Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 51

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Consistent Self-Monitoring Of Weight: A Key Component Of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance, Meghan L. Butryn, Suzanne Phelan, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing Dec 2007

Consistent Self-Monitoring Of Weight: A Key Component Of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance, Meghan L. Butryn, Suzanne Phelan, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Objective: The objectives were to investigate the characteristics associated with frequent self-weighing and the relationship between self-weighing and weight loss maintenance.
Research Methods and Procedures: Participants (n = 3003) were members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) who had lost ≥30 lbs, kept it off for ≥1 year, and had been administered the self-weighing frequency assessment used for this study at baseline (i.e., entry to the NWCR). Of these, 82% also completed the one-year follow-up assessment.
Results: At baseline, 36.2% of participants reported weighing themselves at least once per day, and more frequent weighing was associated with lower ...


Bioluminescence In A Complex Coastal Environment: 2. Prediction Of Bioluminescent Source Depth From Spectral Water-Leaving Radiance, Matthew J. Oliver, Mark A. Moline, Curtis D. Mobley, Lydia Sundman, Oscar M.E. Schofield Nov 2007

Bioluminescence In A Complex Coastal Environment: 2. Prediction Of Bioluminescent Source Depth From Spectral Water-Leaving Radiance, Matthew J. Oliver, Mark A. Moline, Curtis D. Mobley, Lydia Sundman, Oscar M.E. Schofield

Biological Sciences

Many bioluminescence observations are made from the ocean's surface. However, the depth of the bioluminescent source is difficult to estimate on the basis of surface observations alone, given the variable light attenuation of unknown concentrations of water column constituents such as phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and detritus. Part 1 of this paper showed that bioluminescent water-leaving radiance signals are detectable, even in extremely turbid and dynamic coastal waters. Here, in part 2 of this paper, we analyze the water-leaving radiance patterns of bioluminescence modeled by HydroLight 4.2 to determine if the depth of the bioluminescent source can ...


Temperature Effects On Metabolic Rate Of Juvenile Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus Orientalis, Jason M. Blank, Jeffery M. Morrissette, Charles J. Farwell, Mathew Price, Robert J. Schallert, Barbara A. Block Nov 2007

Temperature Effects On Metabolic Rate Of Juvenile Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus Orientalis, Jason M. Blank, Jeffery M. Morrissette, Charles J. Farwell, Mathew Price, Robert J. Schallert, Barbara A. Block

Biological Sciences

Pacific bluefin tuna inhabit a wide range of thermal environments across the Pacific ocean. To examine how metabolism varies across this thermal range, we studied the effect of ambient water temperature on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, swimming in a swim tunnel. Rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) was measured at ambient temperatures of 8–25°C and swimming speeds of 0.75–1.75 body lengths (BL) s–1. Pacific bluefin swimming at 1 BL s–1 per second exhibited a U-shaped curve of metabolic rate vs ambient temperature, with a thermal minimum zone ...


National Beef Tenderness Survey- 2006: Assessment Of Warner-Bratzler Shear And Sensory Panel Ratings For Beef From Us Retail And Foodservice Establishments, K. L. Voges, C. L. Mason, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Baird, B. L. Gwartney, J. W. Savell Nov 2007

National Beef Tenderness Survey- 2006: Assessment Of Warner-Bratzler Shear And Sensory Panel Ratings For Beef From Us Retail And Foodservice Establishments, K. L. Voges, C. L. Mason, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Baird, B. L. Gwartney, J. W. Savell

Animal Science

Beef from retail and foodservice establishments in 11 US cities was evaluated using Warner–Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer evaluation panels. Postmortem aging times ranged from3 to83d for retail and7 to 136d for foodservice with mean aging times of 22.6d and 30.1 d, respectively. For retail, the three cuts from the round – top round, bottom round, and eye of round – had the highest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared to cuts from the chuck, rib, and loin. Top loin steaks had the lowest(P < 0.05) WBS value compared to ribeye and top sirloin foodservice steaks. Retail bone-in top loin, top loin, ribeye, T-bone, and porterhouse received the highest (P < 0.05) ratings by consumers for overall like and like tenderness. Quality grade had little or no effect on foodservice sensory evaluations. Improvements in round tenderness are needed to increase consumer acceptability.


