeling System In Coastal Ocean Forecasting, Yi Chao, Zhijin Li, John D. Farrara, Mark A. Moline, Oscar M.E. Schofield, Sharanya J. Majumdar Sep 2008

Synergistic Applications Of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles And Regional Ocean Modeling System In Coastal Ocean Forecasting, Yi Chao, Zhijin Li, John D. Farrara, Mark A. Moline, Oscar M.E. Schofield, Sharanya J. Majumdar

Biological Sciences

The potential for using synergistic combinations of measurements from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and output from three-dimensional numerical models for studying the central California coastal region is demonstrated. Two case studies are used to illustrate the approach. In the first, propeller-driven AUV observations revealed a subsurface salinity minimum in northern Monterey Bay. A Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) reanalysis of the three-dimensional flow in the region suggested an offshore source for this water and particular propagation pathways from the south and west into the bay. In the second case study, the effectiveness of assimilating observations in improving the ROMS reanalysis ...


Genome Size Is A Strong Predictor Of Cell Size And Stomatal Density In Angiosperms, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Ilia J. Leitch, Sunil Patil, Arjun Pendharkar, Charles A. Knight Sep 2008

Genome Size Is A Strong Predictor Of Cell Size And Stomatal Density In Angiosperms, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Ilia J. Leitch, Sunil Patil, Arjun Pendharkar, Charles A. Knight

Biological Sciences

• Across eukaryotes phenotypic correlations with genome size are thought to scale from genome size effects on cell size. However, for plants the genome/cell size link has only been thoroughly documented within ploidy series and small subsets of herbaceous species. • Here, the first large-scale comparative analysis is made of the relationship between genome size and cell size across 101 species of angiosperms of varying growth forms. Guard cell length and epidermal cell area were used as two metrics of cell size and, in addition, stomatal density was measured. • There was a significant positive relationship between genome size and both guard ...


Improved Fine-Scale Transport Model Performance Using Auv And Hsi Feedback In A Tidally Dominated System, L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, Mark A. Moline Aug 2008

Improved Fine-Scale Transport Model Performance Using Auv And Hsi Feedback In A Tidally Dominated System, L. F. Hibler, A. R. Maxwell, L. M. Miller, N. P. Kohn, D. L. Woodruff, M. J. Montes, J. H. Bowles, Mark A. Moline

Biological Sciences

One of the challenges for model prediction and validation is providing them with data of appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. The maturation and increased application of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in aquatic environments allows systematic data collection on these model-relevant scales. The goal of this study was to apply a fine-scale circulation and transport model (Delft3D) to improve AUV mission planning and use data collected by the AUV to evaluate and improve model performance. A dye release was conducted in a tidally dominated embayment, and a planning phase model based on the best available data was used as a baseline ...


Teaching Mendelism, William D. Stansfield Aug 2008

Teaching Mendelism, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Regulated Deficit Irrigation And Density Of Erythroneura Spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) On Grape, Michael J. Costello Aug 2008

Regulated Deficit Irrigation And Density Of Erythroneura Spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) On Grape, Michael J. Costello

Horticulture and Crop Science

This study looked at regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on leafhoppers in the genus Erythroneura (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn, or western grape leafhopper, and Erythroneura variabilis Beamer) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which are serious pests of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in California. RDI is an irrigation strategy that reduces irrigation during a critical point in the phenology of a cultivated perennial crop, to improve vegetative balance and crop quality. Erythroneura spp. are known to respond negatively to vine water stress, and the second generation of leafhoppers begins during a potential RDI initiation period, between berry set and veraison (beginning of fruit maturation). In ...