Spatial Distributions Of Heating, Cooling, And Industrial Degree-Days In Turkey, Ilhami Yildiz, B. Sosaoglu Nov 2007

Spatial Distributions Of Heating, Cooling, And Industrial Degree-Days In Turkey, Ilhami Yildiz, B. Sosaoglu

Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

The degree-day method is commonly used to estimate energy consumption for heating and cooling in residential, commercial and industrial buildings, as well as in greenhouses, livestock facilities, storage facilities and warehouses. This article presents monthly and yearly averages and spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days at the base temperatures of 18 °C and 20 °C, 18 °C and 24 °C, and 7 °C and 13 °C, respectively; as well as the corresponding number of days in Turkey. The findings presented here will facilitate the estimation of heating and cooling energy consumption for any residential, commercial and industrial buildings ...


Why Do High School Seniors Drink? Implications For A Targeted Approach To Intervention, Donna L. Coffman, Megan E. Patrick, Lori Ann Palen, Brittany L. Rhoades, Alison K. Ventura Oct 2007

Why Do High School Seniors Drink? Implications For A Targeted Approach To Intervention, Donna L. Coffman, Megan E. Patrick, Lori Ann Palen, Brittany L. Rhoades, Alison K. Ventura

Kinesiology

The transition from high school to college provides a potentially critical window to intervene and reduce risky behavior among adolescents. Understanding the motivations (e.g., social, coping, enhancement) behind high school seniors’ alcohol use could provide one important avenue to reducing risky drinking behaviors. In the present study, latent class analysis was used to examine the relationship between different patterns of drinking motivations and behaviors in a sample of 12th graders (N = 1,877) from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey. Unlike previous variable-centered analyses, this person-centered approach identifies types of motivations that cluster together within individuals and relates membership ...


Effect Of Processing On The Composition And Microstructure Of Buttermilk And Its Milk Fat Globule Membranes, Pierre Morin, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Yves Pouliot Oct 2007

Effect Of Processing On The Composition And Microstructure Of Buttermilk And Its Milk Fat Globule Membranes, Pierre Morin, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Yves Pouliot

Dairy Science

The effect of cream pasteurization on the composition and microstructure of buttermilk after pasteurization, evaporation and spray-drying was studied. The composition of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) isolated from buttermilk samples was also characterized. Pasteurization of cream resulted in higher lipid recovery in the buttermilk. Spray-drying of buttermilk had a significant effect on phospholipid content and composition. After spray-drying, the phospholipid content decreased by 38.2% and 40.6%, respectively in buttermilk from raw or pasteurized cream when compared with initial buttermilks. Pasteurization of cream resulted in the highest increase in whey protein recovery in MFGM isolates compared with all ...


Empirical Evaluation Of Physical Activity Recommendations For Weight Control In Women, Suzanne Phelan, Marta Roberts, Wei Lang, Rena R. Wing Oct 2007

Empirical Evaluation Of Physical Activity Recommendations For Weight Control In Women, Suzanne Phelan, Marta Roberts, Wei Lang, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Purpose:Recent recommendations advise 30-60 min of physical activity per day to prevent weight gain and 60-90 min to prevent weight regain. No studies have used objective measures of physical activity to verify these public health recommendations. The purpose of this study was to use objective measures to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity in a weight-loss-maintainer group and an always-normal-weight group, and, thus, empirically evaluate the recommendations for prevention of weight gain versus regain.

Methods: The weight-loss-maintainer group (N= 135) lost ≥ 30.6 kg, maintained ≥ 10% weight loss for 14.2 yr, and had a BMI of ...


Internal Disinhibition Predicts Weight Regain Following Weight Loss And Weight Loss Maintenance, Heather M. Niemeier, Suzanne Phelan, Joseph L. Fava, Rena R. Wing Oct 2007

Internal Disinhibition Predicts Weight Regain Following Weight Loss And Weight Loss Maintenance, Heather M. Niemeier, Suzanne Phelan, Joseph L. Fava, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Objective: The disinhibition scale of the Eating Inventory predicts weight loss outcome; however, it may include multiple factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the disinhibition scale and determine how its factors independently relate to long-term weight loss outcomes.
Research Methods and Procedures: Exploratory factor analysis of the disinhibition scale was conducted on 286 participants in a behavioral weight loss trial (TRIM), and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on 3345 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a registry of successful weight loss maintainers. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the relationships between ...


Fuzzy Data Sets, William D. Stansfield Oct 2007

Fuzzy Data Sets, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Industry Response To Beef Sector Policy And Regulation: Case Study Of Beef Sector In California, James Ahern, Robert Delmore, Andy Thulin Sep 2007

Industry Response To Beef Sector Policy And Regulation: Case Study Of Beef Sector In California, James Ahern, Robert Delmore, Andy Thulin

Animal Science

No Abstract.


Effects Of Age And Gender On Physical Performance, Vanina Bongard, Ann Y. Mcdermott, Gerard E. Dallal, Ernst J. Schaefer Sep 2007

Effects Of Age And Gender On Physical Performance, Vanina Bongard, Ann Y. Mcdermott, Gerard E. Dallal, Ernst J. Schaefer

Kinesiology

Our purpose was to examine the effects of age and gender on physical performance. We assessed a one-hour swimming performance and participation of 4,271 presumably healthy men and women, aged 19–91 years, from the 2001–2003 United States Masters Swimming long-distance (1 h) national competition. The decline in performance with increasing age was found to be quadratic rather than linear. The equation which best fit variation in 1 h swimming distance in meters (m) according to variations in age in years (y) in men was: distance (m) = 4058 + 2.18 age−0.29 age (http://www.acsmmsse.org ...


Impact Of Weight Loss On The Metabolic Syndrome, Suzanne Phelan, T. A. Wadden, R. I. Berkowitz, D. B. Sarwer, L. G. Womble, R. K. Cato, R. Rothman Sep 2007

Impact Of Weight Loss On The Metabolic Syndrome, Suzanne Phelan, T. A. Wadden, R. I. Berkowitz, D. B. Sarwer, L. G. Womble, R. K. Cato, R. Rothman

Kinesiology

Objective:
To evaluate the effects of weight loss on the risk of having metabolic syndrome after 1 year of treatment with lifestyle modification alone, pharmacotherapy alone (sibutramine) or the combination of the two.

Design:
Randomized, controlled, 1-year clinical trial.

Patients:
One hundred and eighty women and 44 men, 18–65 years of age, with a body mass index of 30–45 kg/m2, free of uncontrolled hypertension or type 1 or 2 diabetes.

Intervention:
Fifteen milligrams of sibutramine per day alone, lifestyle modification counseling alone, sibutramine plus lifestyle modification counseling or sibutramine plus brief lifestyle modification counseling.

Measurements:
The metabolic ...


Genetic Evidence For The Persistence Of The Critically Endangered Sierra Nevada Red Fox In California, John D. Perrine, John P. Pollinger, Benjamin N. Sacks, Reginald H. Barrett, Robert K. Wayne Sep 2007

Genetic Evidence For The Persistence Of The Critically Endangered Sierra Nevada Red Fox In California, John D. Perrine, John P. Pollinger, Benjamin N. Sacks, Reginald H. Barrett, Robert K. Wayne

Biological Sciences

California is home to both the native state-threatened Sierra Nevada red fox (Vulpes vulpes necator), which historically inhabited high elevations of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains, and to multiple low-elevation red fox populations thought to be of exotic origin. During the past few decades the lowland populations have dramatically expanded their distribution, and possibly moved into the historic range of the native high-elevation fox. To determine whether the native red fox persists in its historic range in California, we compared mitochondrial cytochrome-b haplotypes of the only currently-known high-elevation population (n = 9 individuals) to samples from 3 modern lowland ...