Ammonia Emissions And Olfactometry Analysis Of Limit Fed High And Low Concentrate Diets With Different Forage Quality In Dairy Heifers, G. J. Lascano, P. A. Topper, A. Adviento-Borbe, D. Topper, R. C. Brandt, E. F. Wheeler, A. J. Heinrichs Jul 2008

Ammonia Emissions And Olfactometry Analysis Of Limit Fed High And Low Concentrate Diets With Different Forage Quality In Dairy Heifers, G. J. Lascano, P. A. Topper, A. Adviento-Borbe, D. Topper, R. C. Brandt, E. F. Wheeler, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Flow Cytometry To Assess Rumen Bacteria In Dairy Heifers Limit Fed Different Forage To Concentrate Ratios With Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs Jul 2008

The Use Of Flow Cytometry To Assess Rumen Bacteria In Dairy Heifers Limit Fed Different Forage To Concentrate Ratios With Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Odor Evaluation And Gas Emission From Manure Of Dairy Heifers Fed High/Low - Forage Quality And High/Low-Concentrate Diets, Patrick A. Topper, Robin Brandt, Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Gustavo J. Lascano, Arlyn J. Heinrichs, Eileen F. Wheeler Jun 2008

Odor Evaluation And Gas Emission From Manure Of Dairy Heifers Fed High/Low - Forage Quality And High/Low-Concentrate Diets, Patrick A. Topper, Robin Brandt, Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Gustavo J. Lascano, Arlyn J. Heinrichs, Eileen F. Wheeler

Dairy Science

A heifer feeding trial evaluated the impact of high/low forage quality and high/low concentrate level nutrient-balanced diets on simultaneous odor and gas emissions from the manure. Gas concentration was determined using an infrared photoacoustic analyzer over a 24-hour period using a steady-state flux chamber setup containing urine:feces as-excreted from eight individual heifers. Odorous air samples were collected from chamber headspace and evaluated by six human assessors for pleasantness, intensity and detection threshold using a forced-choice dynamic olfactometer. Ammonia emission ranged from 0.64 to 3.94 mg NH3 cm-2 d-1 across diets. Average ammonia emission from the ...


Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Pfps): A Systematic Review Of Anatomy And Potential Risk Factors, Gregory R. Waryasz, Ann Y. Mcdermott Jun 2008

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Pfps): A Systematic Review Of Anatomy And Potential Risk Factors, Gregory R. Waryasz, Ann Y. Mcdermott

Kinesiology

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), a common cause of anterior knee pain, is successfully treated in over 2/3 of patients through rehabilitation protocols designed to reduce pain and return function to the individual. Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE). We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required ...


Holiday Weight Management By Successful Weight Losers And Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor, Julia Dibello, Kim Nedeau, Wanfeng Peng Jun 2008

Holiday Weight Management By Successful Weight Losers And Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor, Julia Dibello, Kim Nedeau, Wanfeng Peng

Kinesiology

This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept =13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a body mass index of 18.5-24.9 kg/m². More SWL than NW reported plans to be extremely strict in maintaining their usual dietary routine (27.3% vs. 0%) and exercise routine (59.1% vs. 14.3%) over the ...


Mulched Cover Crops As An Alternative To Conventional Weed Management Systems In Vineyards, Scott J. Steinmaus, C. L. Elmore, R. J. Smith, D. Donaldson, E. A. Weber, J. A. Roncoroni, P. R.M. Miller Jun 2008

Mulched Cover Crops As An Alternative To Conventional Weed Management Systems In Vineyards, Scott J. Steinmaus, C. L. Elmore, R. J. Smith, D. Donaldson, E. A. Weber, J. A. Roncoroni, P. R.M. Miller

Biological Sciences

Conventional methods of weed management in vineyards rely primarily on herbicides and tillage. The desire to adopt alternatives to these methods is driven by environmental and economic reasons. Weed suppression and grape yield under mulched cover crop systems at two rainfed northern California vineyards were similar to, and at times exceeded, those under conventional tillage or herbicide management. Cover crop productivity was positively correlated with weed suppression and mulch decomposition rates and seemed to be determined primarily by location and then by cover crop type. The mulch from mowed cover crops averaged 603(± 94) gm−2 at the two sites ...