Three-Year Weight Change In Successful Weight Losers Who Lost Weight On A Low-Carbohydrate Diet, Suzanne Phelan, Holly Wyatt, Shirine Nassery, Julia Dibello, Joseph L. Fava, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing Sep 2007

Three-Year Weight Change In Successful Weight Losers Who Lost Weight On A Low-Carbohydrate Diet, Suzanne Phelan, Holly Wyatt, Shirine Nassery, Julia Dibello, Joseph L. Fava, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term weight loss and eating and exercise behaviors of successful weight losers who lost weight using a low-carbohydrate diet.
Research Methods and Procedures: This study examined 3-year changes in weight, diet, and physical activity in 891 subjects (96 low-carbohydrate dieters and 795 others) who enrolled in the National Weight Control Registry between 1998 and 2001 and reported ≥ 30-lb weight loss and ≥ 1 year weight loss maintenance.
Results: Only 10.8% of participants reported losing weight after a low-carbohydrate diet. At entry into the study, low-carbohydrate diet users reported consuming more kcal ...


Socioeconomic And Racial/Ethnic Differentials Of C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review Of Population-Based Studies, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victora Aug 2007

Socioeconomic And Racial/Ethnic Differentials Of C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review Of Population-Based Studies, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background:Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors.

Methods:Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished ...


Protective Capactiy Of Mangroves During Tropical Storms: A Case Study From 'Wilma' And 'Gamma' In Belize, Elise F. Granek, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg Aug 2007

Protective Capactiy Of Mangroves During Tropical Storms: A Case Study From 'Wilma' And 'Gamma' In Belize, Elise F. Granek, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

Biological Sciences

Globally threatened mangrove forest habitat is often considered an important buffer protecting coastlines from wave and storm impacts and coastal erosion. However, there is little empirical data quantifying the protective effects of mangroves during storms, primarily because of the difficulty of predicting where and when a storm will intersect the shoreline, to facilitate data collection before and after storm events. In 2005, opportunistic results from an ongoing study quantifying differences between intact and cleared mangrove areas on Turneffe Atoll, Belize, provided such pre- and post-storm data from tropical storms ‘Wilma’ (later a Category 5 Hurricane) and ‘Gamma’. We compared differences ...


Recombination And Positive Selection Contribute To Evolution Of Listeria Monocytogenes Inla, R. H. Orsi, D. R. Ripoll, M. Yeung, K. K. Nightingale, M. Wiedmann Aug 2007

Recombination And Positive Selection Contribute To Evolution Of Listeria Monocytogenes Inla, R. H. Orsi, D. R. Ripoll, M. Yeung, K. K. Nightingale, M. Wiedmann

Biological Sciences

The surface molecule InlA interacts with E-cadherin to promote invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into selected host cells. DNA sequencing of inlA for 40 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed 107 synonymous and 45 nonsynonymous substitutions. A frameshift mutation in a homopolymeric tract encoding part of the InlA signal peptide was identified in three lineage II isolates, which also showed reduced ability to invade human intestinal epithelial cells. Phylogenies showed clear separation of inlA sequences into lineages I and II. Thirteen inlA recombination events, predominantly involving lineage II strains as recipients (12 events), were detected and a number of amino acid residues were ...


The Relationship Between Disperal Ability And Geographic Range Size, Sarah E. Lester, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Steven D. Gaines, Brian P. Kinlan Aug 2007

The Relationship Between Disperal Ability And Geographic Range Size, Sarah E. Lester, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Steven D. Gaines, Brian P. Kinlan

Biological Sciences

There are a variety of proposed evolutionary and ecological explanations for why some species have more extensive geographical ranges than others. One of the most common explanations is variation in species’ dispersal ability. However, the purported relationship between dispersal distance and range size has been subjected to few theoretical investigations, and empirical tests reach conflicting conclusions. We attempt to reconcile the equivocal results of previous studies by reviewing and synthesizing quantitative dispersal data, examining the relationship between average dispersal ability and range size for different spatial scales, regions and taxonomic groups. We use extensive data from marine taxa whose average ...


Rumen Fermentation Patterns Of Dairy Heifers Fed Restricted Amounts Of High, Medium, And Low Concentrate Diets And The Addition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs Jul 2007

Rumen Fermentation Patterns Of Dairy Heifers Fed Restricted Amounts Of High, Medium, And Low Concentrate Diets And The Addition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Digestibility Of Limit Fed High And Low Concentrate Diets With Corn Silage As The Sole Forage For Dairy Heifers With Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs Jul 2007

Digestibility Of Limit Fed High And Low Concentrate Diets With Corn Silage As The Sole Forage For Dairy Heifers With Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


The Phd Degree And Biblical Fundamentalism, William D. Stansfield Jul 2007

The Phd Degree And Biblical Fundamentalism, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Sulfur On Density Of Tetranychus Pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) And Galendromus Occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) In A Central California Vineyard, Michael J. Costello Jun 2007

Impact Of Sulfur On Density Of Tetranychus Pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) And Galendromus Occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) In A Central California Vineyard, Michael J. Costello

Horticulture and Crop Science

Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took ...


Biofouling Likely Serves As A Major Mode Of Dispersal For The Polychaete Tubeworm Hydroides Elegans As Inferred From Microsatellite Loci, J. B. Pettengill, D. E. Wendt, M. D. Schug, M. G. Hadfield Jun 2007

Biofouling Likely Serves As A Major Mode Of Dispersal For The Polychaete Tubeworm Hydroides Elegans As Inferred From Microsatellite Loci, J. B. Pettengill, D. E. Wendt, M. D. Schug, M. G. Hadfield

Biological Sciences

The polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans (Haswell) is a biofouling species with relatively limited larval dispersal. Four highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to make inferences about the migration and global population structure of 137 individuals from seven sub-populations located in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the genetic analyses suggest minimal population sub-structure (Fst = 0.09). Estimates of pairwise Fst and migration rates using the coalescent-based method of MIGRATE suggest that there is little genetic differentiation between certain populations. Variation in relatedness among pairs of populations is consistent with a ...


Neural Defects And Cardiac Arrhythmia In Fish Larvae Following Embryonic Exposure To 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (Pbde 47), Sean C. Lema, Irvin R. Schultz, Nathaniel L. Scholz, John P. Incardona, Penny Swanson May 2007

Neural Defects And Cardiac Arrhythmia In Fish Larvae Following Embryonic Exposure To 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether (Pbde 47), Sean C. Lema, Irvin R. Schultz, Nathaniel L. Scholz, John P. Incardona, Penny Swanson

Biological Sciences

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are added to plastics, polyurethane foam, and textiles as a flame retardant. While PBDEs play a key role in reducing loss of human life and property from fires, these flame retardants have become pervasive organic contaminants in the environment and in the tissues of fish, birds, marine mammals, and humans. Levels of PBDEs in wildlife and humans continue to rise, raising concerns about potential ecological and health risks associated with exposure to these chemicals. Nevertheless, there is little currently known about the toxicological effects of PBDE exposure. Here, we examined the developmental toxicity of the PBDE ...


Human Sex Ratios And Sex Distribution In Sibships Of Size 2, William D. Stansfield, Matthew A. Carlton Apr 2007

Human Sex Ratios And Sex Distribution In Sibships Of Size 2, William D. Stansfield, Matthew A. Carlton

Biological Sciences

We previously analyzed data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, 1998 to 2002) on families with two biological children (10 years of age and younger) and found that the distribution of families with two boys, two girls, and one boy + one girl did not statistically conform to a binomial distribution regardless of the boy/girl sex ratio used. Using the best estimate of the sex ratio from the data, we found that there were significantly more families with opposite-sex siblings than families with same-sex siblings. No biological mechanism could explain these results at the time. In the ...