Climate Change And The Future Of California's Endemic Flora, Scott R. Loarie, Benjamin E. Carter, Katherine Hayhoe, Sean Mcmahon, Richard Moe, Charles A. Knight, David D. Ackerly Jun 2008

Climate Change And The Future Of California's Endemic Flora, Scott R. Loarie, Benjamin E. Carter, Katherine Hayhoe, Sean Mcmahon, Richard Moe, Charles A. Knight, David D. Ackerly

Biological Sciences

The flora of California, a global biodiversity hotspot, includes 2387 endemic plant taxa. With anticipated climate change, we project that up to 66% will experience >80% reductions in range size within a century. These results are comparable with other studies of fewer species or just samples of a region’s endemics. Projected reductions depend on the magnitude of future emissions and on the ability of species to disperse from their current locations. California’s varied terrain could cause species to move in very different directions, breaking up present-day floras. However, our projections also identify regions where species undergoing severe range ...


Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Natal Otolith Chemistry Of A Hawaiian Reef Fish: Prospects For Measuring Population Connectivity, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Scott L. Hamilton, Robert R. Warner May 2008

Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Natal Otolith Chemistry Of A Hawaiian Reef Fish: Prospects For Measuring Population Connectivity, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Scott L. Hamilton, Robert R. Warner

Biological Sciences

One of the most compelling unanswered questions in marine ecology is the extent to which local populations are connected via larval exchange. Recent work has suggested that variation in the chemistry of otoliths (earstones) of fishes may function as a natural tag, potentially allowing investigators to determine sources of individual larvae and estimate larval connectivity. We analyzed the spatial and temporal variation in natal otolith chemistry of a benthic-spawning reef fish from the Hawaiian Islands. We found no consistent chemical variation at the largest scale (>100 km, among islands), but found significant variation at moderate scales (sites within islands, tens ...


Correlates Of C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Of 3827 Subjects In Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora May 2008

Correlates Of C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Of 3827 Subjects In Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

The socio-demographic, behavioral and anthropometric correlates of C-reactive protein levels were examined in a representative young adult Brazilian population. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited over 99% of births in the city of Pelotas that year (N = 5914). Individuals belonging to the cohort have been prospectively followed up. In 2004-2005, 77.4% of the cohort was traced, members were interviewed and 3827 individuals donated blood. Analyses of the outcome were based on a conceptual model that differentiated confounders from potential mediators. The following independent variables were studied in relation to levels of C-reactive protein in sex-stratified analyses: skin ...


Inhibition Of Barnacle (Amphibalanus Amphitrite) Cyprid Settlement By Means Of Localized, Pulsed Electric Fields, Rodolfo E. Perez-Roa, Marc A. Anderson, Dan Rittschof, Beatriz Orihuela, Dean Wendt, Gregory L. Kowalke, Daniel R. Noguera May 2008

Inhibition Of Barnacle (Amphibalanus Amphitrite) Cyprid Settlement By Means Of Localized, Pulsed Electric Fields, Rodolfo E. Perez-Roa, Marc A. Anderson, Dan Rittschof, Beatriz Orihuela, Dean Wendt, Gregory L. Kowalke, Daniel R. Noguera

Biological Sciences

The increasing needs for environmental friendly antifouling coatings have led to investigation of new alternatives for replacing copper and TBT-based paints. In this study, results are presented from larval settlement assays of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite on planar, interdigitated electrodes (IDE), having 8 or 25 mum of inter-electrode spacing, upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Using pulses of 100 ms in duration, 200 Hz in frequency and 10 V in pulse amplitude, barnacle settlement below 5% was observed, while similar IDE surfaces without pulse application had an average of 40% settlement. The spacing between the electrodes did ...


Integrating Across Life-History Stages: Consequences Of Natal Habitat Effects On Dispersal, Michael F. Benard, Shannon J. Mccauley May 2008

Integrating Across Life-History Stages: Consequences Of Natal Habitat Effects On Dispersal, Michael F. Benard, Shannon J. Mccauley

Biological Sciences

Ecological and evolutionary processes are affected by forces acting at both local and regional scales, yet our understanding of how these scales interact has remained limited. These processes are fundamentally linked through individuals that develop as juveniles in one environment and then either remain in the natal habitat or disperse to new environments. Empirical studies in a diverse range of organisms have demonstrated that the conditions experienced in the natal habitat can have profound effects on the adult phenotype. This environmentally induced phenotypic variation can in turn affect the probability that an individual will disperse to a new environment and ...