Spontaneous Hybridization Between Maize And Teosinte, Norman C. Ellstrand, Lauren C. Garner, Subray Hedge, Roberto Guadagnuolo, Lesley Blancas Mar 2007

Spontaneous Hybridization Between Maize And Teosinte, Norman C. Ellstrand, Lauren C. Garner, Subray Hedge, Roberto Guadagnuolo, Lesley Blancas

Horticulture and Crop Science

The closest wild relatives of maize, Zea mays ssp. mays are various Zea taxa known as ‘‘teosinte.’’ Hybrids between maize and the teosinte taxon, Zea mays ssp. mexicana, often occur when the 2 are sympatric in Mexico. Measuring the spontaneous hybridization rate of the 2 taxa would shed light on the mechanisms contributing to the evolution and persistence of these hybrid swarms. We conducted a series of field experiments in Riverside, CA, to measure the natural hybridization rates between maize and 2 teosinte taxa, Z. m. ssp. mexicana and Zea mays ssp. parviglumis. We planted teosinte within and near maize ...


Hb A1c In Relation To Intrauterine Growth Among Male Adolescents In Southern Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, S. R. Huttly, Cesar G. Victora, R. C. Lima, P. R. Post, J. W.L. Elizalde, B. M.C. Gerson Mar 2007

Hb A1c In Relation To Intrauterine Growth Among Male Adolescents In Southern Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, S. R. Huttly, Cesar G. Victora, R. C. Lima, P. R. Post, J. W.L. Elizalde, B. M.C. Gerson

Food Science and Nutrition

The fetal origins hypothesis states that nutritional deprivation in utero affects fetal development and contributes to the incidence of diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome in later life. This study investigated whether haemoglobin (Hb) A1c, an indicator of blood glucose, varied among healthy male adolescents according to their fetal growth rate, in a middle-income setting. Participants were men aged 18 years, belonging to the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort. Complete data, including gestational age and Hb A1c at age 18 years, were available for 197 individuals. There was an inverse association between mean Hb A1c and birthweight for ...


Genome Size Evolution In Relation To Leaf Strategy And Metabolic Rates Revisited, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Ilia J. Leitch, Charles A. Knight Mar 2007

Genome Size Evolution In Relation To Leaf Strategy And Metabolic Rates Revisited, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Ilia J. Leitch, Charles A. Knight

Biological Sciences

Background and AimsIt has been proposed that having too much DNA may carry physiological consequences for plants. The strong correlation between DNA content, cell size and cell division rate could lead to predictable morphological variation in plants, including a negative relationship with leaf mass per unit area (LMA). In addition, the possible increased demand for resources in species with high DNA content may have downstream effects on maximal metabolic efficiency, including decreased metabolic rates.

MethodsTests were made for genome size-dependent variation in LMA and metabolic rates (mass-based photosynthetic rate and dark respiration rate) using our own measurements and ...


Availability Of Dissolved Organic Matter Offsets Metabolic Costs Of A Protracted Larval Period For Bugula Neritina (Bryozoa), Collin H. Johnson, Dean E. Wendt Mar 2007

Availability Of Dissolved Organic Matter Offsets Metabolic Costs Of A Protracted Larval Period For Bugula Neritina (Bryozoa), Collin H. Johnson, Dean E. Wendt

Biological Sciences

For nearly a century researchers have investigated the uptake and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine invertebrates, but its contribution to their growth, reproduction, and survival remains unclear. Here, the benefit of DOM uptake was assessed for the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina (Linnaeus 1758) through performance comparisons of individuals in the presence and absence of DOM. The experiments were performed using B. neritina collected from floating docks in Beaufort, NC, USA from July to September 2004. Seawater was subjected to ultraviolet irradiation to reduce naturally occurring DOM, and then enriched with either 1 μM of palmitic acid or ...